Abdullah N.R.,Institute for Medical Research |
Norahmad N.A.,Institute for Medical Research |
Sulaiman L.H.,Federal Government Administrative Center |
Mohd Sidek H.,National University of Malaysia |
And 2 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013
Background: Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been in use for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia since the 1970s and is still widely employed in spite of widespread clinical resistance. Resistance to SP is known to be mediated by mutations in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of pfdhfr and pfdhps gene polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kalabakan, Sabah, in northern Borneo. Methods. A total number of 619 individuals were screened from 23 study sites of which 31 were positive for P. falciparum. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) was used to identify polymorphism in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes at positions 16, 51, 59, 108, 164 and 437, 540, 581, respectively. Results: All samples had at least one mutation in each of the genes associated with drug resistance. The prevalence of pfdhfr 59arg, 164leu and 108asn were 100%, 80.65% and 58.06%, respectively. Pfdhps mutants 437gly and 581gly accounted for 100% and 74.19% respectively. In pfdhfr, the most common mutant genotypes were combination 59arg + 164leu (22.58%) and 59arg + 108asn + 164leu (51.61%). In pfdhps the most common genotype was 437gly + 581gly (74.19%). One individual (3.22%) harboured parasites with four pfdhfr (16 val + 59arg + 108asn + 164leu) and two pfdhps (437gly + 581gly) mutations. The highest quintuple pfdhfr/pfdhps (41.94%) was three pfdhfr (59arg + 108asn + 164gly) and two pfdhps (437gly + 581gly). Conclusion: The data suggest a high prevalence of genetic variations conferring resistance to SP which can predict treatment failure before becoming clinically evident. In areas like this, the use of SP may no longer be indicated. © 2013 Abdullah et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
PubMed | Mahidol University, Sabah District Health Office Kota Marudu, Institute for Medical Research and Federal Government Administrative Center
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016
Chloroquine (CQ) and fansidar (sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, SP) were widely used for treatment of Plasmodium falciparum for several decades in Malaysia prior to the introduction of Artemisinin-based Combination Therapy (ACT) in 2008. Our previous study in Kalabakan, located in south-east coast of Sabah showed a high prevalence of resistance to CQ and SP, suggesting the use of the treatment may no longer be effective in the area. This study aimed to provide a baseline data of antimalarial drug resistant markers on P. falciparum isolates in Kota Marudu located in the north-east coast of Sabah. Mutations on genes associated with CQ (pfcrt and pfmdr1) and SP (pfdhps and pfdhfr) were assessed by PCR amplification and restriction fragment length polymorphism. Mutations on the kelch13 marker (K13) associated with artemisinin resistance were determined by DNA sequencing technique. The assessment of pfmdr1 copy number variation associated with mefloquine resistant was done by real-time PCR technique. A low prevalence (6.9%) was indicated for both pfcrt K76T and pfmdr1 N86Y mutations. All P. falciparum isolates harboured the pfdhps A437G mutation. Prevalence of pfdhfr gene mutations, S108N and I164L, were 100% and 10.3%, respectively. Combining the different resistant markers, only two isolates were conferred to have CQ and SP treatment failure markers as they contained mutant alleles of pfcrt and pfmdr1 together with quintuple pfdhps/pfdhfr mutation (combination of pfdhps A437G+A581G and pfdhfr C59R+S108N+I164L). All P. falciparum isolates carried single copy number of pfmdr1 and wild type K13 marker. This study has demonstrated a low prevalence of CQ and SP resistance alleles in the study area. Continuous monitoring of antimalarial drug efficacy is warranted and the findings provide information for policy makers in ensuring a proper malaria control.
Wong W.R.,University of California at Santa Cruz |
Wong W.R.,Federal Government Administrative Center |
Oliver A.G.,University of Notre Dame |
Linington R.G.,University of California at Santa Cruz
Chemistry and Biology | Year: 2012
Despite recognition of the looming antibiotic crisis by healthcare professionals, the number of new antibiotics reaching the clinic continues to decline sharply. This study aimed to establish an antibiotic profiling strategy using a panel of clinically relevant bacterial strains to create unique biological fingerprints for all major classes of antibiotics. Antibiotic mode of action profile (BioMAP) screening has been shown to effectively cluster antibiotics by structural class based on these fingerprints. Using this approach, we have accurately predicted the presence of known antibiotics in natural product extracts and have discovered a naphthoquinone-based antibiotic from our marine natural product library that possesses a unique carbon skeleton. We have demonstrated that bioactivity fingerprinting is a successful strategy for profiling antibiotic lead compounds and that BioMAP can be applied to the discovery of new natural product antibiotics leads. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
PubMed | University Putra Malaysia, Malaysian Agricultural Research & Development Institute MARDI Headquarters and Federal Government Administrative Center
Type: Comparative Study | Journal: Molecules (Basel, Switzerland) | Year: 2014
Food manufacturers are interested in developing emulsion-based products into nutritional foods by using beneficial oils, such as fish oil and virgin coconut oil (VCO). In this study, the physicochemical properties of a VCO oil-in-water emulsion was investigated and compared to other commercial oil-in-water emulsion products (C1, C2, C3, and C4). C3 exhibited the smallest droplet size of 3.25 m. The pH for the emulsion samples ranged from 2.52 to 4.38 and thus were categorised as acidic. In a texture analysis, C2 was described as the most firm, very adhesive and cohesive, as well as having high compressibility properties. From a rheological viewpoint, all the emulsion samples exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour, which manifested as a shear-thinning property. The GG crossover illustrated by the VCO emulsion in the amplitude sweep graph but not the other commercial samples illustrated that the VCO emulsion had a better mouthfeel. In this context, the VCO emulsion yielded the highest zeta potential (64.86 mV), which was attributed to its strong repulsive forces, leading to a good dispersion system. C2 comprised the highest percentage of fat among all emulsion samples, followed by the VCO emulsion, with 18.44% and 6.59%, respectively.
Zarfeshani A.,University Putra Malaysia |
Khaza'ai H.,University Putra Malaysia |
Mohd Ali R.,University Putra Malaysia |
Hambali Z.,Federal Government Administrative Center |
And 2 more authors.
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins | Year: 2011
It has been demonstrated that probiotic supplementation has positive effects in several murine models of disease through influences on host immune responses. This study examined the effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (L. casei Shirota) on the blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), and body weight among STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg BW) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Streptozotocin caused a significant increase in the blood glucose levels, CRP, and IL-6. L. casei Shirota supplementation lowered the CRP and IL-6 levels but had no significant effect on the blood glucose levels, body weight, or IL-4. Inflammation was determined histologically. The presence of the innate immune cells was not detectable in the liver of L. casei Shirota-treated hyperglycemic rats. The probiotic L. casei Shirota significantly lowered blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, CRP) and neutrophils in diabetic rats, showing a lower risk of diabetes mellitus and its complications. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
PubMed | Health Level, Federal Government Administrative Center and Institute for Medical Research
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Malaysian journal of medical sciences : MJMS | Year: 2015
The current Ebola outbreak, which is the first to affect West African countries, has been declared to have met the conditions for a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) by the World Health Organization (WHO). Thus, the Ministry of Health (MOH) of Malaysia has taken steps to strengthen and enhanced the five core components of preparedness and response to mitigate the outbreak. The National Crisis Preparedness and Response Centre (CPRC) commands, controls and coordinates the preparedness and response plans for disasters, outbreaks, crises and emergencies (DOCE) related to health in a centralised way. Through standardised case definition and mandatory notification of Ebola by public and private practitioners, surveillance of Ebola is made possible. Government hospitals and laboratories have been identified to manage and diagnose Ebola virus infections, and medical staff members have been trained to handle an Ebola outbreak, with emphasis on strict infection prevention and control practices. Monitoring of the points of entry, focusing on travellers and students visiting or coming from West African countries is made possible by interagency collaborations. To alleviate the publics anxiety, effective risk communications are being delivered through various channels. With experience in past outbreak control, the MOHs preparedness and response plans are in place to abate an Ebola outbreak.
Sarker M.R.,National University of Malaysia |
Ali S.H.Md.,National University of Malaysia |
Othman M.,Federal Government Administrative Center |
Islam S.,National University of Malaysia
Journal of Physics: Conference Series | Year: 2013
This paper presents a designing a battery-less piezoelectric based energy harvesting interface circuits with 300mV step-up voltage. A technique (i.e., DC-DC Step-Up converter) has chosen for designing the startup voltage with low voltage energy (i.e., 300mV). The proposed method consumes very little power, and is especially suitable for the ambient environmental source, where energy harvested power is very low. The energy harvesting interface circuit consists of MOSFET bridge ac-dc rectifier, voltage regulator, dc-dc step-up converter and an energy storage device with capacitor at the output terminal, replacing this by external battery. This paper will study results these important issues regarding the efficiencies of the energy harvesting power conversion interface circuits considering the storage device low voltage. The achievement of our development circuit is able to boost up minimum 1.67 V for input DC voltage of 300mV. The overall circuit efficiency is greater than 80% following the simulation results. This research has focused on the application of Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) and bio-medical device can be operated without battery.
Zalma A.R.,University Technology of MARA |
Zalma A.R.,Federal Government Administrative Center |
Safiah M.Y.,University Technology of MARA |
Ajau D.,University Technology of MARA |
Khairil Anuar M.I.,University Technology of MARA
Health Promotion International | Year: 2015
Interventions to counter the influence of television food advertising amongst children are important. Thus, reliable and valid instrument to assess its effect is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of such a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered twice on 32 primary schoolchildren aged 10-11 years in Selangor, Malaysia. The interval between the first and second administration was 2 weeks. Test-retest method was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. Intra-rater reliability was determined by kappa coefficient and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis. The test-retest correlation showed moderate-to-high reliability for all scores (r = 0.40∗, p = 0.02 to r = 0.95∗∗, p = 0.00), with one exception, consumption of fast foods (r = 0.24, p = 0.20). Kappa coefficient showed acceptable-to-strong intra-rater reliability (K = 0.40-0.92), except for two items under knowledge on television food advertising (K = 0.26 and K = 0.21) and one item under preference for healthier foods (K = 0.33). Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated acceptable internal consistency for all scores (0.45-0.60). After deleting two items under Consumption of Commonly Advertised Food, the items showed moderate-to-high loading (0.52, 0.84, 0.42 and 0.42) with the Scree plot showing that there was only one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.60, showing that the sample was adequate for factor analysis. The questionnaire on television food advertising is reliable and valid to assess the effect of media literacy education on television food advertising on schoolchildren. © 2013 The Author (2013).
Siar C.H.,University of Malaya |
Mah M.C.,University Technology of MARA |
Gill P.P.,Federal Government Administrative Center
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology | Year: 2012
Early detection of oral potentially malignant epithelial lesions (PMELs) is aimed at improving survival rates as carcinogenesis is a multistep process and prevention is possible if these lesions are detected at an early and reversible stage of the disease. A prospective clinical study aimed at determining the prevalence of bilateral 'mirror-image' oral PMELs was carried out. Sample consisted of 32 (53.3%) Indians, 23 (38.3%) Chinese, 4 (6.7%) Malays and one (1.7%) Nepalese. All had histopathological confirmation of their primary existing PMEL as inclusion criteria. A total of 70 primary lesions were detected. The most common PMEL found was oral lichen planus. Of these, 28 (46.7%) patients exhibited bilateral 'mirror-image' lesions (n = 42) either synchronously (n = 32/42) or metachronously (n = 10/42). The remaining 32 (53.3%) patients had normal-looking contralateral mucosa. Present findings suggest that patients presenting with oral PMELs are at greater risk of developing a second lesion, most probably in the contralateral 'mirror-image' site. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Mooi C.M.Y.,Federal Government Administrative Center |
Koh S.P.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI |
Long K.,Malaysian Agricultural Research and Development Institute MARDI
Journal of Analytical Chemistry | Year: 2015
Trans-zeatin and kinetin are two cytokinin family members that exhibit an anti-aging effect on human fibroblast cells. These cytokinins can be found in coconut water and in the xylem sap of most plants. This study describes the first attempt of a simultaneous separation of zeatin and kinetin using a simple C18 solid phase extraction (SPE) method coupled with ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). This method provided high recoveries of 95.2 and 98.6% for trans-zeatin and kinetin, respectively. Malayan Green Dwarf, a local coconut variety, was found to contain 14 μg/L trans-zeatin and 4 μg/L kinetin. This method will be useful for comprehensive research on different coconut varieties and determining the contents of cytokinins in coconut water. © 2015, Pleiades Publishing, Ltd.