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Danicke S.,Federal Research Institute for Animal Health
Mycotoxin research | Year: 2012

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a control diet (CON, 0.25 mg DON/kg diet) or a Fusarium toxin-contaminated diet (FUS, 4.49 mg DON/kg diet) without and with humic substances (HS) (CON-HS and FUS-HS, 0.23 and 4.56 mg DON/kg diet, respectively) on piglets during a 5-week growth trial starting after weaning (6.7 ± 0.9 kg live weight, n = 20/group). Feed intake was significantly reduced by feeding the FUS containing diets by approximately 21% compared with the CON diet irrespective of HS supplementation. The decrease in live weight gain paralleled the feed intake depression and amounted to approximately 26%. Feeding the FUS diet was clearly reflected by the DON levels in blood. While only traces of DON with median concentrations of 3 ng/ml (2-5 ng/ml) and 2 ng/ml (0-3 ng/ml) were detected in piglets fed the CON and CON-HS diets, respectively, significantly higher levels of 22.5 ng/ml (7-30 ng/ml) and 23.5 ng/ml (15-32 ng/ml) were found in piglets fed the FUS and FUS-HS diet, respectively. The urinary excretion of DON and its metabolite de-epoxy-DON as percentage of DON intake was not significantly influenced by HS supplementation and amounted to 24.1 and 20.2% for groups FUS and FUS-HS, respectively. In conclusion, the tested HS preparation cannot be recommended as a DON inactivating feed supplement for pigs.

Future livestock production is likely to be affected by both rising ambient temperatures and indirect effects mediated by modified growth conditions of feed plants such as increased atmospheric CO2 concentrations and drought. Corn was grown at elevated CO2 concentrations of 550 ppm and drought stress using free air carbon dioxide enrichment technology. Whole plant silages were generated and fed to sheep kept at three climatic treatments. Differential blood count was performed. Plasma DON and de-epoxy-DON concentration were measured. Warmer environment increased rectal and skin temperatures and respiration rates (p < 0.001 each) but did not affect blood parameters and the almost complete metabolization of DON into de-epoxy-DON. Altered growth conditions of the corn fed did not have single effects on sheep body temperature measures and differential blood count. Though the thermoregulatory activity of sheep was influenced by the thermal environment, the investigated cultivation factors did not indicate considerable impacts on the analysed parameters.

Danicke S.,Federal Research Institute for Animal Health
Mycotoxin research | Year: 2012

Both hydrothermal treatment and wet preservation of mainly deoxynivalenol (DON)-containing, Fusarium toxin (FUS)-contaminated cereal grains with sodium metabisulfite (Na2S2O5 [SBS]) were successfully demonstrated to reduce the DON contamination through formation of the sulfonated derivative of DON, termed as DON sulfonate (DONS). The wet preservation is particularly interesting from a practical viewpoint as it can be easily performed at the farm level where the cereal grains are harvested and utilized in pig feeding. This review compiles the literature with regard to the chemical characterization and the detection of DONS, technical procedures and their efficacies, toxicological aspects and toxic effects of DON, DONS and SBS, and detection of DONS, DON and further metabolites in physiological specimens of pigs.

Herrmann K.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Engst W.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Meinl W.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | Florian S.,German Institute of Human Nutrition | And 8 more authors.
Carcinogenesis | Year: 2014

Methyleugenol-a natural constituent of herbs and spices-is hepatocarcinogenic in rodent models. It can form DNA adducts after side-chain hydroxylation and sulfation. We previously demonstrated that human sulfotransferases (SULTs) 1A1 and 1A2 as well as mouse Sult1a1, expressed in Salmonella target strains, are able to activate 1′-hydroxymethyleugenol (1′-OH-ME) and 3′-hydroxymethylisoeugenol (3′-OH-MIE) to mutagens. Now we investigated the role of these enzymes in the formation of hepatic DNA adducts by methyleugenol in the mouse in vivo. We used FVB/N mice [wild-type (wt)] and genetically modified strains in this background: Sult1a1 knockout (ko), transgenic for human SULT1A1/2 (tg) and the combination of both modifications (ko-tg). Methyleugenol (50mg/kg body mass) formed 23, 735, 3770 and 4500 N2-(trans-methylisoeugenol-3′-yl)-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts per 108 2′-deoxyribonucleosides (dN) in ko, wt, ko-tg and tg mice, respectively. The corresponding values for an equimolar dose of 1′-OH-ME were 12, 1490, 12 400 and 13 300 per 108 dN. Similar relative levels were observed for the minor adduct, N6-(trans-methylisoeugenol-3′-yl)-2′-deoxyadenosine. Thus, the adduct formation by both compounds was nearly completely dependent on the presence of SULT1A enzymes, with human SULT1A1/2 producing stronger effects than mouse Sult1a1. Moreover, a dose of 0.05mg/kg methyleugenol (one-fourth of the estimated average daily exposure of humans) was sufficient to form detectable adducts in humanized (ko-tg) mice. Although 3′-OH-MIE was equally mutagenic to 1′-OH-ME in Salmonella strains expressing human SULT1A1 or 1A2, it only formed 0.14% of hepatic adducts in ko-tg mice compared with an equimolar dose of 1′-OH-ME, suggesting an important role of detoxifying pathways for this isomer in vivo. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

Yousaf M.N.,University of Nordland | Skjodt K.,University of Southern Denmark | Kollner B.,Federal Research Institute for Animal Health | Hordvik I.,University of Bergen | And 3 more authors.
Fish and Shellfish Immunology | Year: 2012

Heart and skeletal muscle inflammation (HSMI) is a disease of marine farmed Atlantic salmon where the pathological changes associated with the disease involve necrosis and an infiltration of inflammatory cells into different regions of the heart and skeletal muscle. The aim of this work was to characterize cardiac changes and inflammatory cell types associated with a clinical HSMI outbreak in Atlantic salmon using immunohistochemistry. Different immune cells and cardiac tissue responses associated with the disease were identified using different markers. The spectrum of inflammatory cells associated with the cardiac pathology consisted of mainly CD3 + T lymphocytes, moderate numbers of macrophages and eosinophilic granulocytes. Proliferative cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) immuno-reaction identified significantly increased nuclear and cytoplasmic staining as well as identifying hypertrophic nuclei. Strong immunostaining was observed for major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II in HSMI hearts. Although low in number, a few positive cells in diseased hearts were detected using the mature myeloid cell line granulocytes/monocytes antibody indicating more positive cells in diseased than non-diseased hearts. The recombinant tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) antibody identified stained macrophage-like cells and endothelial cells around lesions in addition to eosinophilic granular cells (EGCs). These findings suggested that the inflammatory response in diseased hearts comprised of mostly CD3 + T lymphocytes and eosinophilic granular cells and hearts exhibited high cell turnover where DNA damage/repair might be the case (as identified by PCNA, caspase 3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick-end labeling (TUNEL) reactivity). © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

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