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Erukainure O.L.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Ajiboye J.A.,Bells University of Technology | Adejobi R.O.,Bells University of Technology | Okafor O.Y.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Adenekan S.O.,University of Lagos
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2011

Objective: To investigate the ability of pineapple peels to protect against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues using male albino rat models. Methods: Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to design a series of experiments to optimize treatment conditions with the aim of investigating the protective effect of pineapple peel extract on alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues. Oxidative stress was induced by oral administration of ethanol (20% w/v) at a dosage of 5 mL/kg bw. The treatment lasted for 28 days. At the end of the treatment, the rats were fasted overnight and sacrificed by cervical dislocation. Tissue homogenates were used for the assessment of protein concentration, reduced glutathione (GSH) content, catalase, and SOD. Results: Alcohol administration caused a significant decrease (P>0.05) in GSH level in the group which was only fed alcohol. Treatment with pineapple peel extracts caused increase in GSH level in alcohol fed groups. No significant difference (P<0.05) was observed in SOD levels of the negative control and group fed on only pineapple peel extract. Elevated level of catalase was observed in the negative control but pineapple peel extract significantly reduced the levels. Conclusions: This study indicates the protective effect of pineapple peel against alcohol-induced oxidative stress in brain tissues. © 2011 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.


Erukainure O.L.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Oke O.V.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Ajiboye A.J.,Bells University of Technology | Okafor O.Y.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research
International Food Research Journal | Year: 2011

The nutritional qualities and phytochemical properties of Clerodendrum volubile, an under-utilized leafy vegetable in Nigeria were studied. Proximate analysis showed a high percentage of crude protein and ash contents (12.14%), Nitrogen Free Extract (NFE) had a higher percent (11.2%), while the highest percentage was observed in Dry matter (DM) content (93.3%). Mineral analysis revealed high contents of sulphur, chlorine, manganese, iodine, and zinc, with sulphur content being the highest (131.45 mg/kg). A very high content of vitamin A was observed in the leafy vegetable, high contents of ascorbic acid and cyanocobalamin were also observed while Niacin and Pyridoxine contents were moderately high. Phytochemical analysis showed a high concentration of phenol (4.13%), this was followed by saponin (2.54%). A low concentration was observed in alkaloids (0.79%), while tannin had the lowest concentration (0.15%). Results from this study indicate that the leafy vegetable can serve as a good nutritional source in combating malnutrition. The presence of bioactive compounds is an affirmation of the use of this leafy vegetable in the management of various ailments, and thus may serve as a source of ingredient to the pharmaceutical industries. © 2008 IFRJ, Faculty of Food Science & Technology, UPM.


Kuforiji O.O.,Bells University of Technology | Kuboye A.O.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Odunfa S.A.,University of Ibadan
International Journal of Plant Biology | Year: 2010

Orange (pulp) and pineapple wastes were used as substrates for citric acid production by two strains of Aspergillus niger. A. niger strains NRRL 567 and 328 produced the maximum amount of citric acid (57.6% and 55.4%, respectively) at a moisture content of 38.9% in orange waste and the highest yields of 46.4% and 45.4% citric acid in pineapple waste at moisture contents of 54.4% and 63.4 %, respectively. The addition of 1-3% methanol to the substrates resulted in reduction in yield in both cases. © Kuforiji Olubukola et al.


Madukasi E.I.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Madukasi E.I.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Chunhua H.,Harbin Institute of Technology | Zhang G.,Harbin Institute of Technology
International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

A new photosynthetic bacterium isolate was morphologically identified as a non-motile rod-shape gram-negative bacterium. It produced a dark red culture under phototrophic condition, reproduced by budding and formed a lamellar intracytoplasmic membrane system parallel to cytoplasmic membrane, which contained bacteriochlorophyll a and caratenoids. It's physiological and nutrient requirement tests gave indication that the isolate thrived and multiplied in varied environmental conditions. It was consequently named Z08 and identified as Rhodobacter sphaeroides by 16SrDNA. Adaptation of Z08 to biodegradation of two environmentally concerned wastewaters, i.e. soybean and pharmaceutical wastewaters, attested its potential in wastewater bioremediation. Z08 adaptation in a suspended batch photobioreactor treating pharmaceutical wastewater at 3500lx radiation recorded best result after wastewater dilution of 1:4 with concomitant chemical oxygen demand reduction, biomass yield and specific growth of 50 %, 780 mg/L and 0.015/h, respectively at the lowest hydraulic retention time of three days. Furthermore, gas chromatography mass spectra analyses of treated and raw pharmaceutical wastewater indicated that high molecular weight recalcitrant compounds found in the pharmaceutical wastewater were transformed to less toxic and acceptable lower molecular weight substances through biodegradation. Whilst Z08 treatment of soybean wastewater under natural light intensity radiation recorded 80 % reduction, 1540 mg/L and 0.025/h for chemical oxygen demand, biomass and specific growth rate respectively regardless of the food to microorganism ratio. This preliminary investigation showed that isolate Z08 has some toxic tolerance level which could detoxify refractory substances with great potential for cell protein recovery in high organic strength wastewater. Therefore, strain Z08 could be employed in biodegradation of contaminated wastewater streams. © IRSEN, CEERS, IAU.


Olasupo N.A.,Lagos State University | Okorie C.P.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Oguntoyinbo F.A.,University of Lagos
Frontiers in Microbiology | Year: 2016

Legumes and oil bean seeds used for the production of condiments in Africa are inedible in their natural state; they contain some anti-nutritional factors especially undigestible oligosaccharides and phytate. Fermentation impact desirable changes by reducing anti-nutritional factors and increasing digestibility. Ugba is an alkaline fermented African oil bean cotyledon (Pentaclethra macrophylla) produced by the Ibos and other ethnic groups in southern Nigeria. Seen as a family business in many homes, its preparation is in accordance with handed-down tradition from previous generations and serves as a cheap source of plant protein. Its consumption as a native salad is made possible by fermentation of the cotyledon for 2-5 days, but could also serve as a soup flavoring agent when fermentation last for 6-10 days. The fermentation process involved is usually natural with an attendant issue of product safety, quality and inconsistency. The production of this condiment is on a small scale and the equipment used are very rudimentary, devoid of good manufacturing procedures that call to question the issue of microbial safety. This paper therefore reviews the production process and the spectrum of microbial composition involved during fermentation. In addition, potential spoilage agents, nutritional and biochemical changes during production are examined. Furthermore, information that can support development of starter cultures for controlled fermentation process in order to guarantee microbiological safety, quality and improved shelf life are also discussed. © 2016 Olasupo, Okorie and Oguntoyinbo.


Egwuche R.U.,Ibb University | Odetola A.A.,University of Ibadan | Erukainure O.L.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research
Research Journal of Phytochemistry | Year: 2011

The leaves of Peperomia pellucida were studied with the aim of investigating the nutritional and phytochemical properties. Proximate composition and phytochemical properties were analyzed using standard procedures, while mineral compositions were determined with UV/Visible and atomic absorption spectrophotometers. Data were reported as mean of triplicates. Proximate analysis showed a high ash content; the crude fibre content was higher, while the carbohydrate content was observed to be the highest. Mineral analysis showed very low contents of manganese, iron, zinc and copper being the lowest, but high sodium content was observed. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, cardenolides, saponins and tannins, while anthraquinones was observed to be absent. A result from this present study indicates an affirmation of the use of this plant in management of various ailments. The observed chemicals are responsible for its medicinal properties. The additive or synergistic action of these chemicals and their compounds at target sites associated with physiological process may be responsible for the beneficial effects exerted by Peperomia pellucida. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Ahmed A.S.,University of Pretoria | Ahmed A.S.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | McGaw L.J.,University of Pretoria | Eloff J.N.,University of Pretoria
BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine | Year: 2013

Background: Microbial infections and resulting inflammation and oxidative stress are common pathogenesis of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders. In South Africa, several species of the genus Maytenus are used in traditional medicine to treat various infectious diseases. Most of the previous work on this genus was focused on nonpolar extracts from the root and bark. In this study, leaf extracts of polar extracts of Maytenus peduncularis, Maytenus procumbens, Maytenus senegalensis and Maytenus undata were evaluated for antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities to determine their efficacy as therapeutic agents in GIT disorders.Methods: Phenolic-enriched leaf extracts and fractions were prepared by extracting with acidified 70% methanol and solvent-solvent fractionation. The activities of the fractions against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis as well as clinical isolates of Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans and Cryptococcus neoformans were determined using a serial microplate dilution method. Antioxidant activities were determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), hydroxyl (OH) radical scavenging and linoleic acid peroxidation inhibitory assays. The phenolic composition as well as the cytotoxicity against Vero cell lines of the crude extracts was evaluated using various standard protocols.Results: The antimicrobial activities were concentrated in the non-polar fractions of hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate (MICs 19-312 μg/ml). The crude extracts and polar fractions (butanol and water) had moderate to poor antimicrobial activity (MICs 312 to above 2500 μg/ml). The crude extracts and polar fractions had good antioxidant activity (EC50 values varied from 1.22 to 607 μg/ml, 1.71 to 312 μg/ml and 23 to 284 μg/ml for DPPH, ABTS and OH respectively. Linoleic acid peroxidation inhibition EC50 values of the crude extracts ranged between 27 and 39 μg/ml with relatively low toxicity against Vero cell lines (IC50 values 87 to 187 μg/ml). Fractionation of a crude extract with low activity could lead to fractions with more potent activity.Conclusion: This study justifies the traditional use of leaf crude extracts and fractions from these four plants to remedy gastrointestinal disorders resulting from infection, inflammation and oxidative stress complications. The study also provides rationale for the use of leaf extracts with same beneficial effects in place of unsustainable root and bark harvest. © 2013 Ahmed et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Orji F.A.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Ibiene A.A.,University of Port Harcourt | Dike E.N.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research
Malaysian Journal of Microbiology | Year: 2012

Aims: The aim of the study was to carry-out laboratory-scale bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbon polluted mangrove swamps using cow dung as source of limiting of nutrients. Methodology and Results: In a 70 days study, the cow dung treated polluted soil had its total culturable hydrocarbon utilising bacterial/fungi, heterotrophic bacterial and fungal counts increased progressively from the 28th day to the 70th day. The control set- up showed very slight increment in its microbial growth. Alkaline pH was observed in all the treatments and control during the study period. The conductivity values of cow dung decreased progressively. In the cow dung treatment option, the nitrate concentration decreased from 35.44 mg/kg to 14.28 mg/kg. Phosphate concentration of cow dung option decreased from 25.41 mg/kg to 9.31mg/kg. The control had the nitrate decreased from 8.42 mg/kg to 6.98 mg/kg. Percentage total organic carbon (% TOC) in the cow dung option decreased from 4.06% to 0.96%. Control experiment had the % TOC decreased from 3.32% to 2.99%. Studies using Gas chromatographic analyses showed that 0%, 49.88%, and 69.85% of Total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively in the cow dung option. In addition, in the control experimental set-up, 0%, 7.14% and 13.42% of TPH were lost at zero hour, 28th day and 70th day respectively. Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The use of organic nutrient sources such as cow dung has shown good promises in bioremediation of crude oil impacted Mangrove Swamps in the Niger Delta. The next line of action is to transfer the technology to pilot scale study.


Elemo G.N.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Elemo B.O.,Lagos State University | Okafor J.N.C.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research
American Journal of Food Technology | Year: 2011

Weaning food was produced from sorghum and cowpea based on a malted technology with a view to determining the amylase activity, nutritional composition/properties and its ability to meet the Recommended Dietary Allowance. Malted sorghum flour was produced (steeping, germination, drying, toasting, grinding and sieving) and steamed cooked cowpea flour was produced. Both were blended in ratio 2:1 to get malted weaning food (GSC), unmalted sorghum and steamed cooked cowpea in same ratio was also produced (USC). Optimum amylase activity of sorghum was determined, proximate composition, amino acid, vitamin and mineral contents were analysed. Seventy two hours gave optimum amylase activity with reduced dietary bulk in GSC due to decrease in viscosity. Germination had no significant effect on protein contents, 12.07 g (GSC) and 12.57 g (USC), samples met 1/3 RDA protein requirement for 1-3 years old child. Germination significantly increased essential amino acid except sulphur amino acids and tryptophan. GSC had amino acid value that approximate FAO reference pattern except for threonine that was also the limiting amino acid. Vitamin A ie beta-carotene (267.0 IU/100 g), thiamin (0.24 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (5.0 mg/100 g) were increased from 197.0 IU/100 g (Vit. A), 0.16 mg/100 g (thiamin) and 2.73 mg/100 g (ascorbic acid) in GSC. Phosphorus and iron contents also increased from 91.65 mg/100 g and 4.01 mg/100 g to 100.0 mg/100 g and 6.40 mg/100 g, respectively. Weaning food based on germinated sorghum had improved/superior nutritional values compared to the ungerminated. Germination significantly increased essential amino except for Histidine, sulphur amino acid and tryptophan. It also increased phosphorus, iron, vitamin A (β-carotene) thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and ascorbic acid. © 2011 Academic Journals Inc.


Olatunji O.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Igwe C.C.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Ahmed A.S.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | Alhassan D.O.A.,Federal Institute of Industrial Research | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Applied Polymer Science | Year: 2014

This article reports on microneedles produced from biopolymer films extracted from fish scales of tilapia (Oreochromiss sp.) using micromolding technique. Evaluation of the properties of polypeptide films prepared from the fish scales gave refractive index (1.34), protein concentration (78%), ash content (1.6%) at (22%) moisture content. The microneedles successfully inserted into artificial skin models and imaging using digital camera showed microneedles remained intact when inserted and when removed from the skin model. Microneedles also successfully inserted into porcine skin and were shown to dissolve gradually at 0 s, 60 s, 120 s, and 180 s after insertion. Microneedles containing methylene blue as model drug were also produced and successfully pierced porcine skin. 3D finite element (FEM) simulations were performed using the measured mechanical properties of the biopolymer films (Young's modulus 0.23 N/mm2 and tensile strength 1.8105 N/mm2) to evaluate the stress distribution on various dimensions of the fish scale derived microneedles and hence, their ability to withstand force necessary to pierce the skin without fracture. Results from mechanical analysis using FEM showed that microneedles with tip radius between 10 and 100 μm could withstand up to 0.12 N of force per microneedle without fracture, which is indicated when the stress at the tip of the microneedle exceeds the ultimate stress of the material of fabrication. Using skin insertion tests and finite element simulations, this study provides evidence that microneedles fabricated from fish scale biopolymer can effectively pierce and degrade into skin and therefore are good candidate for transdermal applications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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