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Mangal T.D.,Imperial College London | Aylward R.B.,WHO | Mwanza M.,WHO | Gasasira A.,WHO | And 3 more authors.
The Lancet Global Health | Year: 2014

Background: The completion of poliomyelitis eradication is a global emergency for public health. In 2012, more than 50% of the world's cases occurred in Nigeria following an unanticipated surge in incidence. We aimed to quantitatively analyse the key factors sustaining transmission of poliomyelitis in Nigeria and to calculate clinical efficacy estimates for the oral poliovirus vaccines (OPV) currently in use. Methods: We used acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) surveillance data from Nigeria collected between January, 2001, and December, 2012, to estimate the clinical efficacies of all four OPVs in use and combined this with vaccination coverage to estimate the effect of the introduction of monovalent and bivalent OPV on vaccine-induced serotype-specific population immunity. Vaccine efficacy was determined using a case-control study with CIs based on bootstrap resampling. Vaccine efficacy was also estimated separately for north and south Nigeria, by age of the children, and by year. Detailed 60-day follow-up data were collected from children with confirmed poliomyelitis and were used to assess correlates of vaccine status. We also quantitatively assessed the epidemiology of poliomyelitis and programme performance and considered the reasons for the high vaccine refusal rate along with risk factors for a given local government area reporting a case. Findings: Against serotype 1, both monovalent OPV (median 32·1%, 95% CI 26·1-38·1) and bivalent OPV (29·5%, 20·1-38·4) had higher clinical efficacy than trivalent OPV (19·4%, 16·1-22·8). Corresponding data for serotype 3 were 43·2% (23·1-61·1) and 23·8% (5·3-44·9) compared with 18·0% (14·1-22·1). Combined with increases in coverage, this factor has boosted population immunity in children younger than age 36 months to a record high (64-69% against serotypes 1 and 3). Vaccine efficacy in northern states was estimated to be significantly lower than in southern states (p≤0·05). The proportion of cases refusing vaccination decreased from 37-72% in 2008 to 21-51% in 2012 for routine and supplementary immunisation, and most caregivers cited ignorance of either vaccine importance or availability as the main reason for missing routine vaccinations (32·1% and 29·6% of cases, respectively). Multiple regression analyses highlighted associations between the age of the mother, availability of OPV at health facilities, and the primary source of health information and the probability of receiving OPV (all p<0·05). Interpretation: Although high refusal rates, low OPV campaign awareness, and heterogeneous population immunity continued to support poliomyelitis transmission in Nigeria at the end of 2012, overall population immunity had improved due to new OPV formulations and improvements in programme delivery. Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation Vaccine Modeling Initiative, Royal Society. © 2014 Mangal et al. Source

Badr E.,Sudan Academy of Sciences | Mohamed N.A.,Federal Ministry of Health | Afzal M.M.,World Health Organization | Bile K.M.,Somali Swedish Research Association
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2013

Problem Human resources for health (HRH) in the Sudan were limited by shortages and the maldistribution of health workers, poor management, service fragmentation, poor retention of health workers in rural areas, and a weak health information system. Approach A "country coordination and facilitation" process was implemented to strengthen the national HRH observatory, provide a coordination platform for key stakeholders, catalyse policy support and HRH planning, harmonize the mobilization of resources, strengthen HRH managerial structures, establish new training institutions and scale up the training of community health workers. Local setting The national government of the Sudan sanctioned state-level governance of the health system but many states lacked coherent HRH plans and policies. A paucity of training institutions constrained HRH production and the adequate and equitable deployment of health workers in rural areas. Relevant changes The country coordination and facilitation process prompted the establishment of a robust HRH information system and the development of the technical capacities and tools necessary for data analysis and evidence-based participatory decision-making and action. Lessons learnt The success of the country coordination and facilitation process was substantiated by the stakeholders' coordinated support, which was built on solid evidence of the challenges in HRH and shared accountability in the planning and implementation of responses to those challenges. The support led to political commitment and the mobilization of resources for HRH. The leadership that was promoted and the educational institutions that were opened should facilitate the training, deployment and retention of the health workers needed to achieve universal health coverage. Source

Hassan O.A.,Federal Ministry of Health | Hassan O.A.,Umea University | Ahlm C.,Umea University | Evander M.,Umea University
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Rift Valley fever (RVF) is a neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health and economy. RVF is caused by RVF virus (RVFV) affecting humans and a wide range of animals. The virus is transmitted through bites from mosquitoes and exposure to viremic blood, body fluids, or tissues of infected animals. During 2007 a large RVF outbreak occurred in Sudan with a total of 747 confirmed human cases including 230 deaths (case fatality 30.8%); although it has been estimated 75,000 were infected. It was most severe in White Nile, El Gezira, and Sennar states near to the White Nile and the Blue Nile Rivers. Notably, RVF was not demonstrated in livestock until after the human cases appeared and unfortunately, there are no records or reports of the number of affected animals or deaths. Ideally, animals should serve as sentinels to prevent loss of human life, but the situation here was reversed. Animal contact seemed to be the most dominant risk factor followed by animal products and mosquito bites. The Sudan outbreak followed an unusually heavy rainfall in the country with severe flooding and previous studies on RVF in Sudan suggest that RVFV is endemic in parts of Sudan. An RVF outbreak results in human disease, but also large economic loss with an impact beyond the immediate influence on the directly affected agricultural producers. The outbreak emphasizes the need for collaboration between veterinary and health authorities, entomologists, environmental specialists, and biologists, as the best strategy towards the prevention and control of RVF. © 2011 Hassan et al. Source

Pearson L.,UNICEF | Gandhi M.,Save the Children UK | Admasu K.,Federal Ministry of Health | Keyes E.B.,FHI
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2011

Objectives: To examine user fees for maternity services and how they relate to provision, quality, and use of maternity services in Ethiopia. Methods: The national assessment of emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) examined user fees for maternity services in 751 health facilities that provided childbirth services in 2008. Results: Overall, only about 6.6% of women gave birth in health facilities. Among facilities that provided delivery care, 68% charged a fee in cash or kind for normal delivery. Health centers should be providing maternity services free of charge (the healthcare financing proclamation), yet 65% still charge for some aspect of care, including drugs and supplies. The average cost for normal and cesarean delivery was US $7.70 and US $51.80, respectively. Nineteen percent of these facilities required payment in advance for treatment of an obstetric emergency. The health facilities that charged user fees had, on average, more delivery beds, deliveries (normal and cesarean), direct obstetric complications treated, and a higher ratio of skilled birth attendants per 1000 deliveries than those that did not charge. The case fatality rate was 3.8% and 7.1% in hospitals that did and did not charge user fees, respectively. Conclusion: Utilization of maternal health services is extremely low in Ethiopia and, although there is a government decree against charging for maternity service, 65% of health centers do charge for some aspects of maternal care. As health facilities are not reimbursed by the government for the costs of maternity services, this loss of revenue may account for the more and better services offered in facilities that continue to charge user fees. User fees are not the only factor that determines utilization in settings where the coverage of maternity services is extremely low. Additional factors include other out-of-pocket payments such as cost of transport and food and lodging for accompanying relatives. It is important to keep quality of care in mind when user fees are under discussion. © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

Admasu K.,Federal Ministry of Health | Haile-Mariam A.,United Nations Childrens Fund UNICEF | Bailey P.,Family Health International FHI 360
International Journal of Gynecology and Obstetrics | Year: 2011

Objective: To report on the availability and quality of emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) in Ethiopia. Methods: All licensed hospitals and health centers were visited and standard questionnaires were administered. In addition, a nonrandom systematic sample was taken of recent cesarean deliveries, partographs, and maternal deaths-and these cases were systematically reviewed. Health facilities were geocoded using geographic positioning system devices. Results: Too few facilities provided EmONC to meet the UN standards of 5 per 500 000 population, both nationally and in all but 2 regions. Only 7% of deliveries took place in institutions of any type, and only 3% in facilities that routinely provided all the signal functions. Only 6% of women with obstetric complications were treated in any health facility, half of whom were treated in fully functional EmONC facilities. Nationwide, 0.6% of expected deliveries were by cesarean. The mortality rate for women with serious obstetric complications (case fatality rate) was 2%. The cause of death was unknown in 10% of cases, and 21% were due to indirect causes (primarily malaria, anemia, and HIV-related). Conclusion: None of the indicators met UN standards. Ethiopia faces many challenges-not least geography-with regard to improving EmONC. Nevertheless, the government places high priority on improvement and has taken (and will continue to take) action to achieve Millennium Development Goals 4 and 5. This comprehensive survey serves both as a road map for planning strategies for improvement and as a baseline for measuring the impact of interventions. © 2011 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved. Source

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