Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH

Hamburg, Germany

Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH

Hamburg, Germany
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Martin L.G.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | Labuschagne C.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | Brunke E.-G.,South African Council for Scientific and Industrial Research | Weigelt A.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2017

Long-term measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) concentrations at Cape Point, South Africa, reveal a downward trend between September 1995 and December 2005 and an upward one from March 2007 until June 2015, implying a change in trend sign between 2004 and 2007. The trend change is qualitatively consistent with the trend changes in GEM concentrations observed at Mace Head, Ireland, and in mercury wet deposition over North America, suggesting a change in worldwide mercury emissions. Seasonally resolved trends suggest a modulation of the overall trend by regional processes. The trends in absolute terms (downward in 1995-2004 and upward in 2007-2015) are highest in austral spring (SON), coinciding with the peak in emissions from biomass burning in South America and southern Africa. The influence of trends in biomass burning is further supported by a biennial variation in GEM concentration found here and an El Ninõ-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) signature in GEM concentrations reported recently. © 2017 Author(s).


Brostrom G.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | Carrasco A.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | Hole L.R.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | Dick S.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | And 3 more authors.
Ocean Science | Year: 2011

Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS) for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the "Full City" accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare operational simulations from three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws, but by applying ocean forcing data of higher resolution (1.5 km resolution), the model system shows results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble of results from the three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas. © 2012 Author(s).


Schade N.H.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH
Earth System Dynamics | Year: 2017

Regional analyses of atmospheric conditions that may cause flooding of important transport infrastructure (railway tracks, highways/roads, rivers/channels) and subsequent adaptation measures are part of topic 1 of the network of experts initiated by the German Federal Ministry of Transport and Digital Infrastructure (BMVI). As an example case study, the December 2014 flood in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, was investigated. Atmospheric conditions at the onset of the flood event are described and evaluated with respect to the general weather circulation, initial wetness, and event precipitation. Persistent, predominantly westerly general weather circulations (GWCs) directed several low-pressure systems over the North Sea to Schleswig-Holstein during December 2014, accompanied by prolonged rainfall and finally a strong precipitation event in southern Schleswig-Holstein, causing several inland gauges to exceed their, by then maximum, water levels. Results show that the antecedent precipitation index (API) is able to reflect the soil moisture conditions and, in combination with the maximum 3-day precipitation sum (R3d), to capture the two main drivers finally leading to the flood: (1) the initial wetness of north-western Schleswig-Holstein and (2) strong event precipitation in southern and eastern Schleswig-Holstein from 21 to 23 December; at the same time, both indices exceeded their respective 5-year return periods. Further, trend analyses show that both API and R3d have been increasing during recent years, while regional patterns match the north-eastward shift of cyclone pathways, leading to a higher risk of flooding in Schleswig-Holstein. Within the network of experts, investigations of these and further indices/drivers for earth system changes (e.g. wind surge and sea level rise) derived from observations, reanalyses, and regional climate model data are planned for all German coastal areas. Results can be expected to lead to improved adaptation measures to floods under climate change conditions wherever catchments have to be drained and infrastructures and ecosystems may be harmed. © Author(s) 2017.


Serna A.,University of Hamburg | Patsch J.,University of Hamburg | Dahnke K.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Wiesner M.G.,University of Hamburg | And 4 more authors.
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2010

The German Bight/SE North Sea is considered a hot-spot of river-induced eutrophication, but the scarce observational data of river nitrate loads prior to the 1970s complicate the assessment of target conditions for environmental management and legislation. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) in sediment records can be used to decipher historical river nitrate contributions. To better constrain pre-1970s conditions, we determined δ15N in archive sediment samples (1950-1969) and dated cores from the Helgoland depositional area. We also modeled the δ15N in past situations (1960 and 1860) using an N-isotope-tracking ecosystem model. The modeled spatial distribution of δ15N in sediments for 1960 conditions and the observed spatial pattern of δ15N in archive sediment samples (1950-1969) represent a period of moderate eutrophication. The modeled spatial distribution of δ15N in sediments for 1860 conditions (pre-industrial) showed a moderate δ15N gradient from the Elbe river mouth (δ15N<4<) to the open sea (δ15N~;5<). This pattern contrasts with the δ15N pattern in modern surface sediments, which exhibits a steep and inverted δ15N gradient from the Elbe river mouth (δ15N>9<) to the open sea (δ15N<7<). Modeled δ15N for 1860 conditions are consistent with δ15N values observed in dated sediment cores that span the last 900 years. Value of δ15N in sediment cores increased from approximately 1860 to 2000 by 2.5


PubMed | Swedish Defence Research Agency, University of Aarhus, Quiet Oceans, University of Gdansk and 7 more.
Type: | Journal: Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2015

Management of the impact of underwater sound is an emerging concern worldwide. Several countries are in the process of implementing regulatory legislations. In Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive was launched in 2008. This framework addresses noise impacts and the recommendation is to deal with it on a regional level. The Baltic Sea is a semienclosed area with nine states bordering the sea. The number of ships is one of the highest in Europe. Furthermore, the number of ships is estimated to double by 2030. Undoubtedly, due to the unbound character of noise, an efficient management of sound in the Baltic Sea must be done on a regional scale. In line with the European Union directive, the Baltic Sea Information on the Acoustic Soundscape (BIAS) project was established to implement Descriptor 11 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the Baltic Sea region. BIAS will develop tools, standards, and methodologies that will allow for cross-border handling of data and results, measure sound in 40 locations for 1 year, establish a seasonal soundscape map by combining measured sound with advanced three-dimensional modeling, and, finally, establish standards for measuring continuous sound. Results from the first phase of BIAS are presented here, with an emphasis on standards and soundscape mapping as well as the challenges related to regional handling.


Losa S.N.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Danilov S.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Schroter J.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Janjic T.,German Weather Service | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2014

A data assimilation (DA) system has been developed for the operational circulation model of the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) in order to improve the forecast of hydrographic characteristics in the North and Baltic Seas. It is based on the local Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter algorithm and assimilation of the NOAA AVHRR-derived sea surface temperature (SST). The DA system allows one to improve the agreement of the SST forecast with the satellite observations by 27% on average over the period of October 2007-September 2008. However, a sensitivity analysis of the forecasting system performance shows a significant impact of initial model error statistics on ice fields and bottom temperature. A reinitialisation of model error covariances in accordance with seasonality of the model error statistics was required in order to maintain the predictive skill with respect to these variables. The success of the DA system is quantified by the comparison with independent data from MARNET stations as well as sea ice concentration measurements. In addition, the Maximum Entropy approach is used to assess the system performance and the prior and posterior model error statistics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Mai C.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Theobald N.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Lammel G.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | Lammel G.,Masaryk University | Huhnerfuss H.,University of Hamburg
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Pesticides are transported beyond source regions and reach coastal waters and shelf seas. 23 representatives of six chemical classes of currently-used pesticides (CUPs) were simultaneously quantified in the marine boundary layer and the surface seawater of the German Bight and the central North Sea in 2009 and 2010.Terbuthylazine, metolachlor, metazachlor, pendimethalin and trifluralin exhibited the highest concentrations, seasonally highly variable. Advection of contaminated air from land and subsequent atmospheric deposition was shown to contribute to surface seawater contamination significantly, in particular in regions beyond riverine input and during the main seasons of application in agriculture. Deposition was most significant for the seasonal and spatial distributions of pendimethalin and trifluralin. Atrazine and simazine levels in the air are lower than 1-2 decades ago. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ahrens L.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Ahrens L.,Lüneburg University | Gerwinski W.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Theobald N.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Ebinghaus R.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2010

The spatial distribution of 15 polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in surface water was investigated in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Norwegian Sea. In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the sampling techniques and analysis was conducted. Highest concentration in the North Sea was found near the coast, whereas the ∑PFC concentration decreased rapidly from 18.4 to 0.07 ng l-1 towards the open North Sea. The river Elbe could identify as a local input source for PFCs into the North Sea, whereas perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was transported into the sampling area with the easterly current. In contrast to the North Sea, the distribution of PFCs in the Baltic Sea was relatively homogenous, where diffuse sources dominated. In general, the composition profile was influenced from local sources caused by human activities, whereas atmospheric depositions of here analysed PFCs were negligible, but it could have possibly an influence on low contaminated sites like the open North Sea or Norwegian Sea. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Brockmeyer B.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Kraus U.R.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Theobald N.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66–101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85–126 %). © 2015, The Author(s).


PubMed | Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %).

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