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Riaz S.,University College London | Riaz S.,University of Punjab | Alam S.S.,Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute | Srai S.K.,University College London | And 3 more authors.
Diabetes Technology and Therapeutics | Year: 2010

Background: During the proteomic era, one of the most rapidly growing areas in biomedical research is biomarker discovery, particularly using proteomic technologies. The urinary proteome is known to be a valuable field of study and has become one of the most attractive subdisciplines in clinical proteomics for human diseases. We have described the levels of protein biomarkers specific to diabetes mellitus type 2 in the Pakistani population using proteomic technology. Methods: One hundred type 2 diabetes patients with 50 age- and sex-matched normal healthy controls were recruited from Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Urinary proteins were analyzed by two-dimensional liquid chromatography, using chromatofocusing in the first dimension and reverse-phase chromatography in the second, followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Levels of the proteins, which were found to vary in the diabetes type 2 patients compared to the controls, were then determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in all the samples. Results: Levels of transthyretin, α-1-microglobulin/ bikunin precursor, and haptoglobin precursor decreased by 30.8%, 55.2%, and 81.45%, whereas levels of albumin, zinc α2 glycoprotein, retinol binding protein 4, and E-cadherin increased by 486.5%, 29.23%, 100%, and 693%, respectively, in the diabetes patients compared to the controls. Conclusions: Variation in the levels of these identified protein biomarkers have been reported in other pathological states. Assessment of the levels of these biomarkers will be helpful not only in early diagnosis but also in prognosis of diabetes mellitus type 2. Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. Source

Ahmad N.M.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Ali S.J.,National University of Sciences and Technology | Saqib M.,Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute
Journal of Polymer Science, Part A: Polymer Chemistry | Year: 2012

Layer-by-layer SAMU thin films of azo dye molecules and PEL exhibited two distinct absorbance maxima in visible and UV regions. This is attributed to the assumption that a fraction of the dye adsorbed as the monomeric form yields a visible peak, while the additional fraction of the oligomeric H-type aggregated form also appeared in the UV region. The UV peak, however, disappeared in films fabricated from salt solution to demonstrate suppression of aggregates and the stimuli-responsive effect. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Humayun A.,Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute | Imran N.,King Edward Medical University | Humayun N.,Akhtar Saeed Medical and Dental College
Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal | Year: 2013

Mental health is an important but neglected component of reproductive health. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and risk factors for antenatal depression among women attending for antenatal care at an urban tertiary care hospital in Lahore, Pakistan. In a cross-sectional study, structured questionnaires were filled and screening for depression was done using the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale (EPDS). Out of 506 antenatal attendees 126 (24.9%) had no depression (EPDS scores < 10), 53 (10.5%) scored 10-12 and 327 (64.6%) had EPDS scores > 12. Depression scores (≥ 10) were more common in mothers aged < 20 years (93.7%) than those aged > 35 years (55.0%). Fear of childbirth and separation from husband were identified as significant risk factors for development of antenatal depression, while family history of psychiatric illness was significant protective factor. Domestic violence, drug abuse, lack of support, previous miscarriage and personal history of previous psychiatric illness were not found to be significant risk factors. Source

Riaz S.,University of Punjab | Alam S.S.,Federal Postgraduate Medical Institute | Akhtar M.W.,University of Punjab
Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis | Year: 2010

Discovery of protein biomarkers in different diseases is an important area of research in the field of proteomics. We have described the levels of protein biomarkers specific to diabetes mellitus type 2 in the local population of Pakistan using proteomic technology. Type 2 diabetic patients, age and sex-matched normal healthy controls were recruited from Sheikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. Plasma proteins were analysed by 2D liquid chromatographic system in which samples were initially fractionated by chromatofocusing and the selected fractions were further analysed by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography. The proteins which showed variation between test and control samples were identified by MALDI-TOF analysis. All the samples belonging to the control and diabetic groups were then analyzed by ELISA and estimated four proteins which were found to vary. Levels of apolipoprotein A-I was found to decrease by -6.4% while apolipoprotein E, leptin and C reactive protein (CRP) were increased by +802, +842 and +872%, respectively, in the diabetic patients as compared to the controls. The discovery of these marker proteins might thus provide an adjunctive method for early detection of risk for this disease. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Haque M.A.,University of Heidelberg | Haque M.A.,University of Dhaka | Yamamoto S.S.,University of Heidelberg | Malik A.A.,University of Heidelberg | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Health: A Global Access Science Source | Year: 2012

Background: Bangladesh has been identified as one of the most vulnerable countries in the world concerning the adverse effects of climate change (CC). However, little is known about the perception of CC from the community, which is important for developing adaptation strategies. Methods. The study was a cross-sectional survey of respondents from two villages - one from the northern part and the other from the southern part of Bangladesh. A total of 450 households were selected randomly through multistage sampling completed a semi-structure questionnaire. This was supplemented with 12 focus group discussions (FGDs) and 15 key informant interviews (KIIs). Results: Over 95 percent of the respondents reported that the heat during the summers had increased and 80.2 percent reported that rainfall had decreased, compared to their previous experiences. Approximately 65 percent reported that winters were warmer than in previous years but they still experienced very erratic and severe cold during the winter for about 5-7 days, which restricted their activities with very destructive effect on agricultural production, everyday life and the health of people. FGDs and KIIs also reported that overall winters were warmer. Eighty point two percent, 72.5 percent and 54.7 percent survey respondents perceived that the frequency of water, heat and cold related diseases/health problems, respectively, had increased compared to five to ten years ago. FGDs and KIIs respondents were also reported the same. Conclusions: Respondents had clear perceptions about changes in heat, cold and rainfall that had occurred over the last five to ten years. Local perceptions of climate variability (CV) included increased heat, overall warmer winters, reduced rainfall and fewer floods. The effects of CV were mostly negative in terms of means of living, human health, agriculture and overall livelihoods. Most local perceptions on CV are consistent with the evidence regarding the vulnerability of Bangladesh to CC. Such findings can be used to formulate appropriate sector programs and interventions. The systematic collection of such information will allow scientists, researchers and policy makers to design and implement appropriate adaptation strategies for CC in countries that are especially vulnerable. © 2012 Haque et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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