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Brostrom G.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | Carrasco A.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | Hole L.R.,Norwegian Meteorological Institute | Dick S.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | And 3 more authors.
Ocean Science | Year: 2011

Oil spill modeling is considered to be an important part of a decision support system (DeSS) for oil spill combatment and is useful for remedial action in case of accidents, as well as for designing the environmental monitoring system that is frequently set up after major accidents. Many accidents take place in coastal areas, implying that low resolution basin scale ocean models are of limited use for predicting the trajectories of an oil spill. In this study, we target the oil spill in connection with the "Full City" accident on the Norwegian south coast and compare operational simulations from three different oil spill models for the area. The result of the analysis is that all models do a satisfactory job. The "standard" operational model for the area is shown to have severe flaws, but by applying ocean forcing data of higher resolution (1.5 km resolution), the model system shows results that compare well with observations. The study also shows that an ensemble of results from the three different models is useful when predicting/analyzing oil spill in coastal areas. © 2012 Author(s).


Werschkun B.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Banerji S.,Federal Institute for Risk Assessment BfR | Basurko O.C.,Tecnalia | David M.,Dr. Matej David Consult | And 18 more authors.
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Uptake and discharge of ballast water by ocean-going ships contribute to the worldwide spread of aquatic invasive species, with negative impacts on the environment, economies, and public health. The International Ballast Water Management Convention aims at a global answer. The agreed standards for ballast water discharge will require ballast water treatment. Systems based on various physical and/or chemical methods were developed for on-board installation and approved by the International Maritime Organization. Most common are combinations of high-performance filters with oxidizing chemicals or UV radiation. A well-known problem of oxidative water treatment is the formation of disinfection by-products, many of which show genotoxicity, carcinogenicity, or other long-term toxicity. In natural biota, genetic damages can affect reproductive success and ultimately impact biodiversity. The future exposure towards chemicals from ballast water treatment can only be estimated, based on land-based testing of treatment systems, mathematical models, and exposure scenarios. Systematic studies on the chemistry of oxidants in seawater are lacking, as are data about the background levels of disinfection by-products in the oceans and strategies for monitoring future developments. The international approval procedure of ballast water treatment systems compares the estimated exposure levels of individual substances with their experimental toxicity. While well established in many substance regulations, this approach is also criticised for its simplification, which may disregard critical aspects such as multiple exposures and long-term sub-lethal effects. Moreover, a truly holistic sustainability assessment would need to take into account factors beyond chemical hazards, e.g. energy consumption, air pollution or waste generation. © 2014 The Authors.


Serna A.,University of Hamburg | Patsch J.,University of Hamburg | Dahnke K.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Wiesner M.G.,University of Hamburg | And 4 more authors.
Continental Shelf Research | Year: 2010

The German Bight/SE North Sea is considered a hot-spot of river-induced eutrophication, but the scarce observational data of river nitrate loads prior to the 1970s complicate the assessment of target conditions for environmental management and legislation. Stable nitrogen isotope ratios (δ15N) in sediment records can be used to decipher historical river nitrate contributions. To better constrain pre-1970s conditions, we determined δ15N in archive sediment samples (1950-1969) and dated cores from the Helgoland depositional area. We also modeled the δ15N in past situations (1960 and 1860) using an N-isotope-tracking ecosystem model. The modeled spatial distribution of δ15N in sediments for 1960 conditions and the observed spatial pattern of δ15N in archive sediment samples (1950-1969) represent a period of moderate eutrophication. The modeled spatial distribution of δ15N in sediments for 1860 conditions (pre-industrial) showed a moderate δ15N gradient from the Elbe river mouth (δ15N<4<) to the open sea (δ15N~;5<). This pattern contrasts with the δ15N pattern in modern surface sediments, which exhibits a steep and inverted δ15N gradient from the Elbe river mouth (δ15N>9<) to the open sea (δ15N<7<). Modeled δ15N for 1860 conditions are consistent with δ15N values observed in dated sediment cores that span the last 900 years. Value of δ15N in sediment cores increased from approximately 1860 to 2000 by 2.5


PubMed | Swedish Defence Research Agency, University of Aarhus, Quiet Oceans, University of Gdansk and 7 more.
Type: | Journal: Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2015

Management of the impact of underwater sound is an emerging concern worldwide. Several countries are in the process of implementing regulatory legislations. In Europe, the Marine Strategy Framework Directive was launched in 2008. This framework addresses noise impacts and the recommendation is to deal with it on a regional level. The Baltic Sea is a semienclosed area with nine states bordering the sea. The number of ships is one of the highest in Europe. Furthermore, the number of ships is estimated to double by 2030. Undoubtedly, due to the unbound character of noise, an efficient management of sound in the Baltic Sea must be done on a regional scale. In line with the European Union directive, the Baltic Sea Information on the Acoustic Soundscape (BIAS) project was established to implement Descriptor 11 of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive in the Baltic Sea region. BIAS will develop tools, standards, and methodologies that will allow for cross-border handling of data and results, measure sound in 40 locations for 1 year, establish a seasonal soundscape map by combining measured sound with advanced three-dimensional modeling, and, finally, establish standards for measuring continuous sound. Results from the first phase of BIAS are presented here, with an emphasis on standards and soundscape mapping as well as the challenges related to regional handling.


Weigelt A.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Weigelt A.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Ebinghaus R.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Pirrone N.,CNR Institute of Atmospheric Pollution Research | And 8 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2016

The knowledge of the vertical distribution of atmospheric mercury (Hg) plays an important role in determining the transport and cycling of mercury. However, measurements of the vertical distribution are rare, because airborne measurements are expensive and labour intensive. Consequently, only a few vertical Hg profile measurements have been reported since the 1970s. Besides the Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container (CARIBIC) observations, the latest vertical profile over Europe was measured in 1996. Within the Global Mercury Observation System (GMOS) project, four vertical profiles were taken on board research aircraft (CASA-212) in August 2013 in background air over different locations in Slovenia and Germany. Each vertical profile consists of at least seven 5 min horizontal flight sections from 500 m above ground to 3000 m a.s.l. Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) and total gaseous mercury (TGM) were measured with Tekran 2537X and Tekran 2537B analysers. In addition to the mercury measurements, SO2, CO, O3, NO, and NO2, basic meteorological parameters (pressure, temperature, relative humidity) have been measured. Additional ground-based mercury measurements at the GMOS master site in Waldhof, Germany and measurements onboard the CARIBIC passenger aircraft were used to extend the profile to the ground and upper troposphere respectively. No vertical gradient was found inside the well-mixed boundary layer (variation of less than 0.1 ng m-3) at different sites, with GEM varying from location to location between 1.4 and 1.6 ng m-3 (standard temperature and pressure, STP: T Combining double low line 273.15 K, p Combining double low line 1013.25 hPa). At all locations GEM dropped to 1.3 ng m-3 (STP) when entering the free troposphere and remained constant at higher altitudes. The combination of the vertical profile, measured on 21 August 2013 over Leipzig, Germany, with the CARIBIC measurements during ascent and descent to Frankfurt Airport, Germany, taken at approximately the same time, provide a unique central European vertical profile from inside the boundary layer (550 m a.s.l) to the upper free troposphere (10 500 m a.s.l.) and show a fairly constant free-tropospheric TGM concentration of 1.3 ng m-3 (STP). © Author(s) 2016.


Losa S.N.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Danilov S.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Schroter J.,Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research | Janjic T.,German Weather Service | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Marine Systems | Year: 2014

A data assimilation (DA) system has been developed for the operational circulation model of the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (BSH) in order to improve the forecast of hydrographic characteristics in the North and Baltic Seas. It is based on the local Singular Evolutive Interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter algorithm and assimilation of the NOAA AVHRR-derived sea surface temperature (SST). The DA system allows one to improve the agreement of the SST forecast with the satellite observations by 27% on average over the period of October 2007-September 2008. However, a sensitivity analysis of the forecasting system performance shows a significant impact of initial model error statistics on ice fields and bottom temperature. A reinitialisation of model error covariances in accordance with seasonality of the model error statistics was required in order to maintain the predictive skill with respect to these variables. The success of the DA system is quantified by the comparison with independent data from MARNET stations as well as sea ice concentration measurements. In addition, the Maximum Entropy approach is used to assess the system performance and the prior and posterior model error statistics. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Mai C.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Theobald N.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Lammel G.,Max Planck Institute for Chemistry | Lammel G.,Masaryk University | Huhnerfuss H.,University of Hamburg
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2013

Pesticides are transported beyond source regions and reach coastal waters and shelf seas. 23 representatives of six chemical classes of currently-used pesticides (CUPs) were simultaneously quantified in the marine boundary layer and the surface seawater of the German Bight and the central North Sea in 2009 and 2010.Terbuthylazine, metolachlor, metazachlor, pendimethalin and trifluralin exhibited the highest concentrations, seasonally highly variable. Advection of contaminated air from land and subsequent atmospheric deposition was shown to contribute to surface seawater contamination significantly, in particular in regions beyond riverine input and during the main seasons of application in agriculture. Deposition was most significant for the seasonal and spatial distributions of pendimethalin and trifluralin. Atrazine and simazine levels in the air are lower than 1-2 decades ago. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Ahrens L.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Ahrens L.,Lüneburg University | Gerwinski W.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Theobald N.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Ebinghaus R.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht
Marine Pollution Bulletin | Year: 2010

The spatial distribution of 15 polyfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) in surface water was investigated in the North Sea, Baltic Sea and Norwegian Sea. In addition, an interlaboratory comparison of the sampling techniques and analysis was conducted. Highest concentration in the North Sea was found near the coast, whereas the ∑PFC concentration decreased rapidly from 18.4 to 0.07 ng l-1 towards the open North Sea. The river Elbe could identify as a local input source for PFCs into the North Sea, whereas perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) was transported into the sampling area with the easterly current. In contrast to the North Sea, the distribution of PFCs in the Baltic Sea was relatively homogenous, where diffuse sources dominated. In general, the composition profile was influenced from local sources caused by human activities, whereas atmospheric depositions of here analysed PFCs were negligible, but it could have possibly an influence on low contaminated sites like the open North Sea or Norwegian Sea. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Brockmeyer B.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Kraus U.R.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH | Theobald N.,Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2015

Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 °C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66–101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85–126 %). © 2015, The Author(s).


PubMed | Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency BSH
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental science and pollution research international | Year: 2015

Silicone passive samplers have gained an increasing attention as single-phased, practical and robust samplers for monitoring of organic contaminants in the aquatic environment in recent years. However, analytical challenges arise in routine application during the extraction of analytes as silicone oligomers are co-extracted and interfere severely during chemical analyses (e.g. gas chromatographic techniques). In this study, we present a fast, practical pre-cleaning method for silicone passive samplers applying accelerated solvent extraction (ASE) for the removal of silicone oligomers prior to the water deployment (hexane/dichloromethane, 100 C, 70 min). ASE was also shown to be a very fast (10 min) and efficient extraction method for non-polar contaminants (non-exposed PRC recoveries 66-101 %) sampled by the silicone membrane. For both applications, temperature, extraction time and the solvent used for ASE have been optimized. Purification of the ASE extract was carried out by silica gel and high-pressure liquid size exclusion chromatography (HPLC-SEC). The silicone oligomer content was checked by total reflection X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (TXRF) in order to confirm the absence of the silicone oligomers prior to analysis of passive sampler extracts. The established method was applied on real silicone samplers from the North- and Baltic Sea and showed no matrix effects during analysis of organic pollutants. Internal laboratory standard recoveries were in the same range for laboratory, transport and exposed samplers (85-126 %).

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