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Broeders S.,Scientific Institute of Public Health WIV ISP | Huber I.,Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority LGL | Grohmann L.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | Berben G.,Walloon Agricultural Research Center | And 5 more authors.
Trends in Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

As for many areas of molecular testing, detection of Genetically Modified Organisms (GMO) relies on the real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) technology. Due to the increasing number of GMO, a screening approach using qualitative screening methods has become an integrated part of GMO detection. However, specific guidelines for the validation of these methods are lacking. Here, a pragmatic approach to conduct in-house and inter-laboratory validation studies for GMO screening methods, is proposed. Such guidelines could be adapted to other areas where qualitative qPCR methods are used for molecular testing allowing to implement easily a more reliable screening phase where necessary. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.


Bereswill R.,University of Koblenz-Landau | Golla B.,Julius Kuhn Institute | Streloke M.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | Schulz R.,University of Koblenz-Landau
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2012

The present study was performed to characterise in-stream pesticide exposure within the Palatinate vineyard region in south-west Germany, evaluate the influence of buffer strip widths and identify mitigation measures for the relevant entry pathways. In-stream water and sediment samples that were taken at nine sampling sites of different buffer widths following intense rainfall, and edge-of-field runoff that were sampled in erosion rills were analysed regarding 28 active ingredients of pesticides including copper. In-stream samples contained a mix of 8±4 pesticide compounds, resulting in total pesticide concentrations of 1.4-8.9μgl -1 for water and 16-670μgkg -1dw for sediment. Following an exceptional rainfall event with a previous 34-day drought period, pesticide concentrations reached 7.0-83.4μgl -1. Fungicides were the most important pesticides found and were significantly correlated with the pesticide application frequency and rate. The calculated toxicity values per sample (TU max) indicated that both organic pesticides and copper concentrations likely cause ecotoxicological effects in the field. The buffer strip width was of little importance for pesticide in-stream concentrations because pesticide entry occurred mainly via the field path network and erosion rills. Pesticide in-stream concentrations were significantly and positively correlated with the concentrations detected in erosion rills (R 2=0.56). As possible risk mitigation measures, we suggest the implementation of grassed field paths and vegetated ditches or wetlands. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.


Sanvido O.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon | Romeis J.,ART Agroscope Reckenholz Tänikon | Gathmann A.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | Gielkens M.,National Institute for Public Health and the Environment RIVM | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2012

European risk managers currently face substantial difficulty in evaluating the risks of genetically modified (GM) crops for biodiversity. This difficulty is not primarily due to a lack of scientific data (the data are abundant) but rather to a lack of clear criteria for determining what represents environmental harm. Establishing criteria that define harm is not a scientific process but a process of analysing and implementing policy requirements, and policy-makers and regulatory authorities need to define what is to be regarded harmful based on existing legislation. This process is a necessary pre-condition for the environmental risk assessment of GM crops. The present paper proposes a systematic approach on how harm can be explicitly and operationally defined for decision-making. Most legal frameworks require the protection of the environment or more specifically of biodiversity from harm. It follows that the first step in defining harm should be the characterisation of protection goals; protection goals are those valued environmental resources that should not be harmed by GM crop cultivation or by any other agricultural practice. In a second step, one must derive scientifically measurable entities (so-called assessment endpoints) on the basis of the protection goals. Such endpoints are required for regulatory decision-making because they specify what deserves protection. They furthermore allow quantifiable predictions of adverse changes during environmental risk assessment. Definitions of harm also require decisions on which environmental changes should be regarded as relevant and thus represent unacceptable harm. Using a case study comparing different effects of various pest management practices, the current paper proposes an approach that differentiates between intended effects that are acceptable and harmful unintended effects. By making explicit the assumptions underlying policy choices, the ecological criteria proposed here may result in a better and more transparent evaluation of the probability of harm to biodiversity due to the cultivation of GM crops. The paper can help risk managers improve decision-making by providing methods for deriving operational decision-making criteria from policy objectives. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Schink A.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Kadlec K.,Institute of Farm Animal Genetics | Kaspar H.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | Mankertz J.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | Schwarz S.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL
Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy | Year: 2013

Objectives: The aims of this study were (i) to detect extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) genes among 1378 Escherichia coli isolates from defined disease conditions of companion and farm animals and (ii) to determine the localization and organization of ESBL genes. Methods: E. coli isolates from the German resistance monitoring programme GERM-Vet were included in the study. Plasmids were transferred by conjugation or transformation and typed by PCR-based replicon typing. ESBL genes were detected by PCR; the complete ESBL genes and their flanking regions were sequenced by primer walking. Phylogenetic grouping and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) were performed for all ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. Results: Of the 27 ESBL-producing E. coli isolates detected, 22 carried TX-M-1 genes on IncN (n1/416), IncF (n1/43), IncI1 (n1/42) or multireplicon (n1/41) plasmids. A TX-M-3 gene was located on an IncN plasmid and a blaCTX-M-15gene was located on an IncF plasmid. A multireplicon plasmid and an IncHI1 plasmid harboured TX-M-2. A blaTEM-52c gene was identified within Tn2 on an IncI1 plasmid. The TX-M genes located within the same or related genetic contexts showed differences due to the integration of insertion sequences. Various MLST types were detected, with ST10 (n1/47), ST167 (n1/44) and ST100 (n1/43) being the most common. Conclusions: This study showed that the blaCTX-M-1 gene is the predominant ESBL gene among E. coli isolates from diseased animals in Germany and a considerable structural heterogeneity was found in the regions flanking the blaCTX-M-1 gene. Insertion sequences, transposons and recombination events are likely to be involved in alterations of the ESBL gene regions. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.


Gathmann A.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | Priesnitz K.U.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL
Environmental Evidence | Year: 2014

Background: Lepidopteran and coleopteran species are the most important pests in maize. They can be controlled using genetically modified crops expressing insecticidal Bt-proteins. The long term success of this technology demands a pest resistance management. Important information for a successful management of resistance is the baseline susceptibility of the different targeted pests towards the different Bt-proteins. The data on baseline susceptibility should enable risk assessors and managers to assess whether a) Bt-maize events represent a high-dose to specific target organisms, b) resistance has developed while monitoring the commercial introduction of Bt-maize events and c) potential knowledge gaps can be identified. Methods: This protocol describes our suggested methods for conducting a systematic review to give an overview of the European target pests in maize and their susceptibility to insecticidal Bt-proteins. Both published and unpublished data shall be collated. Different sources of information will be searched in order to maximize the coverage of the search. All identified publications will be stored in a database. Relevant information for the review will be identified in a three step approach based on inclusion criteria. This data set will be an important basis to model and assess the potential for evolution of resistance of different crop-Bt-protein-species combinations. © 2014 Gathmann and Priesnitz; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Cheung C.Y.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | Luber P.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL
Journal fur Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit | Year: 2016

Often, food-borne outbreaks cannot be clarified. One reason for this is that foods are no more available for testing once the outbreak is detected. Specifically, this can be the case for foods with a short shelf-life, such as plant foods. Moreover, sometimes the food matrix leads to performance failures of laboratory methods. In such situations, investigational tracing can be the key to outbreak clarification. The analysis of food flows in supply chains can display epidemiological correlations, show the extent of events and may allow rapid outbreak containment. This article presents three examples of outbreaks where the causative agent and/or the transmitting vehicle were unknown. Batch-precise traceability studies first helped to narrow down the list of questionable foods and later to identify the causative vehicles and their sources. Investigational tracing of food flows is a powerful tool for rapid outbreak clarification and specifically helpful for causative foods that are easily perishable and/or contaminated with viruses. © 2016 Bundesamt für Verbraucherschutz und Lebensmittelsicherheit (BVL)


Hoppenheit A.,Free University of Berlin | Murugaiyan J.,Free University of Berlin | Bauer B.,Free University of Berlin | Steuber S.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | And 2 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2013

Glossina (G.) spp. (Diptera: Glossinidae), known as tsetse flies, are vectors of African trypanosomes that cause sleeping sickness in humans and nagana in domestic livestock. Knowledge on tsetse distribution and accurate species identification help identify potential vector intervention sites. Morphological species identification of tsetse is challenging and sometimes not accurate. The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) technique, already standardised for microbial identification, could become a standard method for tsetse fly diagnostics. Therefore, a unique spectra reference database was created for five lab-reared species of riverine-, savannah- and forest- type tsetse flies and incorporated with the commercial Biotyper 3.0 database. The standard formic acid/acetonitrile extraction of male and female whole insects and their body parts (head, thorax, abdomen, wings and legs) was used to obtain the flies' proteins. The computed composite correlation index and cluster analysis revealed the suitability of any tsetse body part for a rapid taxonomical identification. Phyloproteomic analysis revealed that the peak patterns of G. brevipalpis differed greatly from the other tsetse. This outcome was comparable to previous theories that they might be considered as a sister group to other tsetse spp. Freshly extracted samples were found to be matched at the species level. However, sex differentiation proved to be less reliable. Similarly processed samples of the common house fly Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae; strain: Lei) did not yield any match with the tsetse reference database. The inclusion of additional strains of morphologically defined wild caught flies of known origin and the availability of large-scale mass spectrometry data could facilitate rapid tsetse species identification in the future. © 2013 Hoppenheit et al.


Danaher M.,Teagasc | Radeck W.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | Kolar L.,Complementarium | Keegan J.,Teagasc | Cerkvenik-Flajs V.,Reziduum
Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology | Year: 2012

A review of the developments on the analysis of residues of avermectins and milbemycins (both macrocyclic lactones) is presented. The macrocyclic lactones (MLs) are an important class of chemicals, which are used worldwide as veterinary drugs and as crop protection agents. As a result, residues of MLs are important from both a food safety and environmental perspective. A review of the developments in ML residues in food was carried out in detail in 2006. As a result, this paper covers recent developments in the area of food analysis, which are mainly multi-residue assays based on liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). A brief coverage of HPLC fluorescence (HPLC-FLD) based methods is included for completeness. The paper will carry out a comprehensive review of ML residues in environmental samples. These additional sections are reflective of the growing number of research papers published on LC-MS/MS and environmental applications in recent years. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers.


Schmidt K.S.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL | Stachel C.S.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2013

A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method allowing the rapid screening and confirmation of ten synthetic corticosteroids in bovine and porcine muscle tissue was developed and validated. The validation was conducted according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, Sect. 3.1.3 ("Validation according to alternative models"), by applying a matrix-comprehensive in-house validation concept. The decision limit, detection capability, recovery, repeatability, within-laboratory- reproducibility and measurement uncertainty were calculated. Furthermore, a factorial effect analysis was conducted to identify factors that have a significant influence on the method. To this end, factors considered to be relevant for the method in routine analysis (e.g. operator, duration of storage of the extracts before measurement, different lots of the cartridges and different species) were systematically varied on two levels during the validation study. Subsequently, the extent to which these factors influence the measurement results of the individual analytes was examined. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Schmidt K.S.,Federal Office of Consumer Protection and Food Safety BVL
Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry | Year: 2014

A sensitive and robust liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method allowing the rapid screening and confirmation of thyreostatic drugs in bovine blood plasma was developed and validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC, chapter 3.1.3 "alternative validation", by applying a matrix-comprehensive in-house validation concept. Decision limit CCα, detection capability CCβ, recovery, repeatability, within-laboratory reproducibility and the uncertainty of measurement were calculated. Furthermore, a factorial effect analysis was carried out to identify factors that have a significant influence on the method. Factors considered to be relevant for the method in routine analysis (e.g. operator, storage duration of the extracts before measurement, different cartridge lots and duration of sample preparation) were systematically varied on two levels during the validation study. Subsequently, the extent to which these factors influence the measurement results of the individual analytes was examined. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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