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Neumann H.,Senckenberg Institute | Ehrich S.,Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas | Kroncke I.,Senckenberg Institute
Aquatic Invasions

So far the angular crab Goneplax rhomboides (Linnaeus, 1758) was mostly a northeastern Atlantic and Mediterranean species and was quite rare in the North Sea where no evidence for sustainable populations existed. In 2008 and 2009 a total of 82 individuals of Goneplax rhomboides (Linnaeus, 1758) were found at 22 widespread locations in the southern North Sea indicating that this species is now well established in the area. © 2010 The Author(s). Source

Castellanos-Galindo G.A.,Leibniz Center for Tropical Marine Ecology | Castellanos-Galindo G.A.,Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, Bogota | Castellanos-Galindo G.A.,University of Valle | Krumme U.,Jorge Tadeo Lozano University, Bogota | Krumme U.,Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas
Marine Ecology Progress Series

The global comparison of mangrove fish assemblages and their ecological equivalence by Sheaves (2012; Mar Ecol Prog Ser 461:137-149) presents useful novel information for this specific ecosystem faunal assemblage. This comparison, however, included only a single study from the tropical Eastern Pacific region (TEP), which was assigned to an Eastern Central Atlantic group. Here, we present data that supplement the analysis made by Sheaves and show that the taxonomic composition (at the family level) of the TEP mangrove fish fauna is considerably different from the Eastern Central Atlantic, and warrants a different classification. To characterize TEP mangrove fish fauna, we used the same descriptors as in Sheaves (2012) (i.e. % of families with widespread vs. restricted distributions, and their affinity with families characteristic of coral reefs). Based on our analysis, the estuarine mangrove fish assemblages from the Neotropical region (TEP and Western Central Atlantic) substantially differ-both taxonomically and functionally-from the ones at the West African coast (tropical Eastern Atlantic) so that overall, Sheaves' (2012) Eastern Central Atlantic group likely consists of 3 groups: TEP, Western Central Atlantic and tropical Eastern Atlantic. An examination of the relative abundance and biomass of fish families revealed striking differences in their representativeness, especially between Neotropical and tropical Eastern Atlantic assemblages. Therefore, further comparisons of ecological equivalence should use metrics with a higher ecological resolution (i.e. biomass) than the ones employed by Sheaves (2012), giving a more meaningful basis to compare mangrove fish assemblages worldwide. © Inter-Research 2013. Source

Dhillon R.S.,CCS Haryana Agricultural University | von Wuehlisch G.,Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas
Biomass and Bioenergy

Rising level of atmospheric CO2 and consequent global warming is evident. Global surface temperature have already increased by 0.8 °C over the 20th century and is projected to increase by 1.4-5.8 °C during the twenty-first century. The global warming will continue till atmospheric concentrations of the major greenhouse gases are stabilized. Among them, CO2 is mainly responsible and is expected to account for about 60% of the warming over the next century. This study reviews advances on causes and consequences of global climate change and its impact on nature and society. Renewable biomass has tremendous potential to mitigate the global warming. Renewable biomass is expected to play a multifunctional role including food production, source of energy and fodder, biodiversity conservation, yield of goods and services to the society as well as mitigation of the impact of climate change. The review highlights the different management and research strategies in forestry, agriculture, agroforestry and grasslands to mitigate the global warming. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dirksmeyer W.,Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas
Acta Horticulturae

Pesticides are intensively used in open field vegetable production. The use of low pesticide applications and non-chemical pest control technologies is limited. A stochastic bio-economic Monte Carlo simulation model permits the efficiency of alternative pest control methods to be identified in order to assess the likelihood that such technologies will be adopted. Data were collected from a field survey of 134 vegetable producers in Denmark, Germany and The Netherlands cultivating carrot, leek and onion. The analysis focuses on the main insect pests and on weeds. Simulation results for Germany show that controlling carrot flies by timing pesticide applications with warnings from the advisory service is more profitable than routine calendar spraying. Due to low onion fly infestation levels in Germany, neither seed coating nor the sterile male onion fly technique are profitable. Conversely, thresholdbased thrip control in leek production is less profitable than routine spraying, due to the greater control effectiveness of the latter. In all three countries, combined chemical-mechanical weed control using reduced herbicide rates is more efficient than the application of full rates or non-chemical weeding. It was found that the risk of low pesticide use technologies is not necessarily higher than that of routine pesticide applications. Since low pesticide use technologies are rarely applied in Germany, although such technologies are profitable, it can be assumed that path dependence in pest control in open field vegetable production exists. Source

Anderson T.-H.,Federal Research Institute for Rural Areas | Anderson T.-H.,Institute of Agroecology | Anderson T.-H.,Institute of Soil Biology | Domsch K.H.,Institute of Soil Biology
Soil Biology and Biochemistry

In the 1980s ecosystem research projects were implemented world-wide since there was a pressing need to quantify the impacts of anthropogenic pollutants. Soil ecosystem analyses concentrated first on the quantification of the element and energy transfer between pools. Since mineralization of organic substrates and the release of nutrients and elements are due to the heterotrophic activity of the microbial decomposer compartment, this subsystem of terrestrial ecosystems gained importance. Direct microscopic observation methods were inadequate for the quantification of environmental impacts on the microflora. We adopted the maintenance requirement concept for the quantification of environmental impacts or stress effects on the soil microbial community. The paper gives a brief inside to the concept of maintenance from autecological studies and describes the underlying points which lead to our experimental approach of its application at the synecological level (i.e., microbial biomass as a single ecological entity) - a process which rested on long-term continuous research. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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