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Markova T.P.,Federal Medico Biological Agency of Russia
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii

The problem of frequent recurrent acute respiratory diseases (ARD) in children is highly topical due to the possibility of development of chronic diseases of the respiratory organs and high social significance. Persistence of bacterial flora, decrease of its sensitivity to antibiotics, risk for development of complications set the topical tasks of looking for alternative approaches to treatment and prevention of respiratory infections. In this connection, bacterial immunomodulators are of special interest. Based on the composition and specific features of the mechanism of action, they can be divided into two groups: bacterial immunomodulators with systemic action and bacterial immunomodulators with predominantly topical action. The lecture sums up the experience of using the systemic bacterial immunomodulator Broncho-Vaxom in frequently ill children. As is shown, administration of the drug both in the acute period of respiratory infection and for preventive purposes leads to reduction of the duration of disease, its milder course, decreases the need for administration of symptomatic drugs and also the number of recurrent episodes of ARD. Source

Bekhtereva M.K.,Federal Medico Biological Agency of Russia | Luppova N.E.,North State Medical University | Privorotskiy V.F.,North State Medical University
Voprosy Prakticheskoi Pediatrii

The review presents current literature data about traveller's diarrhoeas. This problem becomes more and more topical due to the increasing number of travellers throughout the world, including Russia. The «geography» of such trips broadens every year. People's movement from habitual residences to novel places (often exotic countries) inevitably changes nutrition stereotypes, water ration, not mentioning hygienic specificities. The infectious factor, whose influence determines the character of diarrhoea, its severity and duration, becomes especially important. The work deals with the best studied aspects of the problem of traveller's diarrhoea, such as epidemiology, etiological factors, pathogenetic variants, prevention and treatment options. Source

Nikitin A.G.,Federal Medico Biological Agency of Russia | Potapov V.A.,Arkhimed Clinics of New Medical Technologies | Brovkin A.N.,Federal Medico Biological Agency of Russia | Lavrikova E.Y.,Federal Medico Biological Agency of Russia | And 7 more authors.
Molecular Biology

To test FTO, KCNJ11, SLC30A8, and CDKN2B for association with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), the allele and genotype frequency distributions were established for several polymorphisms of the genes. A comparison of allele and genotype frequencies between DM patients and healthy subjects implicated CKNJ11, SLC30A8, and CDKN2B, but not FTO, in the disease. The genes that affect insulin production and secretion in pancreatic β cells proved to play a main role in type 2 DM in the Russian population. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Inc. Source

Zaytsev K.I.,Moscow State Technical University | Kudrin K.G.,Federal Medico Biological Agency of Russia | Karasik V.E.,Moscow State Technical University | Reshetov I.V.,Federal Medico Biological Agency of Russia | Yurchenko S.O.,Moscow State Technical University
Applied Physics Letters

In vivo terahertz (THz) spectroscopy of pigmentary skin nevi is performed. The in vivo THz dielectric characteristics of healthy skin and dysplastic and non-dysplastic skin nevi are reconstructed and analyzed. The dielectric permittivity curves of these samples in the THz range exhibit significant differences that could allow non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplastic nevi, which are melanoma precursors. An approach for differentiating dysplastic and non-dysplastic skin nevi using the THz dielectric permittivity is proposed. The results demonstrate that THz pulsed spectroscopy is potentially an effective tool for non-invasive early diagnosis of dysplastic nevi and melanomas of the skin. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC. Source

Ivanenko N.B.,Saint Petersburg State University | Solovyev N.D.,Saint Petersburg State University | Ivanenko A.A.,Federal Medico Biological Agency of Russia | Ganeev A.A.,Saint Petersburg State University
Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology

Determination of aluminum (Al), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), mercury (Hg), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and thallium (Tl) concentrations in human blood using high-frequency modulation polarization Zeeman graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) was performed. No sample digestion was used in the current study. Blood samples were diluted with deionized water or 0.1 % (m/v) Triton X-100 solution for Tl. Dilution factors ranged from 1/5 per volume for Be and Tl to 1/20 per volume for Cd and Pb. For Tl, Cd, and Hg, noble metals (gold, platinum, rhodium, etc.) were applied as surface modifiers. To mitigate chloride interference, 2 % (m/v) solution of NH4NO3 was used as matrix modifier for Tl and Ni assessment. The use of Pd(NO3)2 as oxidative modifier was necessary for blood Hg and Tl measurement. Validation of the methods was performed by analyzing two-level reference material Seronorm. The precision of the designed methods as relative SD was between 4 and 12 % (middle of a dynamic range) depending on the element. For additional validation, spiked blood samples were analyzed. Limits of detection (LoDs, 3σ, n = 10) for undiluted blood samples were 2.0 μg L-1 for Al, 0.08 μg L-1 for Be, 0.10 μg L-1 for Cd, 2.2 μg L-1 for Cr, 7 μg L-1 for Hg, 0.4 7mu;g L-1 for Mn, 2.3 lg L-1 for Ni, 3.4 μg L-1 for Pb, and 0.5 μg L-1 for Tl. The LoDs achieved allowed determination of Al, Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, and Pb at both toxic and background levels. Be, Hg, and Tl could be reliably measured at toxic levels only. The methods developed are used for clinical diagnostics and biological monitoring of work-related exposure. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012. Source

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