The Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz is the German Federal Office for Radiation Protection. The BfS was established in November 1989; the headquarters is located in Salzgitter, with branch offices in Berlin, Bonn, Freiburg, Gorleben, Oberschleißheim and Rendsburg. It has 708 employees and an annual budget of around 305 million Euro . Since 2009 the BfS is also responsible for the storage site of radioactive waste, Schacht Asse II. Wikipedia.
Lassmann M.,University of Wurzburg |
Nosske D.,Federal office for Radiation Protection
European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging | Year: 2013
Purpose: 223Ra-Chloride (also called Alpharadin®) targets bone metastases with short range alpha particles. In recent years several clinical trials have been carried out showing, in particular, the safety and efficacy of palliation of painful bone metastases in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer using 223Ra-chloride. The purpose of this work was to provide a comprehensive dosimetric calculation of organ doses after intravenous administration of 223Ra-chloride according to the present International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) model for radium. Methods: Absorbed doses were calculated for 25 organs or tissues. Results: Bone endosteum and red bone marrow show the highest dose coefficients followed by liver, colon and intestines. After a treatment schedule of six intravenous injections with 0.05 MBq/kg of 223Ra-chloride each, corresponding to 21 MBq for a 70 kg patient, the absorbed alpha dose to the bone endosteal cells is about 16 Gy and the corresponding absorbed dose to the red bone marrow is approximately 1.5 Gy. Conclusion: The comprehensive list of dose coefficients presented in this work will assist in comparing and evaluating organ doses from various therapy modalities used in nuclear medicine and will provide a base for further development of patient-specific dosimetry. © 2012 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.
Kirchner G.,Federal office for Radiation Protection
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2011
For aquatic sediments, the use of 210Pb originating from the decay of atmospheric 222Rn is a well-established methodology to estimate sediment ages and sedimentation rates. Traditionally, the measurement of 210Pb in soils and sediments involved laborious and time-consuming radiochemical separation procedures. Due to the recent development of advanced planar ('n-type') semi-conductors with high efficiencies in the low-energy range which enable the gamma-spectrometric analysis of the 46.5 keV decay line of 210Pb, sediment dating using this radionuclide has gained renewed interest.In this contribution, potentials and limitations of the 210Pb methodology and of the models used for estimating sediment ages and sedimentation rates are discussed and illustrated by examples of freshwater and marine sediments. Comparison with the use of 137Cs shows that the information which may be gained by these two tracers is complementary. As a consequence, both radionuclides should be used in combination for dating of recent sediments. It is shown that for various sedimentation regimes additional information from other sources (e.g. sediment lithology) may be needed to establish a reliable chronology. A strategy for sediment dating using 210Pb is recommended. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Giussani A.,Federal office for Radiation Protection
Radiation Protection Dosimetry | Year: 2015
Radiation doses delivered by incorporated radionuclides cannot be directly measured, and they are assessed by means of biokinetic and dosimetric models and computational phantoms. For emitters of short-range radiation like alpha-particles or Auger electrons, the doses at organ levels, as they are usually defined in internal dosimetry, are no longer relevant. Modelling the interand intra-cellular radiation transport and the local patterns of deposition at molecular or cellular levels are the challenging tasks of micro- and nano-dosimetry. With time, the physiological and anatomical realism of the models and phantoms have increased. However, not always the information is available that would be required to characterise the greater complexity of the recent models. Uncertainty studies in internal dose assessment provide here a valuable contribution for testing the significance of the new dose estimates and of the discrepancies from the previous values. Some of the challenges, limitations and future perspectives of the use of models and phantoms in internal dosimetry are discussed in the present manuscript. © The Author 2014.
Kirchner G.,Federal office for Radiation Protection
Geoderma | Year: 2013
The radiocaesium technique has become an attractive methodology for quantifying long-term average soil erosion and accumulation rates. It is based on comparing the 137Cs inventory in soils of a site which is suspected to be affected by soil redistribution to that of an adjacent undisturbed reference site. A major complication arises from the spatial variability of 137Cs generally present even at small areas of <1ha. In this paper we present statistically based procedures that efficiently allow to discriminate between soil erosion and pure spatial variation of 137Cs. We systematically explore the effect of study design and spatial variability of 137Cs on the sensitivity of the radiocaesium technique for soil erosion studies. The procedures and simulation results presented assist (i) in checking whether the sensitivity of the 137Cs technique is adequate for an intended study, and (ii) in developing an optimal study design.In addition it is shown that some of the statistical criteria proposed in the literature for discriminating soil redistribution from 137Cs variability show high error risks and should be avoided. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Bossew P.,Federal office for Radiation Protection
Journal of Environmental Radioactivity | Year: 2010
The term " log-normal mysticism" has been coined by Tóth et al. (2006) for the so far unexplained observation that indoor radon concentration data from geographical surveys very often appear to be quite accurately log-normally distributed. In this contribution, I try to verify the statement with the dataset of the Austrian indoor radon survey and data from the ongoing European indoor radon mapping project. It appears that, with some limitations, an approximate log-normality is present for a large scale of spatial ranges. Investigation of the frequency of outliers points to the systematic presence of a " fat tail" in Rn frequency distribution, i.e. of extremes which disturb log-normality. "Local log-normality" , i.e. within a neighbourhood, possibly restricted to geological units, is an important assumption in certain radon mapping approaches. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.