Federal Institute of Drugs and Medical Devices BfArM

Bonn, Germany

Federal Institute of Drugs and Medical Devices BfArM

Bonn, Germany
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PubMed | Karolinska Institutet, University of Cologne, University Pierre and Marie Curie, Lille University Hospital Center and 22 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The journal of prevention of Alzheimer's disease | Year: 2015

Alzheimers disease (AD) is a slowly progressing non-linear dynamic brain disease in which pathophysiological abnormalities, detectable in vivo by biological markers, precede overt clinical symptoms by many years to decades. Use of these biomarkers for the detection of early and preclinical AD has become of central importance following publication of two international expert working groups revised criteria for the diagnosis of AD dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD, prodromal AD and preclinical AD. As a consequence of matured research evidence six AD biomarkers are sufficiently validated and partly qualified to be incorporated into operationalized clinical diagnostic criteria and use in primary and secondary prevention trials. These biomarkers fall into two molecular categories: biomarkers of amyloid-beta (A) deposition and plaque formation as well as of tau-protein related hyperphosphorylation and neurodegeneration. Three of the six gold-standard (core feasible) biomarkers are neuroimaging measures and three are cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analytes. CSF A1-42 (A1-42), also expressed as A1-42 : A1-40 ratio, T-tau, and P-tau Thr181 & Thr231 proteins have proven diagnostic accuracy and risk enhancement in prodromal MCI and AD dementia. Conversely, having all three biomarkers in the normal range rules out AD. Intermediate conditions require further patient follow-up. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at increasing field strength and resolution allows detecting the evolution of distinct types of structural and functional abnormality pattern throughout early to late AD stages. Anatomical or volumetric MRI is the most widely used technique and provides local and global measures of atrophy. The revised diagnostic criteria for prodromal AD and mild cognitive impairment due to AD include hippocampal atrophy (as the fourth validated biomarker), which is considered an indicator of regional neuronal injury. Advanced image analysis techniques generate automatic and reproducible measures both in regions of interest, such as the hippocampus and in an exploratory fashion, observer and hypothesis-indedendent, throughout the entire brain. Evolving modalities such as diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) and advanced tractography as well as resting-state functional MRI provide useful additionally useful measures indicating the degree of fiber tract and neural network disintegration (structural, effective and functional connectivity) that may substantially contribute to early detection and the mapping of progression. These modalities require further standardization and validation. The use of molecular in vivo amyloid imaging agents (the fifth validated biomarker), such as the Pittsburgh Compound-B and markers of neurodegeneration, such as fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) (as the sixth validated biomarker) support the detection of early AD pathological processes and associated neurodegeneration. How to use, interpret, and disclose biomarker results drives the need for optimized standardization. Multimodal AD biomarkers do not evolve in an identical manner but rather in a sequential but temporally overlapping fashion. Models of the temporal evolution of AD biomarkers can take the form of plots of biomarker severity (degree of abnormality) versus time. AD biomarkers can be combined to increase accuracy or risk. A list of genetic risk factors is increasingly included in secondary prevention trials to stratify and select individuals at genetic risk of AD. Although most of these biomarker candidates are not yet qualified and approved by regulatory authorities for their intended use in drug trials, they are nonetheless applied in ongoing clinical studies for the following functions: (i) inclusion/exclusion criteria, (ii) patient stratification, (iii) evaluation of treatment effect, (iv) drug target engagement, and (v) safety. Moreover, novel promising hypothesis-driven, as well as exploratory biochemical, genetic, electrophysiological, and neuroimaging markers for use in clinical trials are being developed. The current state-of-the-art and future perspectives on both biological and neuroimaging derived biomarker discovery and development as well as the intended application in prevention trials is outlined in the present publication.


Lista S.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Molinuevo J.L.,Institute dInvestigacions Biomediques August Pi i Sunyer IDIBAPS | Cavedo E.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Cavedo E.,Multicenter Neuroimaging Platform | And 30 more authors.
Journal of Alzheimer's Disease | Year: 2015

There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein β4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials. © 2015 - IOS Press and the authors. All rights reserved.


Hampel H.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Lista S.,Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg | Teipel S.J.,University of Rostock | Teipel S.J.,German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases | And 32 more authors.
Biochemical Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying various paths toward the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has begun to provide new insight for interventions to modify disease progression. The evolving knowledge gained from multidisciplinary basic research has begun to identify new concepts for treatments and distinct classes of therapeutic targets; as well as putative disease-modifying compounds that are now being tested in clinical trials. There is a mounting consensus that such disease modifying compounds and/or interventions are more likely to be effectively administered as early as possible in the cascade of pathogenic processes preceding and underlying the clinical expression of AD. The budding sentiment is that "treatments" need to be applied before various molecular mechanisms converge into an irreversible pathway leading to morphological, metabolic and functional alterations that characterize the pathophysiology of AD. In light of this, biological indicators of pathophysiological mechanisms are desired to chart and detect AD throughout the asymptomatic early molecular stages into the prodromal and early dementia phase. A major conceptual development in the clinical AD research field was the recent proposal of new diagnostic criteria, which specifically incorporate the use of biomarkers as defining criteria for preclinical stages of AD. This paradigm shift in AD definition, conceptualization, operationalization, detection and diagnosis represents novel fundamental opportunities for the modification of interventional trial designs. This perspective summarizes not only present knowledge regarding biological markers but also unresolved questions on the status of surrogate indicators for detection of the disease in asymptomatic people and diagnosis of AD. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | Martin Luther University of Halle Wittenberg, University of Cologne, Federal Institute of Drugs and Medical Devices BfArM, The Campaign to Prevent Alzheimers Disease by 2020 PAD2020 and 10 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biochemical pharmacology | Year: 2014

Recent advances in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying various paths toward the pathogenesis of Alzheimers disease (AD) has begun to provide new insight for interventions to modify disease progression. The evolving knowledge gained from multidisciplinary basic research has begun to identify new concepts for treatments and distinct classes of therapeutic targets; as well as putative disease-modifying compounds that are now being tested in clinical trials. There is a mounting consensus that such disease modifying compounds and/or interventions are more likely to be effectively administered as early as possible in the cascade of pathogenic processes preceding and underlying the clinical expression of AD. The budding sentiment is that treatments need to be applied before various molecular mechanisms converge into an irreversible pathway leading to morphological, metabolic and functional alterations that characterize the pathophysiology of AD. In light of this, biological indicators of pathophysiological mechanisms are desired to chart and detect AD throughout the asymptomatic early molecular stages into the prodromal and early dementia phase. A major conceptual development in the clinical AD research field was the recent proposal of new diagnostic criteria, which specifically incorporate the use of biomarkers as defining criteria for preclinical stages of AD. This paradigm shift in AD definition, conceptualization, operationalization, detection and diagnosis represents novel fundamental opportunities for the modification of interventional trial designs. This perspective summarizes not only present knowledge regarding biological markers but also unresolved questions on the status of surrogate indicators for detection of the disease in asymptomatic people and diagnosis of AD.


PubMed | Medical & Scientific Relations, IRCCS Instituto Centro San Giovanni diDio Fatebenefratelli, University of Rome Tor Vergata, Federal Institute of Drugs and Medical Devices BfArM and 10 more.
Type: | Journal: Journal of Alzheimer's disease : JAD | Year: 2015

There is evolving evidence that individuals categorized with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) are potentially at higher risk for developing objective and progressive cognitive impairment compared to cognitively healthy individuals without apparent subjective complaints. Interestingly, SCD, during advancing preclinical Alzheimers disease (AD), may denote very early, subtle cognitive decline that cannot be identified using established standardized tests of cognitive performance. The substantial heterogeneity of existing SCD-related research data has led the Subjective Cognitive Decline Initiative (SCD-I) to accomplish an international consensus on the definition of a conceptual research framework on SCD in preclinical AD. In the area of biological markers, the cerebrospinal fluid signature of AD has been reported to be more prevalent in subjects with SCD compared to healthy controls; moreover, there is a pronounced atrophy, as demonstrated by magnetic resonance imaging, and an increased hypometabolism, as revealed by positron emission tomography, in characteristic brain regions affected by AD. In addition, SCD individuals carrying an apolipoprotein 4 allele are more likely to display AD-phenotypic alterations. The urgent requirement to detect and diagnose AD as early as possible has led to the critical examination of the diagnostic power of biological markers, neurophysiology, and neuroimaging methods for AD-related risk and clinical progression in individuals defined with SCD. Observational studies on the predictive value of SCD for developing AD may potentially be of practical value, and an evidence-based, validated, qualified, and fully operationalized concept may inform clinical diagnostic practice and guide earlier designs in future therapy trials.


Fuerst D.,Red Cross | Fuerst D.,University of Ulm | Parmar S.,University of Ulm | Schumann C.,University of Ulm | And 11 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2012

Aim: Development of a skin rash under treatment with EGF receptor (EGFR) inhibitors (EGFRIs) has been linked to a favorable prognosis in some studies, suggesting a possible immunological role for EGFRIs in addition to direct antagonistic downstream effects. The present study aimed to investigate whether particular HLA polymorphisms found in cancer patients treated with EGFRIs are associated with the development of skin rash and overall survival rates. Patients & methods: HLA typing was performed on 105 cancer patients and the development of skin rash was rated during the first 4 weeks of therapy with EGFRIs. Results: A significantly lower incidence of skin rash was found in patients carrying the HLA-A*02:01 or HLA-A*03:01 alleles (hazard ratio: 0.277; 95% CI: 0.121-0.634; p = 0.002 and hazard ratio: 0.292; 95% CI: 0.113-0.752; p = 0.011, respectively); however, no association with worse survival was seen. Conclusion: The chances of developing a skin rash in patients treated with EGFRIs may be lower in patients that carry the HLA-A*02:01 or HLA-A*03:01 alleles, while the antitumor efficacy of EGFRIs does not seem to be significantly impaired in these patients. Original submitted 20 April 2012; Revision submitted 9 July 201. © 2012 Future Medicine Ltd.


Paul T.,University of Ulm | Schumann C.,University of Ulm | Rudiger S.,University of Ulm | Boeck S.,Ludwig Maximilians University of Munich | And 8 more authors.
European Journal of Cancer | Year: 2014

Aim Epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor (EGFRI) induced skin toxicity has a prognostic value suggesting skin toxicity can be a useful surrogate marker for successful epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibition, improved response and survival. But the pathophysiology of EGFRI induced skin toxicity remains elusive. However the involvement of immunological mechanisms has been speculated. This study investigates the possible underlying mechanism of EGFR inhibition associated cytokine production in keratinocytes as well as in patients after treatment with epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitors (EGFRIs). Methods Normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) were incubated for 2 and 24 h with different concentrations of EGFRI (erlotinib) for Western blot analysis and cytokine expression analysis, respectively. Inhibition of EGFR, extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (Erk 1/2) and c-Jun was examined by Western blot analysis. Cytokine concentrations were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the NHEK cell supernatant and also in the serum of 186 cancer patients who are followed up for EGFRI induced skin rash. Results A significant inhibitory effect of EGFRI was seen on EGFR (Y845), Erk 1/2 and c-Jun in a dose dependent manner. Further downstream, increased CC-chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2), CC-chemokine ligand 5 (CCL5) and decreased interleukin-8 (IL-8) or CXCL8 expression was observed in keratinocytes. In EGFRI treated patients, low levels of serum CXCL8 corresponding to stronger EGFR inhibition were associated with a higher grade of skin toxicity (p = 0.0016) and a prolonged overall survival (p = 0.018). Conclusions The results obtained in this study indicate that EGFRI can regulate cytokines by modulating EGFR signalling pathway in keratinocytes. Moreover, serum levels of CXCL8 in EGFRI treated patients may be important for individual EGFRI induced skin toxicity and patient's survival. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Hasheminasab S.-M.,University of Gottingen | Tzvetkov M.V.,University of Gottingen | Schumann C.,University of Ulm | Rudiger S.,University of Ulm | And 8 more authors.
Pharmacogenomics | Year: 2015

Aim: To identify genomic variants in the EGFR pathway and in cytokines predisposing to skin toxicity from EGFR inhibitors. Patients & methods: In 126 patients with cancer and EGFR inhibitor therapy skin toxicity was quantified and EGFR and inflammatory pathway genes were analyzed by deep sequencing. Results: We found 1437 SNPs in the 382-kb target region. Three SNPs in EGFR intron 1 were found exclusively in patients without skin rash. Another EGFR intron 23 SNP was associated with skin rash, overall survival and IL8 plasma concentrations. Moreover, carriers of the PIK3R1 326I variant were predisposed to skin rash and better survival. Conclusion: Comprehensive pathway-based resequencing revealed some new but only moderately strong genomic predictors of skin toxicity. © 2015 Future Medicine Ltd.

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