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News Article | November 23, 2015
Site: www.rdmag.com

NASA called Elon Musk’s SpaceX to the plate recently by giving the company a mission order to send astronauts to space from U.S. soil. “The authority to proceed with (SpaceX Crew Dragon’s) first operational crew missions is a significant milestone in the Commercial Crew Program and a great source of pride for the entire SpaceX team,” said Gwynne Shotwell, SpaceX’s president and chief operating officer. “When Crew Dragon takes NASA astronauts to the space station in 2017, they will be riding in one of the safest, most reliable spacecraft ever flown. We’re honored to be developing this capability for NASA and our country.” Founded in 2002, SpaceX is a company built upon firsts. In 2010, they successfully returned a spacecraft from low-Earth orbit, the first private company ever to do so. Since 2012, the company has sent cargo resupply missions to the International Space Station (ISS), representing a $1.6 billion contract with NASA. However, the company isn’t the first tapped by NASA to return manned launches to the U.S. In May, the Boeing Company received a crew mission order. “It’s really exciting to see SpaceX and Boeing with hardware in flow for their first crew rotation missions,” said Kathy Lueders, manager of NASA’s Commercial Crew Program. “It is important to have at least two healthy and robust capabilities from U.S. companies to deliver crew and critical scientific experiments from American soil to the space station throughout its lifespan.” If all deadlines are met, the the launches will occur in late 2017. The Boeing mission will be flown on the CST-100 Starliner. Which company launches first has yet to be determined. However, a full realized commercial launch is contingent on NASA receiving its requested funding for Commercial Crew transportation Capability (CCtCap) contracts for the 2016 fiscal year and beyond. Currently, the agency contracts with the Russia Federal Space Agency to send American astronauts to the ISS. Roscosmos charges $76 million per seat. Previously, NASA said launches from American soil would cost around $58 million per seat. “Commercial crew launches are really important for helping us meet the demand for research on the space station because it allows us to increase the crew to seven,” said ISS chief scientists Julie Robinson. “Over the long term, it also sets the foundation for scientific access to future commercial research platforms in low-Earth orbit.” Boeing and SpaceX’s contracts represent two of the four guaranteed orders NASA will make under CCtCap.

News Article | January 18, 2017
Site: www.techtimes.com

The Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos) and NASA may team up for a mission to Venus. The two would be going ahead and initiating a research on the scorching hot planet's mysteries and also whether Venus is hostile to life. The mission has been dubbed Venera-D and would send an orbiter and a lander to the planet. The D in the name of the mission stands for dolgozhivushaya which means "long lasting" in Russian. NASA has passed two missions - VERITAS and DAVINCI, earlier this month to examine the surface and atmosphere of Earth's neighbor, Venus. Venera-D happens to be one more Venus mission with two of the World's most well-equipped agencies teaming up for the purpose. The proposed joint mission would analyze Venus' atmosphere for 3 years with an orbiter, as well as a lander that would be present for a few hours on the planet's burning surface. Although, Russia wanted more time on the planet's surface, the costs involved made this impossible. "Russia has always been interested in going back to Venus," said David Senske, of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California Senske further added that NASA got involved with the process about three years ago, when Russia asked the U.S. space agency on its willingness to collaborate on the mission. The two space agencies NASA and Russia's Roscosmos are anticipating the possibility of finding microbial life and come up with a deeper understanding of the habitable environment on Venus's atmosphere. "A joint working team put forward several scenarios of the project in October, with Russian and American competences complementing each other. After that we discussed the matter with NASA Deputy Administrator Dava Newman, who confirmed NASA's interest to the Venera-D project," said Lev Zeleny,Director of the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Space.com reported that Russia would be in the pilot's seat for this mission by developing the launching systems, the lander and the orbiter. NASA is also expected to contribute additional scientific instruments to aid the mission. For nearly two years, discussions on the possibility of cooperation with NASA on the project has been ongoing. The last landing dates back to 1985 when a capsule of the Soviet's Vega-2 robot had reached the planet. The Venera-D mission is expected to launch in the second half of 2020. An international team of scientists would be delivering their final report on the mission to the two space agencies later this month. © 2017 Tech Times, All rights reserved. Do not reproduce without permission.

Vasily A.,Institute of Space Device Engineering | Gregory P.,Institute of Space Device Engineering | Yury M.,Federal Space Agency
RAST 2011 - Proceedings of 5th International Conference on Recent Advances in Space Technologies | Year: 2011

This article about problems of stability monitoring to space ionizing radiation of electronic component based and SEE test facilities which was considered by Institute of Space Device Engineering in cooperation with Federal Space Agency. © 2011 IEEE.

Makarov Yu.,Federal Space Agency | Gorobets D.,Federal Space Agency | Nazarenko A.,Russian Corporation of Rocket and Space Instrument Engineering and Information Systems | Raykunov G.,Federal State Unitary Enterprise | And 8 more authors.
62nd International Astronautical Congress 2011, IAC 2011 | Year: 2011

The Russian SDPA (Space Debris Prediction and Analysis) model for determining the level of near-Earth space (NES) debris population has been modified. The near-earth space debris population state has been calculated for the 200 year prediction interval taking into account the mechanism of space debris mutual collisions. The data obtained are correlated with the prediction data of similar NASA and ESA models. It is shown that currently mutual collisions of space debris fragments contribute to uncontrolled growth of space debris population (Kessler's effect). Further steps to secure space mission safety in space debris environment should include a number of measures and first of all an obligatory compliance of space activity with the "Space Debris Mitigation Guidelines of the Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space". At the same time some additional measures are highly relevant and one of them is the removal of large debris fragments from operational orbits to burial zone thus reducing the probability of space debris generation. Removal of spent SLV upper stages using gasified remaining propellants is considered to be an efficient method of solving the given problem. Some aspects of this method are under discussion. The priority organizational procedures and related items of international law for debris remediation are under discussion.

Volynskaya O.,Federal Space Agency
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2014

14 January 2014 the President of the Russian Federation signed a document named "Basic Principles of State Policy of the Russian Federation in the Area of Utilization of Space Activity Results in the Interests of Economic Modernization of the Russian Federation and the Development of its Regions for the Period till 2030". The main specific feature of this political document, which has no direct effect, is the development of a new concept "space activity results" (SAR) which implies products and services created in the course of space activities. It its turn, "utilization of SAR" is understood as a purpose-oriented process connected with the acquisition of SAR, their processing, adaptation to consumer demands and application. The Basic Principles of SAR utilization set forth state interests, principles, purpose, priorities, tasks and stages of implementation of the Russian state policy in the field of SAR utilization. Among the stipulated interests the following should be highlighted: - development of hi-tech and knowledge-intensive sectors of the national economy; - development of the domestic market of space products and services; - widening of representation by the Russian enterprises in the global space market. In order to achieve the set goal and satisfy the above interests a whole range of measures is needed, the primary among which shall be the modification of the existing Russian legislation, including the 1993 Law "On Space Activities". The Basic Principles of SAR utilization set forth the issues to be solved and time frameworks to be observed by the legislator to enhance the national legal regime and replenish its lacunas to ensure the efficiency of national space activities. © 2014, International Astronautical Federation, IAF. All rights reserved.

Zelenyi L.M.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Zakharov A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Polischuk G.M.,Federal Space Agency | Martynov M.B.,Federal Space Agency
Solar System Research | Year: 2010

This article provides the main scientific objectives and characteristics of the Phobos-Soil project, intended to fly to the Martian satellite Phobos, deliver its soil samples to the Earth, as well as explore Phobos, Mars, and the Martian environment with onboard scientific instruments. We give the basic parameters of the ballistic scenario of the mission, spacecraft, and some scientific problems to be solved with the help of the scientific instruments installed on the spacecraft. © Pleiades Publishing, Inc., 2010.

Volynskaya O.,Federal Space Agency
Proceedings of the International Astronautical Congress, IAC | Year: 2012

According to Article VII of the Outer Space Treaty and Articles 11, 111, etc. of the Liability Convention states bear international liability for damage caused by their launched objects. Such damage can occur at any stage of a space object's lifecycle (production, preparation for launch, launch, flight test, on-orbit exploitation, end of exploitation), so a majority of national space legislations establish conditions and specific features of insurance to cover all the stages mentioned. Thus a stable insurance system is created - A guarantee that space operators will be protected against financial consequences of possible damage. A space insurance system is an important element of a risk management system in the course of space activities, especially commercial. Establishment of a space insurance system in Russia dates back to early 1990-s, the beginning of market reforms. Its first organizational stage is completed; uniform insurance principles and procedures have been elaborated by practice. Currently space insurance is regulated only by article 25 of the 1993 Law "On Space Activities" which establishes mandatory insurance of life and health of cosmonauts and space infrastructure personnel, as well as third-party liability insurance. Requirements for each type shall be set by a separate federal law. In the absence of such a document space insurance is regulated by the 1992 Law "On the Organization of Insurance in the Russian Federation" and Chapter 48 of the Russian Civil Code. Draft law "On Space Risks Insurance" is targeted at creation of a stable, clear and transparent legal regime for all types of space insurance within the whole lifecycle of space objects, first of all government-owned (launch vehicles, upper stages, spacecraft and parts thereof, launch sites, etc.). The main purpose of the future law is to protect state interests in case of international liability for national space activities, ensure unhindered performance of the Federal Space Programme of Russia and other federal task programmes under which spacecraft is created, tested and exploited. Adoption of the federal law governing space risks insurance will guarantee timely and full coverage of damage to life, health and property, minimize risks of unplanned substantial payments, simplify insurance contract- making, prevent diversion of financial resources from international and domestic space programmes and provide for stability of space operations. Copyright © (2012) by the International Astronautical Federation.

Oganov V.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Bogomolov V.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Bakulin A.V.,Russian Academy of Sciences | Novikov V.E.,Russian Academy of Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Human Physiology | Year: 2010

The results of long-term investigations of the bone system of humans during space flights (SFs) on board the Mir orbital station (OS) and international space station (ISS) using osteodensitometry are summarized. Comparative analysis of the results showed the absence of significant differences in changes in the bone mass (BM) in the crew members of both OSs. Theoretically, the expected bone mass losses in the trabecular bone structures of the lower part of the body in the process of a SF (five to seven months) are interpreted in some cases as quickly developing, but reversible, osteopenia and generally interpreted as the evidence of bone functional adaptation to altering mechanical loads on the skeleton. The high individual variability of changes and the stability of the individual character of the BM alteration ratio in different skeletal segments irrespective of the OS type are shown. Owing to the aforementioned individual features, it is not possible to establish a strict relationship between BM changes and the duration of space missions, and, therefore, there is no good reason for calculating the probability of achieving the critical demineralization level when the duration of an SF increases to 1.5-2 years. The probability of prediction of changes in the bone quality (structure) is still less, which, together with BM losses, determines the risk of fractures, and osteodensitometry for such an analysis is insufficient. The main directions of the studies, which could optimize the development of the interplanetary expedition project from the point of view of maintenance of the mechanical function of the skeleton, are considered. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Vaitsekhovich S.M.,Federal Space Agency | Mikhalevich V.M.,Federal Space Agency | Kraevskii V.A.,Vinnitsa National Technical University
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics | Year: 2013

A process for producing hardmetal cutting plates (synthetic cutting tool material) has been developed and implemented. It is established that the most rational and economically sound option is to introduce several die toolings with relevant service features in the manufacture of products by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis. Advantages of the factor characterizing stress stiffness have been revealed. They involve one-to-one correspondence between the values of this factor and possible cases of plane stress. Coordinates for analytical representation and geometrical interpretation of the limit state criteria are proposed. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Vaitsekhovich S.M.,Federal Space Agency | Mikhalevich V.M.,Federal Space Agency | Kraevskii V.A.,Vinnitsa National Technical University
Powder Metallurgy and Metal Ceramics | Year: 2013

A compaction process using self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) has been developed. The process includes preparation of a composite powder billet in conditions that promote uniform pore distribution over the synthesized product, followed by barothermal SHS and compaction of the billet by plastic deformation. To determine the ultimate strain of the synthesized billet, a hereditary damage accumulation model is proposed to consider two competing processes during compaction: accumulation of microdamage induced by plastic deformation and partial healing of the accumulated microdamage through structural changes. Areas of theoretical studies to intensify the compaction process are identified. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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