Carpenter A.,Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta |
Carpenter A.,Georgia Institute of Technology
International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction | Year: 2015
The mounting frequency and scale of natural disasters, increasing urbanization, a growing reliance on interdependent technologies and infrastructure, and inflated expectations of emergency response interventions are responsible for greater disaster vulnerability and demonstrate the need to establish more resilient communities ahead of a disaster. The decisions of the private sector are among the reasons for increased vulnerability, for example through unsustainable or unsound real estate development.One factor that is known to impact resilience is social capital, particularly as manifested in strong social networks. The built environment has been shown to influence social networks in multiple ways. Research has shown that walkable, mixed-use neighborhoods with a higher concentration of social gathering places and public space encourage the development of social capital and place attachment through an increase in social interaction. The built environment is a physical, social, and symbolic anchor for residents. Most importantly for resilience, it can be a support system for social networks. The private sector influences this relationship through real estate development decisions.This paper examines how characteristics of the built environment that influence social networks contributed to greater resilience to Hurricane Katrina along the Mississippi Gulf Coast. Given that social networks increase community resilience to all types of disasters, that social networks are shown to be influenced by certain types of space, and that the built environment is a common intervention for urban planners, this paper explores the potential for creating cities that are more resilient by encouraging private development that fosters social networks. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Arzaghi M.,American University of Sharjah |
Rupasingha A.,Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2013
This paper extends the utility maximization model of migration by introducing income and unemployment-related uncertainties as determinants of utility, and analyzes the effects of the informational advantages of migrants. The paper maintains that migration would expand an individual's economic choices and opportunities and allow diversification. Consequently, diversification advantages influence the location decisions of migrants, an effect captured by the correlation of incomes at the origin and potential destinations.We use the discrete choice model based on random utility maximization as the framework for our empirical investigation of migration from the United States rural to urban counties. This paper takes advantage of an equivalent relation between the conditional logit model and Poisson regression to study the migration decisions using aggregate data among a large set of spatial alternatives. The results show that the diversification concerns have significant effects on location decisions of the rural-urban migrants in the United States. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Luo F.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Florence C.S.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Quispe-Agnoli M.,Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta |
Ouyang L.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention |
Crosby A.E.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2011
Objectives: We examined the associations of overall and age-specific suicide rates with business cycles from 1928 to 2007 in the United States. Methods: We conducted a graphical analysis of changes in suicide rates during business cycles, used nonparametric analyses to test associations between business cycles and suicide rates, and calculated correlations between the national unemployment rate and suicide rates. Results: Graphical analyses showed that the overall suicide rate generally rose during recessions and fell during expansions. Age-specific suicide rates responded differently to recessions and expansions. Nonparametric tests indicated that the overall suicide rate and the suicide rates of the groups aged 25 to 34 years, 35 to 44 years, 45 to 54 years, and 55 to 64 years rose during contractions and fell during expansions. Suicide rates of the groups aged 15 to 24 years, 65 to 74 years, and 75 years and older did not exhibit this behavior. Correlation results were concordant with all nonparametric results except for the group aged 65 to 74 years. Conclusions: Business cycles may affect suicide rates, although different age groups responded differently. Our findings suggest that public health responses are a necessary component of suicide prevention during recessions.
Rupasingha A.,Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta |
Goetz S.J.,Pennsylvania State University
Papers in Regional Science | Year: 2013
This study explores the relationship between self-employment and income growth, employment growth, and change in poverty in metro and non-metro areas in the United States using county-level panel data. We investigate the impact of the relative size of the self-employment sector measured by the share of non-farm proprietorships (NFPs) in total full and part-time employment on three key economic performance indicators. We first estimate an income growth model to analyse the effects of self-employment on income growth. Then we investigate the independent effects of self-employment on employment growth and changes in family poverty rates. Our results indicate that higher self-employment rates are associated with statistically significant increases over time in income and employment growth, and reductions in poverty rates in non-metro counties. We find similar effects on metro county income and employment, but not on poverty dynamics. © 2011 the author(s). Papers in Regional Science.
Brown J.D.,Institute for the Study of Labor IZA |
Hotchkiss J.L.,Georgia State University |
Quispe-Agnoli M.,Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta
Journal of Regional Science | Year: 2013
Using administrative data from the state of Georgia, this paper finds that, on average, across all firms, employing undocumented workers reduces a firm's hazard of exit by 19 percent. The advantage to firms from employing undocumented workers increases as more firms in the industry do so, decreases with the skill level of the firm's workers, increases with the breadth of a firm's market, and increases with the labor intensity of the firm's production process. © 2012, Federal Reserve Bank of Atlanta.