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Zhang J.,China Agricultural University | He X.,China Agricultural University | Song J.,China Agricultural University | Zeng A.,China Agricultural University | And 2 more authors.
Nongye Jixie Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Machinery

Guided baffle shield application is effective and economical method to reduce droplets drift. The performance research of this system was carried out with wind tunnel experiment and field trials of herbicide. The results showed that the optimum structure parameters of the guided baffle shield sprayer were: shield width of 40 cm, shield angle of 50°, nozzle angle of 50°. 30 days after herbicide application, the weeds control effects was 81.4%, fresh weight effects was 76.4% which were superior to conventional application; when the herbicide dosage reduced by 20%, the effect with shield application was same to conventional application. So the guided shield application could save pesticide and reduce cost. Source

Calin M.,Central Phytosanitary Laboratory | Vieira P.,University of Evora | Costache C.,Central Phytosanitary Laboratory | Braasch H.,Federal Biological Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | And 3 more authors.
EPPO Bulletin

An overview of the occurrence of species of the genus Bursaphelenchus in Romania is presented. The data is based on recent surveys conducted for the first time throughout the country, to monitor and evaluate the potential entry of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus. Wood samples were collected from declining trees, wood-processing companies and imported wood packaging material. Of the 895 wood samples examined, 11 contained Bursaphelenchus specimens. Morphological and molecular analyses were carried out to characterize the species detected. With respect to the possible presence of B. xylophilus, all samples were negative, confirming the absence of this quarantine pest in Romania. Nevertheless, five Bursaphelenchus species were found: B. hofmanni, B. poligraphi, B. vallesianus, B. willibaldi, and one putative new species belonging to the sexdentati group, classified here as Bursaphelenchus sp. NR512. These results constitute the first report of the genus Bursaphelenchus in Romania. © 2013 OEPP/EPPO. Source

Yang X.,China Agricultural University | Zhou J.,Sinochem Group | He X.,China Agricultural University | Herbst A.,Federal Biological Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry
Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering

To study the effect of droplet sizes on deposition and pesticide efficiency, this trial was performed to spray imidacloprid against aphids by choosing different nozzle types. The VMD of the three chosen nozzles from Lechler, i. e. LU120-02, AD120-02 and IDK120-02, were about 100 μm difference. The results demonstrated that: the deposits of IDK nozzle were higher significantly than that of LU and AD, whose deposits had no significant difference. The deposits on different zones of wheat canopy followed: down>middle>upper; LU nozzle achieved significantly better coverage rate than AD and IDK, the increased droplet size meant the lower coverage rate; LU nozzle had the largest ground loss and it was higher significantly than the other two nozzles; the three nozzles all gave excellent field efficiency against wheat aphids; AD nozzle was considered as the optimum candidate in terms of deposits, coverage rate and ground loss. Source

Calin M.,Central Phytosanitary Laboratory | Costache C.,Central Phytosanitary Laboratory | Braasch H.,Federal Biological Research Center for Agriculture and Forestry | Zaulet M.,University of Bucharest | And 5 more authors.
Forest Pathology

The 2013 annual monitoring programme for the pinewood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, analysed a total of 267 wood samples collected from declining or symptomatic coniferous trees distributed among national forests, gardens, public parks, distribution centres, wood-processing industries, as well as 104 samples collected from wood packing material originated from several other countries. From a total of eight species found, five have been previously reported from Romania, while three other species (Bursaphelenchus abietinus, Bursaphelenchus fraudulentus and Bursaphelenchus fuchsi) represent new findings for Romania. In addition, B. mucronatus was found in packing wood originated from Russia. Herein, we provide a morphological, morphometric and molecular characterization for the new species found for Romania. Bursaphelenchus xylophilus was not detected. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH. Source

Gu J.,Zhejiang University | Gu J.,Technical Center | Wang J.,Technical Center | Braasch H.,Kantstrasse 5 | And 3 more authors.

Bursaphelenchus africanus rossicus subsp. n. was detected from Russian packaging wood (Pinus sp.) arriving in China in August, 2009. The spicule shape and size are almost the same as in the B. africanus found in wood from South Africa, but it differs slightly from the South African isolate by longer (mean L=945 vs 691 μm and 1062 vs 766 μm, for males and females, respectively) and slimmer body (a=39.8 vs 35.0 and 40.0 vs 35.1, for males and females, respectively), higher male ratio c (mean c=37.0 vs 28.7) and higher female ratio c' (mean c'=4.7 vs 3.4), longer female tail (58 vs 42 μm), and also by female tail shape (slightly ventrally bent vs straight). Their ITS-RFLP patterns are also slightly different. Based on the absence of clear morphological differences and relatively small ITS1/2 and D2/D3 LSU sequence divergences, the new isolate is considered as Bursaphelenchus africanus rossicus subsp. n. © 2012 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands. Source

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