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Motyleva S.M.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Kulikov I.M.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Marchenko L.A.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Materials Science Forum | Year: 2017

The questions of the practical usage of the analytical scanning electron microscope JSM 600 LA by JEOL Company (Japan) with EDS system-microanalysis were envisaged. This device was used to study the structure and elemental composition of the fruit ash received from 6 breeds of 3 plum species. Plums are rich in mineral substances, the following order of substances accumulation is characteristic for them: K > P > Ca > Mg > Na ≈ S > Fe > Zn ≈ Cu > Mn ≈ Co > Ni≈ Pb. K is accumulated on 7-20 % more in the plum fruit pulp than in the plum fruit skin. The concentration of Ca, Cu, Fe, Ni, Zn and Pb in fruit skin is in 2-10 times higher than in pulp. The most of mineral substances is accumulated in the fruit of Prunus salicina L. plum specie. The significant correlations are determined between the accumulation of Ca and Mg (r 0.75) and Ca and Ni (r 0.71); the medium correlation is indicated between the accumulation of Ca and Cu (r 0.62) and Cu and Ni (r 0.55). © 2017 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

PubMed | Hebei University, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution and Hebei Medical University
Type: | Journal: Life sciences | Year: 2016

The purpose of the present study was to explore anti-hypertensive effect of chronic intermittent hypobaric hypoxia (CIHH) in renovascular hypertension (RVH) rats, as well as the role of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channel (BKCa) in anti-hypertensive effect of CIHH.Male adult age- and body weight-matched Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into SHAM, CIHH, RVH and RVH+CIHH groups. Hypertension was induced by two-kidney-1-clip method (2K1C) in RVH rats. CIHH rats were exposed to 28-days hypobaric hypoxia simulating 5000m altitude, 6h daily. SHAM rats got an operation without 2K1C, and RVH+CIHH rats received CIHH treatment after 2K1C. The endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation induced by acetylcholine (ACh), BKCa currents in smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) of mesenteric arteries and the protein expression of BKCa in mesenteric arteries was examined.The systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP) in RVH rats was higher than that in SHAM rats and CIHH treatment significantly decreased SAP in RVH rats. The enhanced vasorelaxation of mesenteric artery in CIHH-treated RVH rats was cancelled by BKCa blocker IBTX. The vasorelaxation induced by BKCa activator was reduced in RVH rats and the decreased vasorelaxation was improved by CIHH treatment. The 1 subunit of BKCa in mesenteric artery was upregulated and BKCa current in VSMCs was increased in CIHH-treated RVH rats compared with RVH rats.In conclusion, CIHH treatment enhances the relaxation of mesenteric artery through activation of BKCavia up-regulating 1 subunit of BKCa, which might be one of mechanisms for anti-hypertensive effect of CIHH in RVH rats.

PubMed | Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Hebei Medical University, Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution, University of Bristol and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of cardiovascular pharmacology and therapeutics | Year: 2016

Cannabinoids can mimic the infarct-reducing effect of early ischemic preconditioning, delayed ischemic preconditioning, and ischemic postconditioning against myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. They do this primarily through both CB1 and CB2 receptors. Cannabinoids are also involved in remote preconditioning of the heart. The cannabinoid receptor ligands also exhibit an antiapoptotic effect during ischemia/reperfusion of the heart. The acute cardioprotective effect of cannabinoids is mediated by activation of protein kinase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38 kinase. The delayed cardioprotective effect of cannabinoid anandamide is mediated via stimulation of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase-Akt signaling pathway and enhancement of heat shock protein 72 expression. The delayed cardioprotective effect of another cannabinoid, 9-tetrahydrocannabinol, is associated with augmentation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase expression, but data on the involvement of NO synthase in the acute cardioprotective effect of cannabinoids are contradictory. The adenosine triphosphate-sensitive K(+)channel is involved in the synthetic cannabinoid HU-210-induced cardiac resistance to ischemia/reperfusion injury. Cannabinoids inhibit Na(+)/Ca(2+)exchange via peripheral cannabinoid receptor (CB2) activation that may also be related to the antiapoptotic and cardioprotective effects of cannabinoids. The cannabinoid receptor agonists should be considered as prospective group of compounds for creation of drugs that are able to protect the heart against ischemia-reperfusion injury in the clinical setting.

Storozheva Z.I.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Gruden M.A.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Proshin A.T.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Sewell R.D.E.,University of Cardiff
Journal of Psychopharmacology | Year: 2015

Learning aptitude has never been a focus of visuospatial performance studies, particularly on memory consolidation and reconsolidation. The aim of this study was to determine the consequences of learning ability on memory consolidation/reconsolidation following inhibition of glucose synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3) by 4-benzyl-2-methyl-1,2,4-thiadiazolidine-3,5-dione (TDZD-8). The anxiety-like nature of rats was characterized in the elevated plus maze. The rats were then trained for four days in the Morris water maze (MWM) and classified as 'superior', 'intermediate' or 'inferior' learners. There were no major differences between superior, intermediate or inferior learners with respect to anxiety which might have influenced learning. After training (day-5), TDZD-8 (2.0 mg/kg) was administered and half of the cohort were exposed to a MWM retrieval trial. Ten days later, animals were subjected to repeated MWM learning. TDZD-8 without a retrieval trial impaired subsequent reconsolidation in inferior learners, but enhanced it in superior learners. There was no modification of performance in intermediate learners. In TDZD-8-treated subjects exposed to retrieval, the pattern of outcomes was identical whereby impairment of reconsolidation occurred in inferior learners, enhancement occurred in superior learners but there was no modification of performance in intermediate learners. Thus, learning ability was a key determinant of the qualitative outcome from GSK-3 inhibition on visuospatial memory. © The Author(s) 2015.

Voskresenskaya E.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Bardin M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Kovalenko O.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Quaternary International | Year: 2016

The climatology of winter anticyclone frequency in the Mediterranean-Black Sea region is studied on the basis of NCEP/NCAR reanalyses for 1951-2012. Time series of average anticyclone frequency are calculated for different parts of the region. It is found that the anticyclone frequency is increased significantly over the Black sea and Western Mediterranean regions while decreased over the Eastern Mediterranean. Regional manifestation of global climate processes in variability of the anticyclone frequency is investigated. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and INQUA.

Inzhevatkin E.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Savchenko A.A.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Biology Bulletin | Year: 2016

This work summarizes the authors’ recent investigations into metabolic changes in blood lymphocytes, cancer cells, and hepatocytes during tumor growth from mice with Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. These results were compared with the metabolic changes in hepatocytes from rats after hyperthermia and in lymphocytes from patients with different diseases. It was shown that the extreme conditions induced metabolic changes that were independent of the cell type or the nature of the extreme factor. These changes characterized the metabolic mechanisms of cell adaptation and disadaptation. The concept of the “nonspecific metabolic reaction” of cells to extreme exposures had been introduced. © 2016, Pleiades Publishing, Inc.

Efimova N.Y.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Chernov V.I.,Tomsk Polytechnic University | Efimova I.Y.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Lishmanov Y.B.,Tomsk Polytechnic University
Cardiovascular Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Aims: To investigate the regional cerebral blood flow, cognitive function, and parameters of 24-h arterial blood pressure monitoring in patients with metabolic syndrome before and after combination antihypertensive therapy. Methods: The study involved 54 patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) investigated by brain single-photon emission computed tomography, 24-h blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and comprehensive neuropsychological testing before and after 24 weeks of combination antihypertensive therapy. Results: Patients with metabolic syndrome had significantly poorer regional cerebral blood flow compared with control group: by 7% (P = 0.003) in right anterior parietal cortex, by 6% (P = 0.028) in left anterior parietal cortex, by 8% (P = 0.007) in right superior frontal lobe, and by 10% (P = 0.00002) and 7% (P = 0.006) in right and left temporal brain regions, correspondingly. The results of neuropsychological testing showed 11% decrease in mentation (P = 0.002), and 19% (P = 0.011) and 20% (P = 0.009) decrease in immediate verbal and visual memory in patients with MetS as compared with control group. Relationships between the indices of ABPM, cerebral perfusion, and cognitive function were found. Data showed an improvement of regional cerebral blood flow, ABPM parameters, and indicators of cognitive functions after 6 months of antihypertensive therapy in patients with MetS. Conclusion: The study showed the presence of diffuse disturbances in cerebral perfusion is associated with cognitive disorders in patients with metabolic syndrome. Combination antihypertensive treatment exerts beneficial effects on the 24-h blood pressure profile, increases cerebral blood flow, and improves cognitive function in patients with MetS. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

PubMed | Moscow State University and Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2016

Despite the rapid development of medical technologies, chemotherapy treatment still occupies an important place in clinical oncology. In this regard, the current research in this area focuses on the synthesis of new highly effective antitumor substances that have minimal side effects and the development of stable pharmaceutical formulations (PF) on their basis. In order to solve this problem, the I. Ya. Postovsky Institute of Organic Synthesis of the Ural Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences actively sought for original substances, namely, nitrosourea (NU) derivatives, one of the most promising classes of anticancer drugs. As a result of this research, a novel NU derivative was synthesized, namely ormustine, which showed high antitumor activity in preliminary preclinical trials. It is now crucial to develop an ormustine pharmaceutical formulation. Conducted technological studies showed that the most suitable solvent for the drug substance is 0.1 M hydrochloric acid, which ensures its rapid dissolution by ultrasonic treatment. A significant reduction in the concentration of the active ingredient during the storage of the solution required the development of a technique of its lyophilization and the selection of a shaper such as a Kollidon 17 PF. Upon completion of the development of a pharmaceutical formulation of ormustine, its stability after lyophilization was demonstrated, and a sufficient amount of the drug has been acquired for preclinical research.

Budazhapov L.V.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
Biosciences Biotechnology Research Asia | Year: 2015

This paper presents results of long-term model, greenhouse and microfield experiments on nitrogen transformation in soil-plant systems with application of stable nitrogen isotope (15N) as renewed efforts to make a biokinetic conception of nitrogen status in harsh climates of the northern part of Central Asia, namely in Transbaikalia. It uses a theory to investigate velocity characteristics of nitrogen pool change in cryogenic soil environments. The goal of theoretical background of nitrogen pool velocity transformation is to reveal modern approach to assessment of inherent nature cycle. In nitrogen cycle of soil-plant systems kinetic parameters were evaluated as the main processes of nitrogen 15N uptake and immobilization in terms of scaling with constant of growth velocity and microorganism performance being a key position in nitrogen transformation. The results show a new possibility to assess nitrogen cycle through calculated velocity constant and revealed dynamic pattern of the main processes. The ongoing assessment enables us to formulate a new original hypothesis for theoretical kinetical model.

Gmoshinski I.V.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution | Khotimchenko S.A.,Federal State Budgetary Scientific Institution
IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering | Year: 2015

Nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials are currently used in wide variety of cosmetic products, while their use in food industry, packaging materials, household chemicals etc. still includes a limited number of items and does not show a significant upward trend. However, the problem of priority nanomaterials associated risks is relevant due to their high production volumes and an constantly growing burden on the environment and population. In accordance with the frequency of use in mass-produced consumer goods, leading priority nanomaterials are silver nanoparticles (NPs) and (by a wide margin) NPs of gold, platinum, and titanium dioxide. Frequency of nanosized silica introduction into food products as a food additive, at the moment, seems to be underestimated, since the use of this nanomaterial is not declared by manufacturers of products and objective control of its content is difficult. Analysis of literature data on toxicological properties of nanomaterials shows that currently accumulated amount of information is sufficient to establish the safe doses of nanosized silver, gold and titanium dioxide. Data have been provided in a series of studies concerning the effect of oral intake of nanosized silica on the condition of laboratory animals, including on the performance of the immune system. The article examines the existing approaches to the assessment of population exposure to priority nanomaterials, characteristics of existing problems and risk management. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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