Federal Government Administration Center

Putrajaya, Malaysia

Federal Government Administration Center

Putrajaya, Malaysia
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Fergani C.,University of Liverpool | Saifullizam A.K.,University of Liverpool | Saifullizam A.K.,Federal Government Administration Center | Routly J.E.,University of Liverpool | And 2 more authors.
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2012

Acute insulin administration causes a disparity between the onset of estrous behavior and the LH surge in ovary-intact ewes. To examine the considerable variation in responses, in the present study we used a large number of animals to confirm findings with insulin, and examine whether endotoxin has the same effect. During the breeding season, follicular phases of intact ewes were synchronized with progesterone vaginal pessaries and received saline vehicle (n = 22; controls), insulin (4. IU/kg; n = 21 ewes) or endotoxin (LPS; 100. ng/kg; n = 10) at 28. h after progesterone withdrawal (time zero). In controls, the LH surge onset occurred at 36.5 ± 5.7. h and were first mounted by a ram at 38.2 ± 1.8. h, but there was a delay of 17.6. h (P< 0.001) and 7.2. h (P< 0.05), respectively, in half the insulin-treated animals ('insulin-delayed') but not in the other half; and a delay of 22.5. h (P< 0.001) and 20.7. h (P< 0.001), respectively, in all LPS-treated animals. Plasma estradiol concentrations decreased after both stressors, and remained low for a period of time equivalent to the LH surge delay (P< 0.001; Rs-q = 78%). Cortisol increased for 12. h after treatment in both insulin subgroups and the LPS group (P< 0.05); whereas progesterone increased in the insulin-delayed and LPS groups from 4.0 ± 0.5. ng/ml and 5.3 ± 1.0. ng/ml to a maximum of 5.7 ± 0.3. ng/ml and 8.8 ± 1.6. ng/ml, respectively (P< 0.05 for both comparisons). Plasma triglycerides were measured to assess insulin resistance, but concentrations were similar before and after treatment (0.25 ± 0.01. mmol/l versus 0.21 ± 0.01 and 0.25 ± 0.01. mmol/l versus 0.26 ± 0.01. mmol/l in the insulin-non delayed and insulin delayed subgroups, respectively). Therefore, we hypothesize that a) when an acute stressor is applied during the late follicular phase, the duration of the LH surge delay is related to the duration of estradiol signal disruption b) cortisol is not the key disruptor of the LH surge after insulin, c) insulin (but not LPS) can separate the onsets of LH surge and estrus by approximately 10. h, providing a model to identify the specific neuronal systems that control behavior distinct from those initiating the GnRH surge. © 2011.

Saifullizam A.K.,University of Liverpool | Saifullizam A.K.,Federal Government Administration Center | Routly J.E.,University of Liverpool | Smith R.F.,University of Liverpool | Dobson H.,University of Liverpool
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2010

The objective of this study was to determine whether acute stress alters the frequency of spontaneous estrous behaviors and temporal relationships with preovulatory increases in peripheral plasma estradiol and LH. Follicular phases of intact ewes were synchronized with prostaglandin administered at progesterone pessary withdrawal (PW). Twelve ewes served as controls and 12 were acutely stressed (insulin 4. IU/kg given at 30 and 32. h after PW). Ewes being near to ram(s) 21.3±1.9. h after PW was the first precopulatory behavioral sign and rams nosed the perineal region of ewes after a further 9.0 ± 2.0. h (P<0.01), with ewes being nudged and mounted by rams 6.8 ± 2.3. h later still (P<0.01). Insulin did not affect the frequency or timing (relative to PW) of each behavioral sign of estrus. However, within each animal, estradiol values were more than 2. pg/ml lower (P<0.05) for 6. h following insulin, and the onset of the LH surge was delayed in insulin-treated ewes compared to controls (49.5 ± 3.3 versus 38.2 ± 2.6 h; P=0.01). Consequently, the interval between the onset of being mounted and the LH surge was longer in insulin-treated ewes compared to controls (10.4 ± 3.0 versus 2.3 ± 0.7 h; P<0.01). Maximum LH values were also 15. ng/ml lower after insulin (P<0.01). Thus, acute stress did not alter the timing or frequencies of estrous behaviors but it did reduce estradiol concentrations and delayed the onset and magnitude of the LH surge. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Van de Merwe J.P.,University of Queensland | Van de Merwe J.P.,Griffith University | Ibrahim K.,Turtle and Marine Ecosystems Center | Ibrahim K.,Federal Government Administration Center | And 2 more authors.
Animal Conservation | Year: 2013

Hatcheries are commonly used to protect sea turtle eggs from poaching and predation; however, there is currently limited scientific evidence to support good hatchery management practices, particularly post-hatching. This study investigated the effects of retaining hatchlings in hatcheries after emergence and delaying nest excavations on the quality of green turtle Chelonia mydas hatchlings. In addition, the effect of artificial lighting on the sea-finding ability of green turtles was investigated to highlight the importance of hatchling release locations on hatchery beaches. Hatchling running speed, an indicator of vigour and predation exposure, progressively decreased when hatchlings were retained in the hatchery for 1, 3 and 6 hours following emergence. Similarly, body condition (mass:straight carapace length), an indicator of dehydration and/or energy consumption, decreased after being retained for 3 and 6 hours. It was estimated that hatchlings retained for 6 hours after emergence would become significantly dehydrated and double their exposure to beach slope predation. Residual hatchlings that were immediately excavated from emerged nests had similar running speed and body condition to naturally emerged siblings. However, residual hatchlings removed from nests 5 days later had significantly reduced running speed and body condition, resulting in estimates of double the exposure to predation in near-shore areas. The mean angle of hatchling dispersal varied at different sites along the Ma'Daerah beach in relation to proximity to artificial lighting. Important recommendations for post-hatching management of sea turtle hatcheries worldwide can be made from the results of this study. To maximize release of hatchlings in the best condition as is possible, hatchlings should be released immediately after emergence, including excavation of any residual hatchlings. In addition, the dispersal angles of hatchlings should be tested at each hatchery beach to determine suitable release sites for efficient dispersal. © 2012 The Zoological Society of London.

Van De Merwe J.P.,Griffith University | Van De Merwe J.P.,City University of Hong Kong | Hodge M.,Queensland Government | Whittier J.M.,University of Queensland | And 4 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2010

Persistent organic pollutants (POPs), such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), have a wide range of toxic effects on humans and wildlife, and have been reported in a number of endangered sea turtle populations. The present study screened for POPs in a green sea turtle Chelonia mydas population in Peninsular Malaysia and investigated the maternal transfer and effects of POPs on embryonic development. At the Ma'Daerah Turtle Sanctuary, blood, eggs and hatchling blood were collected from 11 nesting female C. mydas. Samples were analysed for 83 PCBs, 23 OCPs and 19 PBDEs using gas chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry. The chemical profiles of eggs from individual turtles were significantly different, indicating variable contaminant uptake during foraging. There was evidence of maternal transfer of POPs to eggs and hatchlings, with significant correlations in sum of PCBs (ΣPCB), sum of PBDEs (ΣPBDE), γ-hexachlorocyclohexane (γ-HCH), trans-chlordane and mirex concentrations between maternal blood and eggs (p < 0.05, R2 < 0.71), between eggs and hatchling blood (p < 0.05, R2 < 0.83), and between maternal and hatchling blood (p < 0.05, R2 < 0.61). In addition, there was congener-specific transfer of PCBs with less lipophilic congeners (e.g. PCB 99) more readily transferred to hatchlings than the more lipophilic congeners (e.g. PCBs 180 + 193). There was also a significant correlation between increasing egg POP concentration and decreasing hatchling mass:length ratio. POPs may therefore have subtle effects on the development of C. mydas eggs, which may compromise offshore dispersal and predator avoidance. © Inter-Research 2010.

Soon S.-S.,National University of Singapore | Lopes G.,Johns Hopkins University | Lim H.-Y.,Novena Cancer Center | Wong-Rieger D.,Institute for Optimizing Health Outcomes | And 12 more authors.
Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases | Year: 2014

This article is a call for action to the relevant stakeholders to improve access to care and treatment for patients with rare diseases in the Asia-Pacific region by looking into three main areas: (a) developing legislative definitions to confer enforceable protection, (b) creating or strengthening policies by objectively measuring the impact brought about by rare diseases and establishing platforms to reach out to the rare disease community, and (c) fostering collaboration across sectors and countries. It is hoped that these suggested actions can catalyze discussions and progress in the region. © 2014 Soon et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Hamad A.A.,University Putra Malaysia | Hassan L.,University Putra Malaysia | Azmie M.Z.,Federal Government Administration Center | Loganathan P.,Federal Government Administration Center | And 7 more authors.
Pertanika Journal of Tropical Agricultural Science | Year: 2015

A longitudinal study assessed the response to foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccination on sequential sera of local Malaysian Kedah-Kelantan cattle in two states of Peninsular Malaysia; Perlis, a foot and mouth (FMD) disease non-endemic state, and Kelantan, an endemic state for FMD. These cattle were from various vaccination backgrounds and some with unknown vaccination status. For the cattle in both states, the antibody against FMDV type O effectively increased to a strong protective level in the first week following vaccination, regardless of the vaccination background of the animals. In the endemic state, where vaccination was performed more routinely than the non-endemic state, the response had better magnitude and duration. In the non-endemic state, the antibody response level was good but appeared to last for a shorter period of time before it significantly declined. For naíve cattle with no evidence of infection or vaccination, the response was rapid and reached a strong level immediately by the first week. However, the level was not sustained and significantly declined thereafter. All the cattle stayed healthy and clinically FMD-free throughout the study, even when there was a transient evidence of natural field infection detected among the cattle. A marked difference was observed in the patterns of antibody response between cattle in the FMD endemic and non-endemic areas. However, the level of antibodies generally rose to a strong protective level within the stipulated 7-14 days post-vaccination. The vaccine used was effective in eliciting immune response when naturally challenged by the local field FMD virus. © Universiti Putra Malaysia Press.

Ahmad N.I.,Institute for Medical Research | Mahiyuddin W.R.W.,Institute for Medical Research | Mohamad T.R.T.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Ling C.Y.,Institute for Medical Research | And 5 more authors.
Food and Nutrition Research | Year: 2016

Background: Understanding different patterns of fish consumption is an important component for risk assessment of contaminants in fish. A few studies on food consumption had been conducted in Malaysia, but none of them focused specifically on fish consumption. The objectives of this study were to document the meal pattern among three major ethnics in Malaysia with respect to fish/seafood consumption, identify most frequently consumed fish and cooking method, and examine the influence of demographic factors on pattern of fish consumption among study subjects. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted between February 2008 and May 2009 to investigate patterns of fish consumption among Malaysian adults in Peninsular Malaysia. Adults aged 18 years and above were randomly selected and fish consumption data were collected using a 3-day prospective food diary. Results: A total of 2,675 subjects, comprising male (44.2%) and female (55.7%) participants from major ethnics (Malays, 76.9%; Chinese, 14.7%; Indians, 8.3%) with a mean age of 43.4±16.2 years, were involved in this study. The results revealed 10 most frequently consumed marine fish in descending order: Indian mackerel, anchovy, yellowtail and yellow-stripe scads, tuna, sardines, torpedo scad, Indian and short-fin scads, pomfret, red snapper, and king mackerel. Prawn and squid were also among the most preferred seafood by study subjects. The most frequently consumed freshwater fish were freshwater catfish and snakehead. The most preferred cooking style by Malaysians was deep-fried fish, followed by fish cooked in thick and/or thin chili gravy, fish curry, and fish cooked with coconut milk mixed with other spices and flavorings. Overall, Malaysians consumed 168 g/day fish, with Malay ethnics' (175±143 g/day) consumption of fish significantly (p<0.001) higher compared with the other two ethnic groups (Chinese=152±133 g/day, Indians=136±141 g/day). Conclusion: Fish consumption was significantly associated with ethnicity, age, marital status, residential area, and years of education of adults in Peninsular Malaysia, and the data collected are beneficial for the purpose of health risk assessment on the intake of contaminants through fish/seafood consumption. © 2016 Nurul Izzah Ahmad et al.

Abdul-Hamid N.F.,Institute for Animal Health | Abdul-Hamid N.F.,University of Liverpool | Abdul-Hamid N.F.,Federal Government Administration Center | Firat-Sarac M.,SAP | And 4 more authors.
Virus Genes | Year: 2011

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in mainland Southeast Asia where up to seven genetically distinct viral lineages co-circulate (O/SEA/Mya-98, O/SEA/Cam-94, O/ME-SA/PanAsia, O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2, O/CATHAY, A/ASIA/Sea-97, and serotype Asia 1). The aim of this study was to analyse the sequence variability between representative complete genomes for these seven lineages. The genome sequences varied from 8130 to 8192 nucleotides in length and shared nucleotide identities ranging from 91.8 to 78.9%. Broad-scale differences such as block and codon deletions observed in these genomes paralleled features that have been reported previously for other FMDV sequences from Southeast Asia. Comparison between these sequences revealed the presence of 2501 variant sites which were more evident in regions encoding surface capsid proteins (VP2, VP3 and VP1) compared to regions encoding non-structural proteins. Specific comparisons between closely related O/ME-SA sequences showed that the distribution of variant sites was focussed particularly at the 5′ end of the genome indicating that recombination may have occurred during the evolution of the O/ME-SA/PanAsia-2 lineage. These sequences provide insights into the evolutionary mechanisms by which new lineages generate genetic and antigenic novelty in the region and will form the basis of studies to define the spatio-temporal epidemiology of FMDV. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

Mohd Shukri M.,University of Malaya | Ling Kho K.,University of Malaya | Ghane Kisomi M.,University of Malaya | Lani R.,University of Malaya | And 8 more authors.
BMC Public Health | Year: 2015

Background: Tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV) are important tick-borne viruses. Despite their wide geographical distribution and ease of acquisition, the prevalence of both viruses in Malaysia is still unknown. This study was conducted to determine the seroprevalence for TBEV and CCHFV among Malaysian farm workers as a high-risk group within the population. Methods: We gave questionnaires to 209 farm workers and invited them to participate in the study. Eighty-five agreed to do so. We then collected and tested sera for the presence of anti-TBEV IgG (immunoglobulin G) and anti-CCHFV IgG using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. We also tested seroreactive samples against three other related flaviviruses: dengue virus (DENV), West Nile virus (WNV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) using the ELISA method. Results: The preliminary results showed the presence of anti-TBEV IgG in 31 (36.5 %) of 85 sera. However, when testing all the anti-TBEV IgG positive sera against the other three antigenically related flaviviruses to exclude possible cross reactivity, only five (4.2 %) sera did not show any cross reactivity. Interestingly, most (70.97 %) seropositives subjects mentioned tick-bite experience. However, there was no seroreactive sample for CCHFV. Conclusions: These viruses migrate to neighbouring countries so they should be considered threats for the future, despite the low seroprevalence for TBEV and no serological evidence for CCHFV in this study. Therefore, further investigation involving a large number of human, animal and tick samples that might reveal the viruses' true prevalence is highly recommended. © 2015 Mohd Shukri et al.

Abdul-Hamid N.F.,Institute for Animal Health | Abdul-Hamid N.F.,University of Liverpool | Abdul-Hamid N.F.,Federal Government Administration Center | Hussein N.M.,Federal Government Administration Center | And 5 more authors.
Infection, Genetics and Evolution | Year: 2011

Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is endemic in the countries of mainland Southeast Asia where it represents a major obstacle to the development of productive animal industries. The aim of this study was to use genetic data to determine the distribution of FMD virus (FMDV) lineages in the Southeast Asia region, and in particular identify possible sources of FMDV causing outbreaks in Malaysia. Complete VP1 sequences, obtained from 214 samples collected between 2000 and 2009, from FMD outbreaks in six Southeast Asian countries, were compared with sequences previously reported. Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that there were two patterns of FMDV distribution in Malaysia. Firstly, for some lineages (O/SEA/Mya98 and serotype A), outbreaks occurred every year in the country and did not appear to persist, suggesting that these incursions were quickly eradicated. Furthermore, for these lineages FMD viruses in Malaysia were closely related to those from neighbouring countries, demonstrating the close epidemiological links between countries in the region. In contrast, for O/ME-SA/PanAsia lineage, viruses were introduced and remained to cause outbreaks in subsequent years. In particular, the recent incursion and maintenance of the PanAsia-2 sublineage into Malaysia appears to be unique and independent from other outbreaks in the region. This study is the first characterisation of FMDV in Malaysia and provides evidence for different epidemiological sources of virus introduction into the country. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

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