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Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

The Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro is a centenary Brazilian university located in the city of Seropédica in the State of Rio de Janeiro in Brazil. It possesses the largest campus among Latin American universities, and is known for being the first university to have agriculture related courses in Brazil.Founded in October 20, 1910, by then president of the republic Nilo Peçanha, the College of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine laid the foundations of agricultural education in Brazil.The ESAMV, however, only began operating in 1913 and ended in 1934. In its place emerged three distinct institutions: the National School of Agriculture , National School of Veterinary Medicine and the National School of Chemistry . These institutions have been crucial to overcoming the fragmentary and differentiated from existing agricultural and veterinary education throughout the nineteenth century and to create an academic reference space. In January 1944, the Rural University is established as an organ of the National Centre for Agronomic Research and Teaching and incorporates the ENA and the Environment.The creation of ESAMV thus represents the origin of the Rural University, today the Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro.This university has a college for high school course with technical integrated, like agriculture, hosting and environment called CTUR. It's located inside the campus of the university. Wikipedia.

Monteiro L.R.,University of Hull | Monteiro L.R.,State University of Norte Fluminense | Nogueira M.R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
BMC Evolutionary Biology | Year: 2011

Background: The phyllostomid bats present the most extensive ecological and phenotypic radiation known among mammal families. This group is an important model system for studies of cranial ecomorphology and functional optimisation because of the constraints imposed by the requirements of flight. A number of studies supporting phyllostomid adaptation have focused on qualitative descriptions or correlating functional variables and diet, but explicit tests of possible evolutionary mechanisms and scenarios for phenotypic diversification have not been performed. We used a combination of morphometric and comparative methods to test hypotheses regarding the evolutionary processes behind the diversification of phenotype (mandible shape and size) and diet during the phyllostomid radiation. Results: The different phyllostomid lineages radiate in mandible shape space, with each feeding specialisation evolving towards different axes. Size and shape evolve quite independently, as the main directions of shape variation are associated with mandible elongation (nectarivores) or the relative size of tooth rows and mandibular processes (sanguivores and frugivores), which are not associated with size changes in the mandible. The early period of phyllostomid diversification is marked by a burst of shape, size, and diet disparity (before 20 Mya), larger than expected by neutral evolution models, settling later to a period of relative phenotypic and ecological stasis. The best fitting evolutionary model for both mandible shape and size divergence was an Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process with five adaptive peaks (insectivory, carnivory, sanguivory, nectarivory and frugivory). Conclusions: The radiation of phyllostomid bats presented adaptive and non-adaptive components nested together through the time frame of the family's evolution. The first 10 My of the radiation were marked by strong phenotypic and ecological divergence among ancestors of modern lineages, whereas the remaining 20 My were marked by stasis around a number of probable adaptive peaks. A considerable amount of cladogenesis and speciation in this period is likely to be the result of non-adaptive allopatric divergence or adaptations to peaks within major dietary categories. © 2011 Monteiro and Nogueira; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Barreiro E.J.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Kummerle A.E.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Kummerle A.E.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Fraga C.A.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2011

The importance of the simple methyl group as a very useful structural modification in the rational design of bioactive compounds and drugs is examined. The methyl effect alters both biological phases of a drug, represented by its pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetc profile, due to the modifications introduced in the stereoeletronic properties. Cimetidine contains an imidazolyl nucleus and a methyl group at C-5, thus favoring the tautomeric form necessary for H 2 receptor selectivity. The thioether in the side chain of cimetidine ensured adequate hydrophobic properties and led to increased selective antagonist activity. The activation mechanism of proton pump inhibitors (PPI) is directly related to the nitrogen nucleophilicity of the pyridine moiety, which depends on the electronic effect of substituents on the pKa of the pyridine ring. When electron-donating substituent, such as methyl groups are attached to the pyridine ring then its pKa increases, thus increasing its protonation rate at any given pH.

Wilkinson J.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Environment and Planning A | Year: 2011

The explosive growth of food commodity markets in the wake of massive, sustained demand from the 'emerging economies' might seem to mark a rupture with the niche quality markets which many authors have identified as the dominant tendencies in agrofood since the 1980s and a return to the mass markets of yesteryear. In this paper it is argued, however, that the distinguishing characteristics of special quality markets, and particularly the role of new social movements in their construction, are now being extended to the marketing of basic food commodities. Rather than a return to the commodity economy, therefore, we are witnessing a struggle to incorporate the values associated with fair trade, organics, and sustainability as benchmarks for global commodity trade in food, feed, fuels, and forestry products. I illustrate these tendencies through a discussion of the fair trade and responsible soy movements, representing the niche quality and the resurgent commodity markets, respectively, illustrating not only their similar dynamics but also their continuity in terms of leading actors and networks. Brazil provides a privileged vantage point for analysing this interface between global commodity markets and social movements. The strategic role of networks, in which civil society organisations and social movements are key both for the definition and the subsequent functioning of these markets points to the considerable weakening and possible demise of the traditional commodity economy. I draw attention, however, to the North-South and particularly European roots of these tendencies whose survival power is threatened as the axis for trade and investment shifts increasingly South-South with China as its principal driving force. © 2011 Pion Ltd and its Licensors.

Abreu E.M.C.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro | Abreu E.M.C.,Federal University of Juiz de fora | Neto J.A.,Federal University of Juiz de fora
Physics Letters, Section B: Nuclear, Elementary Particle and High-Energy Physics | Year: 2013

Verlinde's ideas considered gravity as an emergent force originated from entropic concepts. This hypothesis generated a huge number of papers through the last recent years concerning classical and quantum approaches about the issue. In a recent paper Kobakhidze, using ultra-cold neutrons experiment, claimed that Verlinde's entropic gravity is not correct. In this Letter, by considering the Tsallis nonadditivity entropy concerning the holographic screen, where we assumed that the bits are entangled states, we showed that it is possible to confirm Verlinde's formalism. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

Muradian R.,Radboud University Nijmegen | Muradian R.,Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro
Society and Natural Resources | Year: 2013

The design and thriving of payments for ecosystem services (PES) have occurred as a response to the relative failure of integrated strategies for reconciling conservation and development. The most widespread definition of PES conceives these payments as markets to solve environmental externalities. This article analyzes the limitations of this "Coasean" approach using insights from transaction costs economics, and it pleads for looking at PES with different analytical lenses. It argues that PES should be seen as "incentives for collective action." However, the extent to which incentives can contribute to the management of ES should not be taken for granted. The effects of monetary incentives are determined by their "social meanings," which are context and culture dependent. The proposed conceptual shift has significant analytical and practical implications. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

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