Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg

Fribourg, Switzerland

Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg

Fribourg, Switzerland
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Baldauf T.,Institute for Advanced Study | Mercolli L.,Princeton University | Mercolli L.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg | Zaldarriaga M.,Institute for Advanced Study
Physical Review D - Particles, Fields, Gravitation and Cosmology | Year: 2015

We study the effective field theory (EFT) of large-scale structure for cosmic density and momentum fields. We show that the finite part of the two-loop calculation and its counterterms introduces an apparent scale dependence for the leading-order parameter cs2 of the EFT starting at k=0.1 hMpc-1. These terms limit the range over which one can trust the one-loop EFT calculation at the 1% level to k<0.1 hMpc-1 at redshift z=0. We construct a well-motivated one-parameter ansatz to fix the relative size of the one- and two-loop counterterms using their high-k sensitivity. Although this one-parameter model is a very restrictive choice for the counterterms, it explains the apparent scale dependence of cs2 seen in simulations. It is also able to capture the scale dependence of the density power spectrum up to k≈0.3 hMpc-1 at the 1% level at redshift z=0. Considering a simple scheme for the resummation of large-scale motions, we find that the two-loop calculation reduces the need for this IR resummation at k<0.2 hMpc-1. Finally, we extend our calculation to momentum statistics and show that the same one-parameter model can also describe density-momentum and momentum-momentum statistics. © 2015 American Physical Society.

Backus L.I.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg | Backus L.I.,Veterans Affairs Palo Alto Health Care System | Belperio P.S.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg | Shahoumian T.A.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg | And 2 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2015

Background Real-world effectiveness data are needed to inform hepatitis C virus (HCV) treatment decisions. Aim To assess sustained virological response (SVR) of sofosbuvir (SOF)-based regimens in routine medical practice. Methods Observational, intent-to-treat cohort analysis of genotype 1 and 2 HCV-infected veterans initiating SOF-based regimens with recommended treatment duration of 12 weeks. Results Four thousand and twenty-six veterans with genotype 1 (N = 3203) and genotype 2 (N = 823) comprise the cohort. SVR rates for genotype 1 were 66.8% for SOF + peginterferon + ribavirin (RBV), 75.3% for SOF + simeprevir (SIM), 74.1% for SOF + SIM + RBV and for genotype 2 were 79.0% for SOF + RBV. Genotype 1 patients were less likely to achieve SVR with BMI ≥30 (OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.49-0.84, P < 0.001), a history of decompensated liver disease (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.36-0.71, P < 0.001), treatment experience (OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.48-0.71, P < 0.001), APRI >2 (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.36-0.55, P < 0.001) and with SOF + PEG + RBV compared with SOF + SIM (OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.40-0.62, P < 0.001). Age, sex, race/ethnicity, diabetes and genotype subtype did not predict SVR. Odds of achieving SVR with SOF + SIM + RBV did not differ compared with SOF + SIM (OR 1.03, 95% CI 0.75-1.44, P = 0.86). Genotype 2 patients were less likely to achieve SVR with prior treatment experience (OR 0.55, 95% CI 0.35-0.88, P = 0.009) and APRI >2 (OR 0.39, 95% CI 0.25-0.62, P < 0.001). Conclusions In this real-world cohort, SVR rates were lower than in clinical trials. Genotype 1 and 2 HCV-infected patients with advanced liver disease by APRI >2 or FIB-4 > 3.25 were significantly less likely to achieve SVR. For genotype 1, a SOF + SIM ± RBV regimen was associated with a higher likelihood of SVR. © Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

Thomas Y.,University of Geneva | Boquete-Suter P.,University of Geneva | Koch D.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg | Pittet D.,University of Geneva | Kaiser L.,University of Geneva
Clinical Microbiology and Infection | Year: 2014

Indirect transmission of the influenza virus via finger contamination with respiratory mucus droplets has been hypothesized to contribute to transmission in the community. Under laboratory conditions, influenza-infected respiratory droplets were reconstituted as close as possible to natural conditions. We investigated experimentally the survival of influenza A (H3N2) and A (H1N1)pdm09 viruses on human fingers. Infectious virus was easily recoverable on all fingers 1 min after fingertip contamination but then decreased very rapidly. After 30 min, infectious virus was detectable in only a small minority of subjects. Infectious viruses were detected for a longer period of time when droplets of larger size containing a higher number of particles were tested or when the viral concentration increased. A rapid decrease in infectiousness was observed when droplet integrity was disrupted. Our findings could help to set up the promotion of hand hygiene to prevent influenza hand contamination. © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

Otto J.L.,Henry M. Jackson Foundation for the Advancement of Military Medicine, Inc | Holodniy M.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg | DeFraites R.F.,Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences
American Journal of Public Health | Year: 2014

Scientific and clinical activities undertaken by public health agencies may be misconstrued asmedical research. Most discussions of regulatory and legal oversight of medical research focus on activities involving either patients in clinical practice or volunteers in clinical trials. These discussions often exclude similar activities that constitute or support core functions of public health practice. As a result, public health agencies and practitioners may be held to inappropriate regulatory standards regarding research. Through the lens of the Departments of Defense and Veterans Affairs, and using several case studies from these departments, we offer a framework for the adjudication of activities common to research and public health practice that could assist public health practitioners, research oversight authorities, and scientific journals in determining whether such activities require regulatory review and approval as research.

Bruggmann P.,Arud Centres for Addiction Medicine | Richard J.-L.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg
European Journal of Public Health | Year: 2015

Data of the national hepatitis C virus (HCV) notification system and the Swiss hepatitis C cohort study have been analysed for birth year distribution. Persons born between 1955 and 1974 are disproportionally affected by HCV, accounting for 61% of all reported infections. Over the course of the reporting period from 1988 to 2012, the majority of affected persons were born in the mid-60s and a sharply increasing proportion between 1975 and 1984 (from 0.6 to 19.5%). To enhance the so far insufficient HCV detection rates in Switzerland, additional testing strategies such as birth cohort screening must be further evaluated and discussed. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

Kamali A.,Stanford University | Holodniy M.,Stanford University | Holodniy M.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg
Infection and Drug Resistance | Year: 2013

Influenza virus is a pathogen that causes morbidity and mortality worldwide. Whereas vaccination is important for prevention of disease, given its limitations, antiviral therapy is at the forefront of treatment and also plays a role in prevention. Currently, two classes of antiviral medications, the adamantanes and the neuraminidase inhibitors, are approved for treatment. Given the resistance patterns of circulating influenza, adamantanes are not recommended. Within the US, two neuraminidase inhibitors are currently approved for both treatment and prevention, while worldwide there are four available. In this review, we will briefly discuss the epidemiology and pathology of influenza and then discuss neuraminidase inhibitors: their mechanism of action, resistance, development, and future applications. © 2013 Kamali and Holodniy.

The Commission Fédérale pour les Vaccinations (CFV; Federal Vaccination Commission), the Swiss National Immunization Technical Advisory Group (NITAG), was established in 2004 and is comprised of 15 core members and a few ex officio members. Its role is to serve as a scientific advisor to the authorities in making vaccination recommendations, and to act as a mediator between the authorities, experts, and the public on questions concerning vaccinations. The CFV requires all members to describe in detail any potential conflicts of interest. The CFV meets approximately five times per year, and the meetings' scope covers all questions concerning immunization. Economic considerations are taken into account when formulating recommendations. The committee disseminates data and information about its activities to the medical profession and the public using press releases, publications, factsheets and a website. Increasing public fears about adverse effects from vaccines has resulted in vaccinations being delayed or not given at all. Swiss health authorities consider it of great importance to clearly explain how their recommendations are made and how the CFV is crucial in this process. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Heininger U.,University of Basel | Weibel D.,University of Basel | Richard J.-L.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg
Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND:: Frequency of pertussis is highly variable from country to country and it depends on multiple factors including case definitions and type of surveillance systems used. Many countries recently reported an increase of pertussis cases especially in infants and adolescents. METHODS:: From April 2006 to March 2011, 15-year-old patients hospitalized with suspected or proven pertussis were reported to the Swiss Pediatric Surveillance Unit. Patients with ≥14 days of cough plus paroxysms, whooping or post-tussive vomiting fulfilled the clinical case definition of pertussis. For laboratory confirmation, Bordetella pertussis polymerase chain reaction was offered free of charge. RESULTS:: Data were available from 159 of 173 reported cases and 130 (90% of them <12 months old) were eligible including 125 laboratory-confirmed B. pertussis infections. Rates per 100,000 population were 2.6 (<16 years) and 38.8 (<12 months), respectively. Most frequent complications were cyanosis (63%) and sleep disturbance (60%); 35 (27%) patients received intensive care and 1 patient died. Source of infection was known in 79 (61%) patients and was mainly a sibling, parent or both. Most patients were unimmunized (65%) or incompletely immunized (30%). CONCLUSIONS:: The high rate of pertussis hospitalization in young infants established in this surveillance project and the incomplete pertussis immunization status in almost all hospitalized patients require further efforts for improvement. In addition, introduction of pertussis immunizations for all adolescents (in 2013), young adults (in 2012) and pregnant women (in 2013) in Switzerland should increase indirect protection of vulnerable newborns and infants too young to be fully immunized. Copyright © 2013 by Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Schmid H.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg | Baumgartner A.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg
Swiss Medical Weekly | Year: 2013

QUESTIONS UNDER STUDY: To describe the current epidemiological situation of enteric salmonellosis in Switzerland and its development in the last two decades, particularly by determining the ratio between domestic and travel-associated cases. METHODS: Between 1 February 2011 and 31 January 2012, 14 medical laboratories continuously reported their isolations of enteric salmonellae to the Federal Office of Public Health (FOPH). Data on the travel history of salmonellosis patients was actively acquired from their treating physicians. These data were compared with the results of a case-control study on sporadic salmonellosis that was performed in 1993. RESULTS: It could be shown that, concomitantly with the pronounced decline in incidence of reported laboratory notifications of enteric salmonellae since the early 1990s, the travel-associated portion of isolates belonging to the most frequently isolated serovar Enteritidis has increased significantly (more than doubled). The three serovars that followed S. Enteritidis in frequency of isolation (Typhimurium, Bardo, monophasic 4,12:i:-) are predominantly of domestic origin. CONCLUSIONS: The significant increase in the percentage of travel-related S. Enteritidis infection, demonstrated by the comparison between the data from 2012 and 1993, might be a consequence of the reduction in domestic infections during this period. The fact that infections due to this serovar are now significantly more often travel-related than domestic clearly illustrates the success of the preventive measures taken. These consist of legal measures that were necessary to reduce the transmission of the pathogen in raw eggs, and sanitation measures taken by the producers that aimed to contain the chicken meat reservoir.

Baumgartner A.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg | Felleisen R.,Federal office of Public Health of Fribourg
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2011

From April 2009 to April 2010, 1,132 samples of different types of chicken meat were tested qualitatively and quantitatively for thermotolerant campylobacters. Samples were recovered at retail in shops from the entire territory of Switzerland and comprised imported meat and meat from domestic production. The meat categories covered by the study were refrigerated and frozen meat, meat with and without skin, and meat preparations. Overall, 38.4% of the samples were positive, and in 27.8%, Campylobacter bacteria could be quantified. Counts ranged from ≥10 to <10 4 CFU/g with a maximum value of 8 ×10 3 CFU/g in a sample of refrigerated chicken meat with skin. The contamination frequencies were 45.2% in meat with skin, 40.8% in meat without skin, and 27.4% in meat preparations. Refrigerated meat was contaminated with Campylobacter bacteria more often than frozen meat (53.9 versus 20.0%). The study also showed considerable differences between the contamination rates found for samples from different large retail chains. In 2010, a further study with 120 samples of refrigerated and sliced chicken meat and fresh chicken liver was carried out in order to test a possible seasonal variation of the occurrence of Campylobacter bacteria. The contamination frequency of sliced meat increased from 10.0% in the period from February to March to 36.7% during July to August. In both sampling periods, the counts remained in the range of ≥10 to <100 CFU/g with a maximum value of 30 CFU/g. For chicken liver, a 10.0% contamination rate was observed in the period from December to January, which rose to 100% in the period from August to October. Contrary to the results for sliced meat, not only did the frequency of contamination increase but so did the Campylobacter counts, with the highest recorded value being 2.2 × 10 4 CFU/g. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.

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