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La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland

Thovert J.-F.,Institute Pprime | Mourzenko V.V.,Institute Pprime | Adler P.M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Nussbaum C.,Federal Office of Topography | Pinettes P.,University of Nimes
Engineering Geology | Year: 2011

This paper deals with the reconstruction of a fracture network observed in an underground gallery of a tunnel buried in clay stones in Switzerland, below Mont Terri. The trace maps of the Gallery 04 and of the EZ-G niche of this site have first been digitized and used in various ways to characterize the data. The traces have been divided into two groups, i.e., the pre-existing faults in the gallery and the fractures of the excavated damaged zone (EDZ) in the niche. Each group has been analyzed individually. The number of data for the faults has turned out to be statistically significant, while it was very limited for the EDZ fractures. For both cases, the major statistical characteristics of the traces have been extracted and a reconstruction procedure developed and tested. A full example has been worked out; a gallery immersed in a reconstructed fractured porous medium has been meshed, and the electrical field created by a dipole at the wall calculated by solving the three dimensional Laplace equations in the fractures and in the porous medium. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

Meindl M.,ETH Zurich | Beutler G.,University of Bern | Thaller D.,Bundesamt fur Kartographie und Geodasie | Dach R.,University of Bern | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2014

Meindl et al. (Adv Space Res 51(7):1047–1064, 2013) showed that the geocenter (Formula presented.)-component estimated from observations of global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) is strongly correlated to a particular parameter of the solar radiation pressure (SRP) model developed by Beutler et al. (Manuscr Geod 19:367–386, 1994). They analyzed the forces caused by SRP and the impact on the satellites’ orbits. The authors achieved their results using perturbation theory and celestial mechanics. Rebischung et al. (J Geod doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.10.026, 2013) also deal with the geocenter determination with GNSS. The authors carried out a collinearity diagnosis of the associated parameter estimation problem. They conclude “without much exaggerating that current GNSS are insensitive to any component of geocenter motion”. They explain this inability by the high degree of collinearity of the geocenter coordinates mainly with satellite clock corrections. Based on these results and additional experiments, they state that the conclusions drawn by Meindl et al. (Adv Space Res 51(7):1047–1064, 2013) are questionable. We do not agree with these conclusions and present our arguments in this article. In the first part, we review and highlight the main characteristics of the studies performed by Meindl et al. (Adv Space Res 51(7):1047–1064, 2013) to show that the experiments are quite different from those performed by Rebischung et al. (J Geod doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.10.026, 2013). In the second part, we show that normal equation (NEQ) systems are regular when estimating geocenter coordinates, implying that the covariance matrices associated with the NEQ systems may be used to assess the sensitivity to geocenter coordinates in a standard way. The sensitivity of GNSS to the components of the geocenter is discussed. Finally, we comment on the arguments raised by Rebischung et al. (J Geod doi:10.1016/j.asr.2012.10.026, 2013) against the results of Meindl et al. (Adv Space Res 51(7):1047–1064, 2013). © 2014, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

Arnold D.,University of Bern | Meindl M.,ETH Zurich | Beutler G.,University of Bern | Dach R.,University of Bern | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Geodesy | Year: 2015

The Empirical CODE Orbit Model (ECOM) of the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE), which was developed in the early 1990s, is widely used in the International GNSS Service (IGS) community. For a rather long time, spurious spectral lines are known to exist in geophysical parameters, in particular in the Earth Rotation Parameters (ERPs) and in the estimated geocenter coordinates, which could recently be attributed to the ECOM. These effects grew creepingly with the increasing influence of the GLONASS system in recent years in the CODE analysis, which is based on a rigorous combination of GPS and GLONASS since May 2003. In a first step we show that the problems associated with the ECOM are to the largest extent caused by the GLONASS, which was reaching full deployment by the end of 2011. GPS-only, GLONASS-only, and combined GPS/GLONASS solutions using the observations in the years 2009–2011 of a global network of 92 combined GPS/GLONASS receivers were analyzed for this purpose. In a second step we review direct solar radiation pressure (SRP) models for GNSS satellites. We demonstrate that only even-order short-period harmonic perturbations acting along the direction Sun-satellite occur for GPS and GLONASS satellites, and only odd-order perturbations acting along the direction perpendicular to both, the vector Sun-satellite and the spacecraft’s solar panel axis. Based on this insight we assess in the third step the performance of four candidate orbit models for the future ECOM. The geocenter coordinates, the ERP differences w. r. t. the IERS 08 C04 series of ERPs, the misclosures for the midnight epochs of the daily orbital arcs, and scale parameters of Helmert transformations for station coordinates serve as quality criteria. The old and updated ECOM are validated in addition with satellite laser ranging (SLR) observations and by comparing the orbits to those of the IGS and other analysis centers. Based on all tests, we present a new extended ECOM which substantially reduces the spurious signals in the geocenter coordinate $$z$$z (by about a factor of 2–6), reduces the orbit misclosures at the day boundaries by about 10 %, slightly improves the consistency of the estimated ERPs with those of the IERS 08 C04 Earth rotation series, and substantially reduces the systematics in the SLR validation of the GNSS orbits. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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