Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food

Hamburg, Germany

Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food

Hamburg, Germany
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Klapper R.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Klapper R.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food | Meyer C.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food | Kuhn T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Karl H.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food
Food Control | Year: 2017

Nile perch (Lates niloticus) is a popular, usually low priced food fish in many countries worldwide, and the most important export fish from Lake Victoria and its adjacent countries Uganda, Tanzania and Kenya. Despite its high import figures, the constantly increasing demand within the EU for ‘new’ fish species and the results of initial studies indicating high coliform bacterial loads, food safety aspects regarding its microbiological as well as parasitological status have been hitherto widely neglected. In the present study imported fresh fish fillets as well as superchilled fish from a German retail market and a Dutch wholesaler were examined to evaluate the current microbiological and parasitological quality. A total of 200 fresh fillets as well as 20 superchilled fish (beheaded, eviscerated, descaled) samples were screened for the presence of helminth parasites by visual inspection, candling, the UV-press method and artificial digestion method. The study includes as well a quantitative test on the recovery rate of metacercarial cysts. Microbial assessment was performed on ten fresh fillets and on the skin and tissue of 20 superchilled fish. Helminth parasites were neither detected in the edible parts nor in the skin of imported products. Results of the microbiological examination revealed low levels of bacterial contamination of superchilled fish samples, whereas high total viable counts and high levels of naturally present bacterial pathogens of the genus Aeromonas spp. and Pseudomonas spp. were identified from the fresh fillets. Our findings indicate that hygienic production conditions have improved in comparison to previous studies. As total viable counts as well as specific spoiling bacteria were high in fresh fillets, we recommend adequate heat treatment of fresh Nile perch fillets before consumption. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Zhang Y.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Klapper R.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | Klapper R.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food | Lohbeck K.T.,Leibniz Institute of Marine Science | And 5 more authors.
Limnology and Oceanography | Year: 2014

Thermal reaction norms for growth rates of six Emiliania huxleyi isolates originating from the central Atlantic (Azores, Portugal) and five isolates from the coastal North Atlantic (Bergen, Norway) were assessed. We used the template mode of variation model to decompose variations in growth rates into modes of biological interest: vertical shift, horizontal shift, and generalist-specialist variation. In line with the actual habitat conditions, isolates from Bergen (Bergen population) grew well at lower temperatures, and isolates from the Azores (Azores population) performed better at higher temperatures. The optimum growth temperature of the Azores population was significantly higher than that of the Bergen population. Neutral genetic differentiation was found between populations by microsatellite analysis. These findings indicate that E. huxleyi populations are adapted to local temperature regimes. Next to between-population variation, we also found variation within populations. Genotype-by-environment interactions resulted in the most pronounced phenotypic differences when isolates were exposed to temperatures outside the range they naturally encounter. Variation in thermal reaction norms between and within populations emphasizes the importance of using more than one isolate when studying the consequences of global change on marine phytoplankton. Phenotypic plasticity and standing genetic variation will be important in determining the potential of natural E. huxleyi populations to cope with global climate change. © 2014, by the Association for the Sciences of Limnology and Oceanography, Inc.

Lazarick K.,University of Lethbridge | Aladedunye F.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food | Przybylski R.,University of Lethbridge
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2014

The effect of pre-formed lipid hydroperoxides, breading, and battering ingredients on pigment formation and thermo-oxidative degradation of oil during institutional frying was evaluated. The food ingredients were fried intermittently in canola oil heated for 8h daily over 4 consecutive days at 185±5°C. Color component formation, total polar components (TPC), and tocopherols were measured. Glycine-enriched whey protein fried in 1% oxidized canola oil contributed most significantly to oil darkening with a rate ten times that of the control sample. Using whey protein as a base for battering caused the most significant color changes and thermo-oxidative deterioration. Glucose and glycine are two minor ingredients that also contribute to color formation in oil. Breading materials were prone to cause a more significant amount of oil deterioration when compared to battering ingredients most likely due to excess loose breading particles falling into the oil during frying. Practical applications: The present study evaluated the effect of some components of food coatings on the stability and pigment formation of the frying oil. The results suggest the need to optimize the protein component of coating materials and ensure that the amounts of loose particles on breaded products are adequately minimized. This information will assist institutional frying operators and other relevant industries in product development and food preparation with the view of optimizing performance of the frying oil. Breading and battering ingredients participate in the various physico-chemical reactions occurring during frying, affecting the colour and thermo-oxidative stability of the frying oil. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Plachta-Danielzik S.,University of Kiel | Bosy-Westphal A.,University of Kiel | Bosy-Westphal A.,University of Hohenheim | Kehden B.,University of Kiel | And 6 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2013

Background/objectives: Adiposity rebound (AR) is defined as the nadir or the inflexion point of body mass index (BMI) percentiles between the age of 3 and 7 years. An early rebound is seen as a risk of obesity and, thus, AR is considered as a suitable time period for prevention. As BMI does not reflect body composition, we aimed to examine the rebounds of fat mass index (FMI) and fat-free mass index (FFMI) together with BMI. Subjects/methods: Cross-sectional data of 19 264 children aged 3-11 years were pooled from three German studies (Kiel Obesity Prevention Study, the project 'Better diet. More exercise. KINDERLEICHT-REGIONS' and regular examinations of Jena children). Height and weight were measured. Fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) were obtained from bioelectrical impedance analysis and analysed using a population-specific algorithm. Percentiles of BMI, FMI and FFMI were constructed by the LMS method. Results: Both BMI and FMI percentiles showed a rebound, whereas FFMI percentiles steadily increased with age. On P90, FMI rebound was about 1.6-1.8 years later compared with that of BMI, that is, at ages 4.2 years (BMI) and 5.8 years (FMI) in boys and at 4.2 years (BMI) and 6.0 years (FMI) in girls. At AR, the slope of the BMI-P90 was explained by increases in FFMI rather than FMI. By contrast, at FMI rebound, the slope of BMI was strongly related to FMI. Conclusions: BMI rebound does not equal the rebound of FM. At AR, the slope in BMI is determined by the increase in FFMI. AR should be defined as FMI rebound rather than BMI rebound. © 2013 Macmillan Publishers Limited.

Plachta-Danielzik S.,University of Kiel | Gehrke M.I.,University of Kiel | Kehden B.,University of Kiel | Kromeyer-Hauschild K.,Friedrich - Schiller University of Jena | And 4 more authors.
Obesity Facts | Year: 2012

Objective: The aim of this study was to define body fat percentiles for German children and adolescents aged 3-16 years using the largest German database. Methods: The study population included 11,632 girls and 11,604 boys. Data were pooled from: i) Kiel Obesity Prevention Study (KOPS), acquisition period: 1996-2008, n = 12,237; ii) 'Better diet. More exercise. KINDERLEICHT-REGIONS', acquisition period: 2007, n = 9,405; and iii) examination of Jena schoolchildren, acquisition period: 2005, n = 1,594. Body fat mass was measured by bioelectrical impedance analysis using a population-specific algorithm. Data were weighted to achieve a representative sample for Germany. Percentile curves were constructed by the LMS method and proved by Worm plots and Q-statistic. Results: In both genders, the higher body fat percentile curves sloped downwards to age 7 years, whereas the lower percentiles declined up to 8.5 years. Thereafter fat mass remained nearly constant with age in boys and increased in girls. The 10th percentile achieved a minimum of 10-11% body fat in both genders, whereas the 90th percentile curve fluctuated between 29 and 44% in boys or 30-43% in girls. The association between fat mass and blood pressure was too weak to define disease-related cut-offs. Conclusion: These body fat percentiles are suitable reference values for German children and adolescents. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

Holmer-Jensen J.,Aarhus University Hospital | Hartvigsen M.L.,Aarhus University Hospital | Mortensen L.S.,Aarhus University Hospital | Astrup A.,Copenhagen University | And 4 more authors.
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Background/Objectives: Postprandial lipaemia is an established risk factor for atherosclerosis. To investigate the acute effect of four milk-derived dietary proteins (alpha-lactalbumin, whey isolate, caseinoglycomacropeptide and whey hydrolysate) on postprandial lipaemia, we have conducted a randomized, acute, single-blinded clinical intervention study with crossover design. Subjects/Methods: A total of 11 obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 44-74, BMI: 30-41.4 kg m -2) were included. On 4 different days the subjects ingested a high-fat meal with the following energy distribution: 66% energy from fat (100 g of butter), 15% of energy from carbohydrate (90 g of white wheat bread) and 19% of energy from protein (45 g of pure protein). Our primary variable was plasma triglyceride measured in the 8-h postprandial period. Secondarily, retinyl palmitate, non-esterified free fatty acids, glucose, insulin, glucagon, GLP-1 and GIP, active and total grehlin and cholecystokinin were measured. Results: We observed no statistically significant (P=0.8) differences between meals on our primary variable that is, triglycerides. Whey hydrolysate was associated with a significantly (P=0.02) smaller postprandial suppression of non-esterified free fatty acids compared with the other dietary proteins.Conclusion:We did not observe significant differences in postprandial lipaemia to the four milk-derived dietary proteins. Whey hydrolysate caused less postprandial suppression of free fatty acids. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited All rights reserved.

Kuhn T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Benninghoff T.,Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf | Karl H.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food | Landry T.,Gulf | Klimpel S.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2013

European smelt Osmerus eperlanus (n = 501) from the German Wadden Sea (North Sea) near the city of Cuxhaven were examined for their infestation with parasitic anisakid nematodes, especially with sealworms of the genus Pseudoterranova. The distribution of third-stage larvae (L3) in the musculature and viscera of the fish was analyzed. In total, we isolated 543 L3 from the hosts' body cavity and musculature. A subsample of 105 larvae were identified as the (sibling) species P. decipiens s.s. using direct sequencing of the highly variable ribosomal ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 genetic marker. The mean abundance was 1.1, the mean intensity was 2.3 P. decipiens s.s. and the prevalence was 47.3%. Total length and total weight, but not Fulton's condition factor (K), were significantly different in infected compared to uninfected smelt. No correlation was found between the total length of infected fish and the intensity of anisakid nematodes. The vast majority of P. decipiens s.s. was found in the musculature of the smelt. More than half (55.7%) of all nematodes were located in the 3 parts of the epaxial musculature, whereas 18.4 and 26.0% were found in the hypaxial musculature and the compartments of the tail muscles, respectively. © Inter-Research 2013.

Holmer-Jensen J.,Aarhus University Hospital | Mortensen L.S.,Aarhus University Hospital | Astrup A.,Copenhagen University | de Vrese M.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food | And 3 more authors.
Nutrition Research | Year: 2013

Non-fasting triglyceridemia is much closer associated to cardiovascular risk compared to fasting triglyceridemia. We hypothesized that there would be acute differential effects of four common dietary proteins (cod protein, whey isolate, gluten, and casein) on postprandial lipemia in obese non-diabetic subjects. To test the hypothesis we conducted a randomized, acute clinical intervention study with crossover design. We supplemented a fat rich mixed meal with one of four dietary proteins i.e. cod protein, whey protein, gluten or casein. Eleven obese non-diabetic subjects (age: 40-68, body mass index: 30.3-42.0 kg/m2) participated and blood samples were drawn in the 8-h postprandial period. Supplementation of a fat rich mixed meal with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia (P = .048) compared to supplementation with cod protein and gluten. This was primarily due to lower triglyceride concentration in the chylomicron rich fraction (P = .0293). Thus, we have demonstrated acute differential effects on postprandial metabolism of four dietary proteins supplemented to a fat rich mixed meal in obese non-diabetic subjects. Supplementation with whey protein caused lower postprandial lipemia compared to supplementation with cod and gluten. As postprandial lipemia is closely correlated to cardiovascular disease, long-term dietary supplementation with whey protein may prove beneficial in preventing cardiovascular disease in obese non-diabetic subjects. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Karl H.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food | Baumann F.,Frozen Fish International GmbH | Ostermeyer U.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food | Kuhn T.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Klimpel S.,Goethe University Frankfurt
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2011

The prevalence, mean intensity and distribution of Anisakis nematode third-stage larvae (L3) in the muscle and viscera of wild-caught chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta, pink salmon O. gorbuscha and sockeye salmon O. nerka were compared immediately after catch. Salmon were collected during the fishing season in July 2007 in Bristol Bay and Prince William Sound close to Cordova, Alaska (USA). All fish were infected, and more than 90% of the nematode larvae were found in the edible muscle meat. The isolated anisakid L3 were genetically identified as A. simplex (s.s.). The distribution of nematodes in the muscle meat of fresh-caught salmon was examined in 49 O. keta, 50 O. nerka and 12 O. gorbuscha from Cordova. Most of the larvae were detected in the muscle parts around the body cavity, but nematodes were also found in the tail meat and epaxial muscle (loins). The mean intensity of Anisakis larvae in the edible part was 21 individuals for O. gorbuscha, 62 individuals for O. keta and 63 individuals for O. nerka. No difference in the intensity of Anisakis larvae in the hypaxial muscle was found between fresh-caught and immediately gutted salmon and individuals stored ungutted for 24 h either on ice or in refrigerated sea water. © Inter-Research 2011.

Gertz C.,Maxfry GmbH | Aladedunye F.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food | Matthaus B.,Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2014

In the present work a fast and reliable laboratory protocol allowing a holistic statement about thermo-oxidative structural changes of fats and oils at ambient temperatures, under accelerated conditions using 110°C and under elevated temperature usually used for frying at 170°C is proposed. The results demonstrate that two different routes of degradation may be responsible for fat deterioration at elevated temperatures. Depending on the temperature (at 20, 110, or 170°C) the composition of polar compounds changed. The content of di- and polymerized TAGs increased with time at elevated temperature, e.g., frying whereas the formation of oxidized products dominates at 110°C or lower. These different reaction mechanisms may explain the discrepancy between practical experiences during frying and the estimated oxidative resistance of fats and oils using accelerated tests like Rancimat or OSI. Practical applications: Both the amount of total oxidized monomeric TAGs called total oxidized products (TOP) and the amount of di- and polymerized TAGs (DPTG) can be used to describe the fat degradation at all stages. These parameters are less dependent on the fat composition but proportional to the heating time and applied temperature. A procedure is proposed to compare thermal and oxidative stability of vegetable oils and effectiveness of oxidative stabilizing agents. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

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