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Natthondan V.,Federal Government Administrative Center | Graham M.,Air Quality Inc.
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products | Year: 2011

A study of the factors that influence dust-generation during the sanding process of Malaysian hardwoods was undertaken. It was found that the amount of wood removed during the sanding process predetermined dust-generation, although the wood density and abrasive grit used also played a role. Consequently, low density wood species produced higher dust-concentration due to its relative ease of sanding, and vice-versa. The results of the study suggest that minimizing dust-generation during the hardwood sanding process could be achieved by ensuring minimal amount of wood removal as well as the use of the coarsest possible abrasive grit in the process. © 2009 Springer-Verlag. Source

Siar C.H.,University of Malaya | Mah M.C.,University Technology of MARA | Gill P.P.,Federal Government Administrative Center
European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology | Year: 2012

Early detection of oral potentially malignant epithelial lesions (PMELs) is aimed at improving survival rates as carcinogenesis is a multistep process and prevention is possible if these lesions are detected at an early and reversible stage of the disease. A prospective clinical study aimed at determining the prevalence of bilateral 'mirror-image' oral PMELs was carried out. Sample consisted of 32 (53.3%) Indians, 23 (38.3%) Chinese, 4 (6.7%) Malays and one (1.7%) Nepalese. All had histopathological confirmation of their primary existing PMEL as inclusion criteria. A total of 70 primary lesions were detected. The most common PMEL found was oral lichen planus. Of these, 28 (46.7%) patients exhibited bilateral 'mirror-image' lesions (n = 42) either synchronously (n = 32/42) or metachronously (n = 10/42). The remaining 32 (53.3%) patients had normal-looking contralateral mucosa. Present findings suggest that patients presenting with oral PMELs are at greater risk of developing a second lesion, most probably in the contralateral 'mirror-image' site. © 2011 Springer-Verlag. Source

Zarfeshani A.,University Putra Malaysia | Khaza'ai H.,University Putra Malaysia | Mohd Ali R.,University Putra Malaysia | Hambali Z.,Federal Government Administrative Center | And 2 more authors.
Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins | Year: 2011

It has been demonstrated that probiotic supplementation has positive effects in several murine models of disease through influences on host immune responses. This study examined the effect of Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (L. casei Shirota) on the blood glucose, C-reactive protein (CRP), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), Interleukin-4 (IL-4), and body weight among STZ-induced diabetic rats. Diabetes mellitus was induced by streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg BW) in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Streptozotocin caused a significant increase in the blood glucose levels, CRP, and IL-6. L. casei Shirota supplementation lowered the CRP and IL-6 levels but had no significant effect on the blood glucose levels, body weight, or IL-4. Inflammation was determined histologically. The presence of the innate immune cells was not detectable in the liver of L. casei Shirota-treated hyperglycemic rats. The probiotic L. casei Shirota significantly lowered blood levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, CRP) and neutrophils in diabetic rats, showing a lower risk of diabetes mellitus and its complications. © 2011 Springer Science + Business Media, LLC. Source

Abdullah N.R.,Institute for Medical Research | Norahmad N.A.,Institute for Medical Research | Jelip J.,Jalan Materials Salleh | Sulaiman L.H.,Federal Government Administrative Center | And 3 more authors.
Malaria Journal | Year: 2013

Background: Sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) has been in use for the treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Malaysia since the 1970s and is still widely employed in spite of widespread clinical resistance. Resistance to SP is known to be mediated by mutations in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the distribution of pfdhfr and pfdhps gene polymorphism in Plasmodium falciparum field isolates from Kalabakan, Sabah, in northern Borneo. Methods. A total number of 619 individuals were screened from 23 study sites of which 31 were positive for P. falciparum. Analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP) was used to identify polymorphism in the pfdhfr and pfdhps genes at positions 16, 51, 59, 108, 164 and 437, 540, 581, respectively. Results: All samples had at least one mutation in each of the genes associated with drug resistance. The prevalence of pfdhfr 59arg, 164leu and 108asn were 100%, 80.65% and 58.06%, respectively. Pfdhps mutants 437gly and 581gly accounted for 100% and 74.19% respectively. In pfdhfr, the most common mutant genotypes were combination 59arg + 164leu (22.58%) and 59arg + 108asn + 164leu (51.61%). In pfdhps the most common genotype was 437gly + 581gly (74.19%). One individual (3.22%) harboured parasites with four pfdhfr (16 val + 59arg + 108asn + 164leu) and two pfdhps (437gly + 581gly) mutations. The highest quintuple pfdhfr/pfdhps (41.94%) was three pfdhfr (59arg + 108asn + 164gly) and two pfdhps (437gly + 581gly). Conclusion: The data suggest a high prevalence of genetic variations conferring resistance to SP which can predict treatment failure before becoming clinically evident. In areas like this, the use of SP may no longer be indicated. © 2013 Abdullah et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Zalma A.R.,University Technology of MARA | Zalma A.R.,Federal Government Administrative Center | Safiah M.Y.,University Technology of MARA | Ajau D.,University Technology of MARA | Khairil Anuar M.I.,University Technology of MARA
Health Promotion International | Year: 2015

Interventions to counter the influence of television food advertising amongst children are important. Thus, reliable and valid instrument to assess its effect is needed. The objective of this study was to determine the reliability and validity of such a questionnaire. The questionnaire was administered twice on 32 primary schoolchildren aged 10-11 years in Selangor, Malaysia. The interval between the first and second administration was 2 weeks. Test-retest method was used to examine the reliability of the questionnaire. Intra-rater reliability was determined by kappa coefficient and internal consistency by Cronbach's alpha coefficient. Construct validity was evaluated using factor analysis. The test-retest correlation showed moderate-to-high reliability for all scores (r = 0.40∗, p = 0.02 to r = 0.95∗∗, p = 0.00), with one exception, consumption of fast foods (r = 0.24, p = 0.20). Kappa coefficient showed acceptable-to-strong intra-rater reliability (K = 0.40-0.92), except for two items under knowledge on television food advertising (K = 0.26 and K = 0.21) and one item under preference for healthier foods (K = 0.33). Cronbach's alpha coefficient indicated acceptable internal consistency for all scores (0.45-0.60). After deleting two items under Consumption of Commonly Advertised Food, the items showed moderate-to-high loading (0.52, 0.84, 0.42 and 0.42) with the Scree plot showing that there was only one factor. The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin was 0.60, showing that the sample was adequate for factor analysis. The questionnaire on television food advertising is reliable and valid to assess the effect of media literacy education on television food advertising on schoolchildren. © 2013 The Author (2013). Source

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