Federal Medical and Biological Agency
Federal Medical and Biological Agency
Markova E.Y.,S Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution |
Polunina E.G.,Federal Medical and Biological Agency |
Ioileva E.E.,S Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution
Oftalmologiya | Year: 2017
The prevalence off allergic diseases has been significantly increased among adults and children during last 30-40 years. International study has shown that the frequency of atopy in developed countries, including Russia, is higher than in developing. Often atopic dermatitis, started in infancy, can develop into an "allergic march"-food allergy, followed by the formation of allergic rhinitis, allergic conjunctivitis and other allergic diseases. The problem of prophylaxis and treatment of allergic pathology becomes actual for these reasons. An opinion according some preventive measures has changed in recent. It was noted that in families with many children, where children were often sick with respiratory infections, the incidence of allergic diseases was lower than among rarely sick children. It is explained by the "hygienic theory"-insufficient "training" of the Th1 response in rarely sick children. Allergic diseases, which are based on IgE-mediated inflammation, have a common pathogenetic nature and, consequently, general principles of therapy, in which, as is well known, antihistamines take a significant place. This is cased by the mandatory involvement of histamine in the mechanism of development of the main symptoms of allergic diseases. Current capabilities of local ophthalmologic antiallergic therapy includes medicines with multiple action mechanisms, such as mast cell stabilizers, antihistamines, combined agents, steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory effects. The latest generation antihistamine drug-olopatadine hydrochloride 0.2% is a new form of the molecule of olopatadine, which is intended to increase the duration of the action. The article considers the main modern directions in prevention and treatment of allergic diseases, including allergic eye diseases, which are a manifestation of the underlying disease and have a common pathogenetic nature to all atopic diseases, based on the IgE-mediated inflammation reaction.
Remizova M.I.,Federal Medical and Biological Agency |
Gerbut K.A.,Federal Medical and Biological Agency
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014
Effects of a NO donor L-arginine and a non-selective NO-synthase inhibitor NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester on BP, microcirculation, acid-base balance, and gas content of blood were examined on rat model of hemorrhagic shock; the substances were administered without infusion media before blood loss. Bloodletting was stopped after manifestation of marked microcirculation disorders. Inhibition of NO synthesis in response to blood loss resulted in pronounced centralization of blood circulation with microcirculation disturbances, which was accompanied by metabolic changes aggravating hemorrhagic shock. Administration of NO donor reduced the degree of circulation centralization, maintained vasodilatatory vascular tone and perfusion of vital organs, improved animal resistance to blood loss, and prolonged their lifespan. Enhanced NO generation after administration of NO donor promoted longer microcirculation maintenance, which suggests that the so-called basal level of NO is essential at early stages of hemorrhagic shock. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.
Miravitlles M.,CIBER ISCIII |
Miravitlles M.,Hospital Universitari Vall dHebron |
Vogelmeier C.,University of Marburg |
Roche N.,University of Paris Descartes |
And 9 more authors.
European Respiratory Journal | Year: 2016
The quality of care can be improved by the development and implementation of evidencebased treatment guidelines. Different national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exist in Europe and relevant differences may exist among them. This was an evaluation of COPD treatment guidelines published in Europe and Russia in the past 7 years. Each guideline was reviewed in detail and information about the most important aspects of patient diagnosis, risk stratification and pharmacotherapy was extracted following a standardised process. Guidelines were available from the Czech Republic, England and Wales, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain and Sweden. The treatment goals, criteria for COPD diagnosis, consideration of comorbidities in treatment selection and support for use of long-acting bronchodilators, were similar across treatment guidelines. There were differences in measures used for stratification of disease severity, consideration of patient phenotypes, criteria for the use of inhaled corticosteroids and recommendations for other medications (e.g. theophylline and mucolytics) in addition to bronchodilators. There is generally good agreement on treatment goals, criteria for diagnosis of COPD and use of longacting bronchodilators as the cornerstone of treatment among guidelines for COPD management in Europe and Russia. However, there are differences in the definitions of patient subgroups and other recommended treatments. Copyright © 2016 by the European Respiratory Society.
Chuchalin A.G.,Federal Medical and Biological Agency |
Khaltaev N.,Global Alliance Against Chronic Respiratory Diseases GARD |
Antonov N.S.,Federal Medical and Biological Agency |
Galkin D.V.,Glaxosmithkline |
And 7 more authors.
International Journal of COPD | Year: 2014
Background: Estimation suggests that at least 4 million people die, annually, as a result of chronic respiratory disease (CRD). The Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD) was formed following a mandate from the World Health Assembly to address this serious and growing health problem.Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of CRD in Russian symptomatic patients and to evaluate the frequency of major risk factors for CRD in Russia.Methods: A cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study using the GARD questionnaire on adults from 12 regions of the Russian Federation. Common respiratory symptoms and risk factors were recorded. Spirometry was performed in respondents with suspected CRD. Allergic rhinitis (AR) and chronic bronchitis (CB) were defined by the presence of related symptoms according to the Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma and the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines; asthma was defined based on disease symptoms; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was defined as a post-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume per 1 second/forced vital capacity ratio <0.7 in symptomatic patients, following the Global Initiative for Obstructive Lung Disease guidelines.Results: The number of questionnaires completed was 7,164 (mean age 43.4 years; 57.2% female). The prevalence of asthma symptoms was 25.7%, AR 18.2%, and CB 8.6%. Based on patient self-reported diagnosis, 6.9% had asthma, 6.5% AR, and 22.2% CB. The prevalence of COPD based on spirometry in patients with respiratory symptoms was estimated as 21.8%.Conclusion: The prevalence of respiratory diseases and risk factors was high in Russia when compared to available data. For bronchial asthma and AR, the prevalence for related symptoms was higher than self-reported previous diagnosis. © 2014 Chuchalin et al.
Knirel Y.A.,RAS N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry |
Prokhorov N.S.,Russian Academy of Sciences |
Shashkov A.S.,RAS N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry |
Ovchinnikova O.G.,RAS N. D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Bacteriology | Year: 2015
The O polysaccharide of the lipopolysaccharide (O antigen) of Gram-negative bacteria often serves as a receptor for bacteriophages that can make the phage dependent on a given O-antigen type, thus supporting the concept of the adaptive significance of the O-antigen variability in bacteria. The O-antigen layer also modulates interactions of many bacteriophages with their hosts, limiting the access of the viruses to other cell surface receptors. Here we report variations of O-antigen synthesis and structure in an environmental Escherichia coli isolate, 4s, obtained from horse feces, and its mutants selected for resistance to bacteriophage G7C, isolated from the same fecal sample. The 4s O antigen was found to be serologically, structurally, and genetically related to the O antigen of E. coli O22, differing only in side-chain α-D-glucosylation in the former, mediated by a gtr locus on the chromosome. Spontaneous mutations of E. coli 4s occurring with an unusually high frequency affected either O-antigen synthesis or O-acetylation due to the inactivation of the gene encoding the putative glycosyltransferase WclH or the putative acetyltransferase WclK, respectively, by the insertion of IS1-like elements. These mutations induced resistance to bacteriophage G7C and also modified interactions of E. coli 4s with several other bacteriophages conferring either resistance or sensitivity to the host. These findings suggest that O-antigen synthesis and O-acetylation can both ensure the specific recognition of the O-antigen receptor following infection by some phages and provide protection of the host cells against attack by other phages. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.
Bondarenko D.A.,Federal Medical and Biological Agency
Zoologicheskii Zhurnal | Year: 2015
Four species of Protozoa, 17 species of helminths and 6 species of ticks parasitize on the Central Asian tortoise, Agrionemys horsfieldii Gray 1844. Parasitic Protozoa are mainly referred to Sporozoa. Helminths are represented by Nematoda and belong to the orders Oxyurida, Ascaridida, and Spirurida. Most of the nematode species belong to Oxyuridea and Pharyngodonidae. The greatest species diversity of Pharyngodonidae falls on 2 specific Testudinidae genus: Tachygonetria and Mehdiella. Hyalomma aegyptium predominates among ixodid ticks. All ontogenic phases parasitize on Central Asian tortoise, mainly at the stage of imago. The extensiveness of H. aegyptium infection in turtles varies greatly (from 0 to 79%). Four other Ixodidae species parasitize on turtle at the phase of larvae and nymphs. Haemaphysalis sulcata is the first among them by the frequency of occurrence. Among argasids, only Ornithodoros tartakovskyi parasitizes on A. horsfieldii. The pattern of spreading of all the ticks in the tortoise populations is local. Tortoises are most frequently infected with ticks at the foothills. Several tick species can parasitize simultaneously on the same individual. The activity of parasites synchronously coincides with the seasonal activity of A. horsfieldi. The maximum number of parasites falls on late spring and early summer. After hibernation, the infestation of tortoises with parasites is minimal. © 2015, Russian Academy of Sciences. All rights reserved.
Bratus A.S.,Moscow State University |
Kovalenko S.Yu.,Federal Medical and Biological Agency |
Fimmel E.,Mannheim University of Applied Sciences
Mathematical Biosciences and Engineering | Year: 2015
A mathematical spatial cancer model of the interaction between a drug and both malignant and healthy cells is considered. It is assumed that the drug influences negative malignant cells as well as healthy ones. The mathematical model considered consists of three nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations which describe spatial dynamics of malignant cells as well as healthy ones, and of the concentration of the drug. Additionally, we assume some phase constraints for the number of the malignant and the healthy cells and for the total dose of the drug during the whole treatment process. We search through all the courses of treatment switching between an application of the drug with the maximum intensity (intensive therapy phase) and discontinuing administering of the drug (relaxation phase) with the objective of achieving the maximum possible therapy (survival) time. We will call the therapy a viable treatment strategy.
Cazzola M.,University of Rome Tor Vergata |
Calzetta L.,University of Rome Tor Vergata |
Page C.,Sackler Institute of Pulmonary Pharmacology |
Jardim J.,Federal University of São Paulo |
And 3 more authors.
European Respiratory Review | Year: 2015
In order to clarify the possible role of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) in the treatment of patients with chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), we have carried out a metaanalysis testing the available evidence that NAC treatment may be effective in preventing exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD and evaluating whether there is a substantial difference between the responses induced by low (≤ 600 mg per day) and high (>600 mg per day) doses of NAC. The results of the present meta-analysis (13 studies, 4155 COPD patients, NAC n=1933; placebo or controls n=2222) showed that patients treated with NAC had significantly and consistently fewer exacerbations of chronic bronchitis or COPD (relative risk 0.75, 95% CI 0.66-0.84; p<0.01), although this protective effect was more apparent in patients without evidence of airway obstruction. However, high doses of NAC were also effective in patients suffering from COPD diagnosed using spirometric criteria (relative risk 0.75, 95% CI 0.68-0.82; p=0.04). NAC was well tolerated and the risk of adverse reactions was not dose-dependent (low doses relative risk 0.93, 95% CI 0.89-0.97; p=0.40; high doses relative risk 1.11, 95% CI 0.89-1.39; p=0.58). The strong signal that comes from this meta-analysis leads us to state that if a patient suffering from chronic bronchitis presents a documented airway obstruction, NAC should be administered at a dose of ≥1200 mg per day to prevent exacerbations, while if a patient suffers from chronic bronchitis, but is without airway obstruction, a regular treatment of 600 mg per day seems to be sufficient. © ERS 2015.
Vlasyuk V.V.,Federal Medical and Biological Agency
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2014
We studied the spinal cords of 14 dead premature newborn with intraventricular hemorrhages. In all cases, grade III intraventricular hemorrhage was followed by the translocation of blood into the subarachnoid space of the cervical, dorsal, and lumbar parts of the spinal cord. Ischemic changes were found in neurons of the cervical intumescence and other parts of the spinal cord. These changes are important during thanatogenesis. Three stages in the development of intraventricular hemorrhage were distinguished. Imperfections of clinical classification of this pathology were demonstrated. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.
PubMed | University of Tampere, CIBER ISCIII, University of Marburg, Royal Devon and Exeter Hospital and 7 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The European respiratory journal | Year: 2016
The quality of care can be improved by the development and implementation of evidence-based treatment guidelines. Different national guidelines for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exist in Europe and relevant differences may exist among them.This was an evaluation of COPD treatment guidelines published in Europe and Russia in the past 7years. Each guideline was reviewed in detail and information about the most important aspects of patient diagnosis, risk stratification and pharmacotherapy was extracted following a standardised process. Guidelines were available from the Czech Republic, England and Wales, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Russia, Spain and Sweden. The treatment goals, criteria for COPD diagnosis, consideration of comorbidities in treatment selection and support for use of long-acting bronchodilators, were similar across treatment guidelines. There were differences in measures used for stratification of disease severity, consideration of patient phenotypes, criteria for the use of inhaled corticosteroids and recommendations for other medications (e.g. theophylline and mucolytics) in addition to bronchodilators.There is generally good agreement on treatment goals, criteria for diagnosis of COPD and use of long-acting bronchodilators as the cornerstone of treatment among guidelines for COPD management in Europe and Russia. However, there are differences in the definitions of patient subgroups and other recommended treatments.