Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution

Moscow, Russia

Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution

Moscow, Russia
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Motyleva S.M.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Kulikov I.M.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Marchenko L.A.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2017

The questions of the practical usage of the analytical scanning electron microscope JSM 600 LA by JEOL Company (Japan) with EDS system-microanalysis were envisaged. This device was used to study the structure and elemental composition of the fruit ash received from 6 breeds of 3 plum species. Plums are rich in mineral substances, the following order of substances accumulation is characteristic for them: K > P > Ca > Mg > Na ≈ S > Fe > Zn ≈ Cu > Mn ≈ Co > Ni≈ Pb. K is accumulated on 7-20 % more in the plum fruit pulp than in the plum fruit skin. The concentration of Ca, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Pb in fruit skin is in 2-10 times higher than in pulp. The most of mineral substances is accumulated in the fruit of Prunus salicina L. plum specie. The significant correlations are determined between the accumulation of Ca and Mg (r 0.75) and Ca and Ni (r 0.71); the medium correlation is indicated between the accumulation of Ca and Cu (r 0.62) and Cu and Ni (r 0.55). © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Ranneva S.V.,Novosibirsk State University | Pavlov K.S.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Gromova A.V.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Amstislavskaya T.G.,Novosibirsk State University | Lipina T.V.,Novosibirsk State University
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2017

Calsyntenin-2 (Clstn2) is the synaptic protein that belongs to the super family of cadherins, playing an important role in learning and memory. We recently reported that Clstn2 knockout mice (Clstn2-KO) have a deficit of GABAergic interneurons coupled with hyperactivity and deficient spatial memory. Given, that impaired functioning of GABA receptors is linked to several psychopathologies, including anxiety and autism, we sought to further characterize Clstn2-KO mice with respect to emotional and social behavior. Clstn2-KO males and females were tested in the elevated plus-maze (EPM), open field (OF), forced swim test, social affiliation and recognition test, social transmission of food preference (STFP), dyadic social interactions and marble burying test. Clstn2-KO mice demonstrated high exploration and hyperactivity in the dimly lit EPM that affect anxiety parameters. In contrast, in a more adverse situation in the OF have increased emotionality in Clstn2-KO males, not females. Assessment of hyperactivity for prolong period in the OF showed that Clstn2-KO animals were able to decline their hyperactivity, but their ambulation still remained higher than in WT littermates. Additionally, Clstn2-KO mice expressed stereotyped behavior. Strikingly, analysis of social behavior identified deficient social motivation and social recognition only in Clstn2-KO males, but not in females. Further analysis of social communication in the STFP and direct observation of agonistic interactions confirmed the reduced social behavior in Clstn2-KO males. Altogether, current results showed Clstn2 gene and sex interactions on socio-emotional performance in mice, suggesting a possible role of calsyntenin2 in psychopathological mechanisms of autism. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Mun H.-S.,Mount Sinai Hospital | Mun H.-S.,University of Toronto | Lipina T.V.,Mount Sinai Hospital | Lipina T.V.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience | Year: 2015

While rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) are known to vary with anticipation of an aversive vs. positive stimulus, little is known about USVs in adult mice in relation to behaviors. We recorded the calls of adult C57BL/6J male mice under different environmental conditions by exposing mice to both novel and familiar environments that varied in stress intensity through the addition of bright light or shallow water. In general, mouse USVs were significantly more frequent and of longer duration in novel environments. Particularly, mice in dimly-lit novel environments performed more USVs while exhibiting unsupported rearing and walking behavior, and these calls were mostly at high frequency. In contrast, mice exhibited more low frequency USVs when engaging in supported rearing behavior in novel environments. These findings are consistent with data from rats suggesting that low-frequency calls are made under aversive conditions and high-frequency calls occur in non-stressful conditions. Our findings increase undetional aspects of behavior. © 2015 Mun, Lipini and Roder.

Gruden M.A.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Davydova T.V.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Wang C.,Umeå University | Narkevich V.B.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | And 4 more authors.
Behavioural Brain Research | Year: 2016

Memory deficits may develop from a variety of neuropathologies including Alzheimer's disease dementia. During neurodegenerative conditions there are contributory factors such as neuroinflammation and amyloidogenesis involved in memory impairment. In the present study, dual properties of S100A9 protein as a pro-inflammatory and amyloidogenic agent were explored in the passive avoidance memory task along with neurochemical assays in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of aged mice. S100A9 oligomers and fibrils were generated in vitro and verified by AFM, Thioflavin T and A11 antibody binding. Native S100A9 as well as S100A9 oligomers and fibrils or their combination were administered intranasally over 14 days followed by behavioral and neurochemical analysis. Both oligomers and fibrils evoked amnestic activity which correlated with disrupted prefrontal cortical and hippocampal dopaminergic neurochemistry. The oligomer-fibril combination produced similar but weaker neurochemistry to the fibrils administered alone but without passive avoidance amnesia. Native S100A9 did not modify memory task performance even though it generated a general and consistent decrease in monoamine levels (DA, 5-HT and NA) and increased metabolic marker ratios of DA and 5-HT turnover (DOPAC/DA, HVA/DA and 5-HIAA) in the prefrontal cortex. These results provide insight into a novel pathogenetic mechanism underlying amnesia in a fear-aggravated memory task based on amyloidogenesis of a pro-inflammatory factor leading to disrupted brain neurochemistry in the aged brain. The data further suggests that amyloid species of S100A9 create deleterious effects principally on the dopaminergic system and this novel finding might be potentially exploited during dementia management through a neuroprotective strategy. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Ignatov I.V.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences | Year: 2017

Now a days, Russia is lagging behind other countries in solving the problem of production and consumption wastes disposal (here in after referred to as the wastes) in general and especially in the field of disposal of the machinery withdrawn from serviceas well. As a result, the country loses vast material resources due to improperly organized system of disposal of various wastes and a significant damage is casued to nature. One can judge the importance of this issue even from the fact that V.V. Putin, the president of Russia, voiced the need for creating a 'garbage' problem decision-making mechanism thrice this year (during Putin 2016 Q and A marathon on 04/14/2016, meeting of presidential council for strategic development and priority projects on 11/25/2016, state council meeting on 12/26/2016). So far, all the actions of the Russian government in this regard are mainly reduced to improvement of Solid Household Waste (SHW) disposal system. However, in addition to SHW, there are other types of wastes which are also material-intensive and hazardous when improperly placed. For the time being, the Unified Waste Handling System (UWHS) is only beginning to be created in Russia and this process is slowing down to a great extent due to inconsistencies in the regulatory and legislative framework and lack of a unified ideology of creating the system it self. A hypothesis for the necessity of structuring UWHS activities is put forward in the study. It is proposed to consider the system as a set of three interconnected and interdependent phases of activities for waste handling and develop each of these stages as a separate UWHS subsystem. At the same time, a major part in solving a waste disposal problem should be assigned to branch (specific) wastes disposal systems. The feasibility of creating such systems is proved by the example of Decommissioned Agricultural Machinery (DAM) disposal system. In this regard, all the methodological provisions of forming the decommissioned agricultural machinery disposal system (here in after referred to as the system) can be used for developingdisposal systems of other types of waste. © Medwell Journals, 2017.

Voskresenskaya E.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Bardin M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kovalenko O.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

The climatology of winter anticyclone frequency in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region is studied on the basis of NCEP/NCAR reanalyses for 1951-2012. Time series of average anticyclone frequency are calculated for different parts of the region. It is found that the anticyclone frequency is increased significantly over the Black sea and Western Mediterranean regions while decreased over the Eastern Mediterranean. Regional manifestation of global climate processes in variability of the anticyclone frequency is investigated. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Inzhevatkin E.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Savchenko A.A.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2016

This work summarizes the authors’ recent investigations into metabolic changes in blood lymphocytes, cancer cells, and hepatocytes during tumor growth from mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. These results were compared with the metabolic changes in hepatocytes from rats after hyperthermia and in lymphocytes from patients with different diseases. It was shown that the extreme conditions induced metabolic changes that were independent of the cell type or the nature of the extreme factor. These changes characterized the metabolic mechanisms of cell adaptation and disadaptation. The concept of the “nonspecific metabolic reaction” of cells to extreme exposures had been introduced. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Efimova N.Y.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Chernov V.I.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Efimova I.Y.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Lishmanov Y.B.,Tomsk Polytechnic University
Cardiovascular Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Aims: To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow, cognitive function, and parameters of 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring in patients with metabolic syndrome before and after combination antihypertensive therapy. Methods: The study involved 54 patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) investigated by brain single-photon emission computed tomography, 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 24 weeks of combination antihypertensive therapy. Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly poorer regional cerebral blood flow compared with control group: by 7% (P = 0.003) in right anterior parietal cortex, by 6% (P = 0.028) in left anterior parietal cortex, by 8% (P = 0.007) in right superior frontal lobe, and by 10% (P = 0.00002) and 7% (P = 0.006) in right and left temporal brain regions, correspondingly. The results of neuropsychological testing showed 11% decrease in mentation (P = 0.002), and 19% (P = 0.011) and 20% (P = 0.009) decrease in immediate verbal and visual memory in patients with MetS as compared with control group. Relationships between the indices of ABPM, cerebral perfusion, and cognitive function were found. Data showed an improvement of regional cerebral blood flow, ABPM parameters, and indicators of cognitive functions after 6 months of antihypertensive therapy in patients with MetS. Conclusion: The study showed the presence of diffuse disturbances in cerebral perfusion is associated with cognitive disorders in patients with metabolic syndrome. Combination antihypertensive treatment exerts beneficial effects on the 24-h blood pressure profile, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves cognitive function in patients with MetS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Budazhapov L.V.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2015

This paper presents results of long-term model, greenhouse and microfield experiments on nitrogen transformation in soil-plant systems with application of stable nitrogen isotope (15N) as renewed efforts to make a biokinetic conception of nitrogen status in harsh climates of the northern part of Central Asia, namely in Transbaikalia. It uses a theory to investigate velocity characteristics of nitrogen pool change in cryogenic soil environments. The goal of theoretical background of nitrogen pool velocity transformation is to reveal modern approach to assessment of inherent nature cycle. In nitrogen cycle of soil-plant systems kinetic parameters were evaluated as the main processes of nitrogen 15N uptake and immobilization in terms of scaling with constant of growth velocity and microorganism performance being a key position in nitrogen transformation. The results show a new possibility to assess nitrogen cycle through calculated velocity constant and revealed dynamic pattern of the main processes. The ongoing assessment enables us to formulate a new original hypothesis for theoretical kinetical model.

Gmoshinski I.V.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Khotimchenko S.A.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

Nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials are currently used in wide variety of cosmetic products, while their use in food industry, packaging materials, household chemicals etc. still includes a limited number of items and does not show a significant upward trend. However, the problem of priority nanomaterials associated risks is relevant due to their high production volumes and an constantly growing burden on the environment and population. In accordance with the frequency of use in mass-produced consumer goods, leading priority nanomaterials are silver nanoparticles (NPs) and (by a wide margin) NPs of gold, platinum, and titanium dioxide. Frequency of nanosized silica introduction into food products as a food additive, at the moment, seems to be underestimated, since the use of this nanomaterial is not declared by manufacturers of products and objective control of its content is difficult. Analysis of literature data on toxicological properties of nanomaterials shows that currently accumulated amount of information is sufficient to establish the safe doses of nanosized silver, gold and titanium dioxide. Data have been provided in a series of studies concerning the effect of oral intake of nanosized silica on the condition of laboratory animals, including on the performance of the immune system. The article examines the existing approaches to the assessment of population exposure to priority nanomaterials, characteristics of existing problems and risk management. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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