Federal Medico Biological Agency

Seversk, Russia

Federal Medico Biological Agency

Seversk, Russia
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Kulakov V.N.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Lipengol'ts A.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Grigor'eva E.Y.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Shimanovskii N.L.,Russian National Research Medical University
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal | Year: 2016

Binary radiotherapy (BRT) is a type of radiation therapy that employs special drugs to direct ionizing radiation to a target. As a rule, the drug has no significant biological activity of its own. BRT causes damage due to interaction of secondary ionizing radiation with biological tissues. The special drug that accumulates selectively in a tumor contains chemical elements that absorb external ionizing radiation considerably more efficiently than the chemical elements in living tissues. The absorbed dose can increase from several percent up to five times as a result of the selective interaction of the external radiation with such drugs in tumors. Currently, two types of BRT exist, i.e., neutron-capture therapy (NCT), which uses neutron beams, and photo-capture therapy (PCT), which uses x-rays. NCT potentially has greater therapeutic efficacy than PCT. However, PCT equipment is less expensive and can be housed in existing clinical establishments. Numerous studies of BRT efficacy from many countries of the world indicate that this technology is potentially efficacious for treating malignancies. Introduction of BRT into clinical practice would enhance considerably the antitumor efficacy of radiotherapy and decrease the number of irradiations to a single one. The capability of BRT can be fully unleashed only by developing specialized drugs that satisfy the BRT requirements. © 2016, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Vlasova I.I.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Vakhrusheva T.V.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Sokolov A.V.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | Kostevich V.A.,Russian Academy of Medical Sciences | And 4 more authors.
Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology | Year: 2012

Perspectives for the use of carbon nanotubes in biomedical applications depend largely on their ability to degrade in the body into products that can be easily cleared out. Carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWCNTs) were shown to be degraded by oxidants generated by peroxidases in the presence of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study we demonstrated that conjugation of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) to c-SWCNTs does not interfere with their degradation by peroxidase/H2O2 system or by hypochlorite. Comparison of different heme-containing proteins for their ability to degrade PEG-SWCNTs has led us to conclude that the myeloperoxidase (MPO) product hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is the major oxidant that may be responsible for biodegradation of PEG-SWCNTs in vivo. MPO is secreted mainly by neutrophils upon activation. We hypothesize that SWCNTs may enhance neutrophil activation and therefore stimulate their own biodegradation due to MPO-generated HOCl. PEG-SWCNTs at concentrations similar to those commonly used in in vivo studies were found to activate isolated human neutrophils to produce HOCl. Both PEG-SWCNTs and c-SWCNTs enhanced HOCl generation from isolated neutrophils upon serum-opsonized zymosan stimulation. Both types of nanotubes were also found to activate neutrophils in whole blood samples. Intraperitoneal injection of a low dose of PEG-SWCNTs into mice induced an increase in percentage of circulating neutrophils and activation of neutrophils and macrophages in the peritoneal cavity, suggesting the evolution of an inflammatory response. Activated neutrophils can produce high local concentrations of HOCl, thereby creating the conditions favorable for degradation of the nanotubes. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..

Gushchin I.S.,Federal Medico Biological Agency
Pharmaceutical Chemistry Journal | Year: 2010

The review summarizes published data and presents original results that illustrate the variety of antiallergic properties of second generation antihistamine drugs. General notions of inverse agonists of H 1-receptors and features of the receptor-ligand interaction that maintain H1-receptors in the non-active state are considered. The broadening of clinical indications for the administration of inverse agonists of H1-receptors aimed at preventing the exacerbation of allergic (atopic) disorders and inhibiting allergic inflammation processes is justified. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Ivanenko N.B.,Saint Petersburg State University | Ivanenko A.A.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Solovyev N.D.,Saint Petersburg State University | Zeimal A.E.,Saint Petersburg State University | And 2 more authors.
Talanta | Year: 2013

A sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Tl, U, V and Zn in whole blood and urine was designed. Microwave-assisted digestion with concentrated nitric acid was used for blood samples. Urine samples were analyzed after 1/50 (v/v) dilution with 5% (v/v) nitric acid. For beryllium the necessity of medium resolution mode (R=4000) was shown. Method validation was performed using blood and urine reference materials and by analyzing of spiked samples. For the designed method relative standard deviation (RSD) for the concentration range 0.01-1.0 μg/L was 5-10%. RSD did not exceed 3% when trace elements concentrations were above 1.0 μg/L. Method detection limits (3σ): Ag 0.7 ng/L, Al 16 ng/L, As 3.4 ng/L, Ba 0.02 ng/L, Be 1.5 ng/L, Cd 7.7 ng/L, Co 1.0 ng/L, Cr 2.8 ng/L, Cs 9.8 ng/L, Cu 27 ng/L, Fe 1.1 ng/L, Mn 1.8 ng/L, Ni 17 ng/L, Pb 13 ng/L, Se 0.07 ng/L, Sr 5.7 ng/L, Tl 0.2 ng/L, U 0.1 ng/L, V 0.7 ng/L and Zn 1.2 ng/L. A developed method was applied for trace element biomonitoring of occupationally exposed workers of a beryllium processing enterprise. For preliminary risk assessment technological surface dust had been analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry. Based upon results of 50 blood and 40 urine samples analyses occupational exposure evaluation was performed. Exposure risks were found not to exceed acceptable ranges. Possible health hazards were found for Be and also Al, Cr, Mn. Occupational health and safety recommendations for the biomonitored enterprise medical care unit were issued as a result of the current investigation. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

PubMed | Federal Medico Biological Agency, Orenburg State University, Center for Biotic Medicine and Institute of General Pathology and Pathophysiology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Acta scientiarum polonorum. Technologia alimentaria | Year: 2017

A significant association between Zn and Se homeostasis exists. At the same time, data on the influence of zinc supplementation on selenium distribution in organs and tissues seem to be absent. Therefore, the primary objective of the current study is to investigate the influence of zinc asparaginate supplementation on zinc and selenium distribution and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in Wistar rats.36 rats were used in the experiment. The duration of the experiment was 7 and 14 days in the first and second series, respectively. The rats in Group I were used as the control ones. Animals in Groups II and III daily obtained zinc asparaginate (ZnA) in the doses of 5 and 15 mg/kg weight, respectively. Zinc and selenium content in liver, kidneys, heart, muscle, serum and hair was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Serum SOD and GPx activity was analysed spectrophotometrically using Randox kits.Intragastric administration of zinc asparaginate significantly increased liver, kidney, and serum zinc content without affecting skeletal and cardiac muscle levels. Zinc supplementation also stimulated selenium retention in the rats organs. Moreover, a significant positive correlation between zinc and selenium content was observed. Finally, zinc asparaginate treatment has been shown to modulate serum GPx but not SOD activity.The obtained data indicate that zinc-induced increase in GPx activity may be mediated through modulation of selenium status. However, future studies are required to estimate the exact mechanisms of zinc and selenium interplay.

Grabeklis A.R.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Skalny A.V.,Orenburg State University | Nechiporenko S.P.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Lakarova E.V.,Orenburg State University
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

In order to improve the monitoring system, watching influence of toxic metals on human health in industrial plants, indicator properties of different biosubstances were compared. Four types of samples (whole blood, plasma, urine, and hair) from 263 workers of the Khimprom chemical plant (Novocheboksarsk, Russia) were subjected to multielement analysis by ICP-AES/ICP-MS. 19-25 chemical elements, including main toxic metals (Cd, Hg, Pb, etc.) were determined. The results were calculated with regard to workers' individual data on occupational exposure to chemical elements. Hair was found to be the most sensitive to toxic and conditionally toxic trace metals: Pb, Mn, Cr, Be, Ni, while occupational contact with macro elements (Na, P), trace metalloids (Si, B) and some other metals (Zn) was not reflected in hair. Whole blood relatively weakly indicated a moderate occupational level of metals except Pb and Mn, but effectively reflected deficiencies of essential elements: I, Cr, and shifts in K/Na ratio, which are likely to be secondary effects of harmful occupational factors. Blood plasma reflected only contact with Be, P; urine - only with Ni. In both whole blood and plasma the changes for the absolute majority of elements were similar. Thus, hair analysis is useful for monitoring the occupational exposure to toxic and conditionally toxic chemical elements, while a general estimation of occupational harmful influence on mineral metabolism requires simultaneous investigation of two biosubstances: hair and whole blood, or hair and blood plasma, with whole blood being more preferable. Analysis of urine is appropriate for monitoring particular chemical elements, e.g. nickel. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.

Denisov A.A.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Sclyarov O.D.,Federal State Institution | Salmakov K.M.,Federal State Institution | Shumilov K.V.,Federal State Institution
OIE Revue Scientifique et Technique | Year: 2013

Russia has extensive experience in controlling brucellosis in large and small animals, based on systematic animal health and disease control measures, combined with the use of specific prophylaxis. Widespread application of the live brucellosis vaccine Brucella abortus strain 82 has led to a dramatic reduction in the prevalence of brucellosis. Among the distinctive properties of this vaccine are weak agglutinogenicity and high anti-epizootic efficacy, which allow differentiation between infected animals and vaccinated animals, combined with protection against brucellosis infection. In this paper, the authors review brucellosis epidemiology, diagnostics, the application of vaccines and management procedures that allow the Russian Federation to reduce the overall prevalence of brucellosis.

Lazarev V.N.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Govorun V.M.,Federal Medico Biological Agency
Applied Biochemistry and Microbiology | Year: 2010

The review presents the current classification of antimicrobial peptides (AMP), which are the main component of innate immunity. The mechanism of their action and the molecular basis of the formation of resistance towards these peptides are described. Data on the use of AMP for the treatment of various infectious diseases, as well as the state of the art in genetic therapy using AMP, are given. © 2010 Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.

Vyatchanina E.S.,Federal Medico Biological Agency
Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011

It is known that alcohol possesses embryotoxic, teratogenic, neurotoxic and other effects. Alteration of the trace element and mineral metabolism can be one of the triggering mechanisms of metabolic changes during an alcoholic intoxication. The aim of the recent study was to compare the profiles of elements in brain structures of matured offspring which were born by female rats exposed and non-exposed to alcohol before conception. A decreasing tendency in the levels of all detected macro and trace elements in four brain structures was observed. The most prominent changes were found in the brain cortex. Experimental data show that short term consumption of alcohol by female rats before pregnancy alters the distribution of macro and trace elements in the offspring's brain structures. © 2010 Elsevier GmbH.

Vakhrusheva T.V.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Gusev A.A.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Gusev S.A.,Federal Medico Biological Agency | Vlasova I.I.,Federal Medico Biological Agency
Toxicology Letters | Year: 2013

Reduction of thrombogenicity of carbon nanotubes is an important prerequisite for their biomedical use. We assessed the thrombogenic activity of carboxylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (c-SWCNTs) and covalently PEGylated c-SWNCTs (PEG-SWCNTs) by testing the clotting time of platelet poor plasma and platelet aggregation in whole blood samples, and evaluated the impact of human serum albumin on thrombogenicity of carbon nanotubes. Both types of SWCNTs exhibited considerable thrombogenic activity. SWCNTs accelerated plasma clotting, with a lesser effect seen for PEG-SWCNTs. Treatment of SWCNTs with albumin did not affect the SWCNT-induced shortening of clotting time. In whole blood, no discernible differences in the effect of c-SWCNTs and PEG-SWCNTs on platelets were observed. Upon addition of SWCNTs to blood, dose- and time-dependent formation of agglomerates of nanotubes and platelets was demonstrated. Pretreatment of SWCNTs with albumin reduced the platelet aggregation: the number of single platelets increased, and the size of platelet-SWCNT agglomerates decreased dramatically. Hence, addition of albumin may serve to attenuate the adverse, thrombogenic effect of CNTs. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

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