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Saratov, Russia

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Kiseleva N.S.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2017

Morphological study of foliage in fruit crops are mainly conducted to study photosynthetic activity as related to leaf area. Currently, there are different methods to determine this parameter with varying accuracy. In the paper, we first compared the accuracy of assessing leaf area in pear by two methods based on a relationship between the leaf size (S) and its linear dimensions, the length (L) and the width (W). These ways were the use of a conversion factor (correction coefficient) and the regression analysis. The following 10 pear genotypes of different ripening were involved to measure the leaf linear parameters: Pirus communis L. - varieties Beurre Giffard, Vega (early ripening); varieties Williams, Chernomorskaya Yantarnaya (summer ripening); Beurre Bosk, Rassvet, hybrid No 8520, Nart; Pirus serotina Rehd. - varieties Kilchu and Choo-chen-sok (autumn ripening). The correction by means of conversion factor was based on a similarity of the investigated leaf shape to relevant geometrical figure. Under this model, the leaf area calculation as S = 0.69 × (LW) was the most exact. This formula allows us to fast and exactly estimate the intact leaf size in pear trees and in other fruit crops with the same leaf shape to determine its changes throughout long time without destruction. Under the regression analysis procedure, the independent variables were L, W, L2, W2, and LW. Of these, the latter (LW) was optimum, resulting in a linear regression equation Y = 0,922581 + 0,660898 × (LW) based on which the MS Excel 7.0 program has been developed. This program allows us to find the sum of leaf areas or to determine an individual leaf area. Additionally, we found the indicators of leaf size and shape, and the averages for the sample, and also suggested graphics displaying leaf area. The scale for estimation was developed as a nomogram. Radial diagram with the special scale marked as area units against L and W units was also offered to simplify extensive research when more than 50-100 estimations required. Thus, due to close positive correlation between leaf linear dimensions and area, it is possible to practically apply conversion factor and regression equations, including developed nomogram and radial diagram, for calculation of leaf areas with the minimum error under natural conditions. The developed models may be helpful to measure area of oval, ovoid and unlobed leaves in southern fruit crops (e.g. apple, pear, cherry, plum), subtropical crops (citrus, feijoa, persimmon, tea), and ornamental wood bushes and grassy plants used for landscape gardening. Computerized technology promotes acceleration and simplification of the calculations.


Shamsutdinova E.Z.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2016

Reproductive biology of many cultivated plants has been studied in detail whereas in newly introduced, especially arid fodder species, different aspects of flowering, pollination, reproduction, seed production, etc., should be understood. Salsola orientalis S.G. Gmel. is a dwarf semi shrub haloxerophyte plant vegetated for a long period (250-254 days), 35-55 cm in height, with the root system of the generic type that penetrates the soil to a depth of 5-8 m. The species is extremely drought-resistant and tolerant to salt stress so this is a valuable fodder pasture plant in the deserts of Central Asia, well eaten by sheep and camels, especially in autumn and winter. Salsola orientalis is a polymorphic species consisting of a plurality of intraspecific ecotypes, populations and biotypes which differ in environmental sustainability and fodder productivity. S. orientalis is considered promising for breeding due to intraspecific plant polymorphism on adaptiveness and productivity. Here we report the data on flowering, intraspecific diversity of sexual types in population, and seed reproductive function of S. orientalis. The seeds were collected in arid, geographically and environmentally distinct areas of Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and sown in the Desert Karnabchul (Uzbekistan, Samarkand region, Karnab). Karnabchul is characterized by hot summers (+40-45 °C in June-July) and dry climate (annual precipitation of 180 mm with 100-250 mm fluctuations). The soil is grey-brown, middle-saline. This study was carried out in the nursery (each plot of 100 m2 in size) by the method of A.N. Ponomarev. The number of functionally female flowers on each plant in all populations was estimated. The type of pollination was determined in experiments with isolation of individual plants and flowers. Embryonless seeds were found among the specimen collected in different eco-geographical areas and in three tested S. orientalis varieties (Perventz Karnaba, Solnechnyi and Salang). The seed of these varieties were divided into three fractions by size (large, medium and small) and weight of 1000 seeds. We found that the flowers in S. orientalis were cross-windpollinated. Self-pollination does not occur, since by the time of stamen appearance in bisexual flowers the pistil turns brown and dry. S. orientalis flowering begins in June and lasts until mid-July, the hottest season. However, the disclosure and the dusting of the flowers occur in the cooler morning hours (at a temperature of 25-26 °C and relative humidity of 26-65 %). In S. orientalis, self-incompatibility to avoid self-fertilization is not limited to dichogamy (i.e., non-simultaneous maturation of male and female generative structures of hermaphrodite individuals), and also combined with other adaptations to cross-pollination. These are the presence of female flowers and intermediate flowers with long stigma lobes of the pistil, and emergence of the plants with only functionally female flowers. The crosspollination in S. orientalis is provided by both genetic incompatibility and structure of the flower. We attributed S. orientalis species to trioecious plants because i) only staminate flowers, ii) hermaphrodite and pistillate flowers, and iii) only pistillate flowers were characteristic of the individuals in the population. A wide variation on embryoless seed ratio (from 0-2 % to 98-100 %) was found in S. orientalis. Hence, selection makes it possible to increase the number of plant with low embryoless seed ratio in the population. Similar result can be achieved when using the parental forms with low percentage of embryoless seeds in breeding to obtain population with more frequent female forms. In both cases, you can get perspective parental forms for breeding varieties with low percentage of embryoless seeds and increased seed germination. Our findings are essential for development of S. orientalis breeding and seed production in the arid zones of Central Asia and Russia.


Novokhatin V.V.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2016

Wheat, a hexaploid originated in Anterior (N.I. Vavilov, 1926) and the Central Asia (P.M. Zhukovsky, 1971), was widely spread and grown beyond the Fertile Crescent northerly and southerly. In this, cold resistant wheat and drought resistant spring forms have been originated in the course of unconscious selection (N.I. Vavilov, 1926; Qing-Ming Sun et al., 2009), and nowadays bread wheat is a dominant cereal crop cultivated worldwide (N.P. Goncharov, 2013). Analysis of origin of the soft wheat intensive breeds shows that more than 150 years, they were formed on the basis of the genetic material the secondary (P.A. Gepts, 2002; G.M. Paulsen, J.P. Shroyer, 2008), induced the peripheral centers with huge potential (R. Vencovsky, J. Crossa, 2003; S. Cox, 2009). Akagomughi, a short-strawed Japanese variety became the basis of intensive selection (N.I. Vavilov, 1987). A successful combination of genetic associations in derivatives of Hungarian (Banatka), Russian (Krymka), local Galician, English squarehead wheat and Chinese dwarfish wheat made it possible to create a high-yielding, adaptive intensive winter wheat variety Bezostaya 1. It was widely involved in the breeding for intensive yield production resulting in the best intensive high-yielding varieties of winter soft wheat. In the 1970s, these varieties were used to produce new spring wheat intensive varieties, such as winter-and-spring wheat Kazakhstanskaya 10 and spring variety Ikar. Note that the use of vernalized seeds of winter wheat for hybridization is not desirable because of temperature-induced mutations reducing the genetic value of the original forms. In crossing winter crops with spring crops it is necessary to allow them to pass flowering phase simultaneously (V.V. Novohatin et al., 2014). Discrete inheritance in each variety leads to certain changes in its biological, morphological, physiological and bio-climatic properties reflecting evolutionary direction in plant breeding. For example, Kazakhstanskaya 10, created by hybridization of 39 varieties of which 23 one were winter wheat varieties possesses a well-developed, deep penetrating root system (243 cm), is tolerant to salinization, pre-harvest sprouting and fusariosis. Its potential yield under irrigation is 8.02 t/ha. The variety is common in Central Asia and the south-east Kazakhstan, Bashkortostan, Kurgan and Tyumen regions. The variety Kazakhstanskaya 10 is involved in many breeding programs. As a result, a middle-ripening, medium-height, resistant to lodging and pre-harvest sprouting, intensive Ikar variety (winter wheat Bogarnaya 56 × Kazakhstanskaya 10) (Pyrotrix) been created which genealogy includes 59 varieties of different ecological origin. Its distinctive features (the pubescence and darkcolored ears) contribute to the accelerated maturation of the grain, which is very important for Siberia and Trans-Ural Region. Data on full genealogy of created varieties allows us to control the hybridization of parental pairs when creating the desired genotypes and ecotypes.


Provorov N.A.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2016

Theory of symbiogenesis proposed 111 years ago by K.S. Mereschkowsky, postulated the emergence of plants through the integration of phototrophic microbes into heterotrophic host cells. To date, it has become apparent that this theory can be used to describe an extremely wide range of evolutionary processes induced in the systems of cooperative adaptation. We have proposed a new definition of symbiogenesis as of a multi-stage process converting the symbiotic system into the entire organism (holobiont), based on the formation of an integral partners' system of heredity. This system emerges in the course of transition of partners from facultative to obligatory symbiosis and evolves from the functional integrity, based on the signaling partners' interactions (symbiogenome) to the structural integrity, based on the exchange of partners' genes (hologenome). Trade-off between the proposed approach with the symbiogenesis theory of K.S. Mereschkowsky is shown using the material of paper «The nature and origin of chromatophores in the plant kingdom» (C. Mereschkowsky 1905. Tiber Natur und Ursprung der Chromatophoren im Pflanzenreiche. Biologisches Centralblatt 25:593-604). We analyzed the relationship of traditional argumentation of symbiogenesis (genetic continuity of the cellular organelles based on their transmission in the host reproduction) with its current argumentation, used by the Theory of Serial Endosymbioses (TSE) proposed by L. Margulis: a) the presence of rudimental organelle genomes; b) phylogenetic kinship of organelles with the free-living and symbiotic microorganisms; c) identification of the transitional cellular forms linking the free-living bacteria and organelles. Modern versions of TSE suggest that the introduction of aerobic a-proteobacteria into anaerobic archaea gave rise to eukaryotes, which further evolved through the recruiting into their cellular structures of additional endosymbionts, including phototrophic cyanobacteria and viruses. The forms of archaea, close to the common ancestor of eukaryotes, are represented by the newly discovered chemotrophic Lokiarchaeota which cells are characterized by a number of eukaryotic features, including the actin cytoskeleton and the ability for endocytosis. Convincing evidence in favor of TSE was obtained in the study of cyanelles (phototrophic symbionts of protozoa, combining the properties of free-living cyanobacteria and plastids), as well as insects' endocytobionts with the deeply reduced genome (less than 200 kb), which, in contrast to mitochondria and plastids, retained the ability to implement independently the basic template processes - replication, transcription, translation. One of the intriguing destinations of modern TSE is the analysis of the emergence of the nucleus and chromosomes, which may be associated with the introduction of highly organized «giant» DNA-viruses into ancestral cellular forms having RNA genomes (the hypothesis of viral eukaryogenesis).


Zhuchenko A.A.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

For the first time in the world, A.A. Zhuchenko has carried a system analysis of the adaptive potential in cultivated plants, identified crucial features and qualitatively new mechanisms of adaptive responses of plants during ontogeny and phylogeny, substantiated and formulated the key concepts of plant genetics, ecological genetics of cultivated plants, ecological and genetic foundations of the adaptive system of plant breeding, adaptive crop production, and the strategy for adaptive intensification of agriculture.


Kruglov Yu.V.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2016

Study of the taxonomic and functional diversity of soil microorganisms association is of great theoretical significance for understanding the structure of the soil microbial community, the nature of the interaction of individual species of microorganisms belonging to this community, as well as their participation in the processes of soil formation and circulation of substances. This article summarises a brief history of ideas about the functioning of soil microbial complex, providing transformation and mineralization of organic matter in soil formation processes. Soil as habitat for microorganisms is heterogeneous that defines microzonal character of the distribution and activity of microorganisms that live in it. The structure of the association of microorganisms and its physiological profiles vary in time and space (D.G. Zvyagintsev, 1987). This defines methodological difficulties and the significant variability of the results of the evaluation of soil microflora by various authors. This review discusses the methodological approaches in determining the physiological diversity of soil microorganisms association. Traditional methods of elective culture media in over a century allowed to reveal numerous physiological groups of microorganisms and developed an idea about their role in the cycle of matter, processes of soil formation and plant nutrition. However, such work is almost not given anything new in principle, both in environmental studies, as well as in agronomy over the past 20 years. At the end of the 1990s a method of analysis of the carbon source utilization profiles (SUP) of natural microorganisms association by BIOLOG system used previously only in medical and general microbiology was proposed to study the physiological diversity for the test strain (J.L. Garland, A.L. Mills, 1991). This approach was further developed by H. Insam (1997), M.V. Gorlenko and P.A. Kozhevin (2005) and others. A number of modifications of this method (Eso-Plates, ECOLOGY and others) characterized by a set of organic substrates, which, as the authors suggest, is most likely present in natural environments were worked out. Instrumentation of ECOLOG (M.V. Gorlenko, P.A. Kozhevin, 2005) allows to determine not only the range of organic substrates used by microorganisms, but also to quantify the consumption of each substrate. For the processing and interpretation of a significant amount of information obtained in the course of the analysis of soil samples there are an apparatus of multidimensional mathematical statistics, cluster analysis, rank distribution, and ecological indexes of Shannon and Pielou. SUP method (multisubstrat test) possesses a high performance, good resolution (104), a satisfactory reproducibility and is a high-tech and effective tool to assess the physiological diversity. The article deals with the positive and negative aspects of the method. SUP reflects to some extent the potential of aerobic soil microorganisms using low molecular weight organic compounds in the catabolism. However, because of availability of several modifications, as well as some technical problem it is difficult to compare the results obtained by different authors, there is no unified SUP analysis protocol that is required for the comparative environmental studies and the establishment of relevant national and international databases. Thus, analysis of the carbon source utilization profiles (SUP) in BIOLOG system now is under development and testing, and with the accumulation of experimental data and critical analysis, it has good prospects in soil ecology, in research of the relationship between microorganisms and plants, and in assessment of the impact of anthropogenic factors.


Ermolova V.P.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2016

Recently crystal-forming bacilli of thuringiensis group are considered the main microbial producers of insecticides. For these bacilli the high adaptability is characteristic leading to wide distribution of these anaerobic spore-forming bacteria in nature. The same Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies and variants were isolated on different continents regardless the presence and prevalence or absence of the host insects of this entomopathogen. In different countries and regions the researchers are searching for new B. thuringiensis isolates. In the paper the data are represented on B. thuringiensis isolation from natural substrates in the territory of Leningrad province. A total of 24 samples of soil, litter, water, silt, sick and died insects have been collected. The samples were cultivated on fish agar. Among more than 3,000 colonies, 62 ones with specific morphology were found. By microscopy with black aniline dye a total of 12 isolates of 62 isolates tested were found out to form both spores and differently shaped crystals of the endotoxin. The microorganisms were selected with regard to entomocidal and larvicidal activity and identified using H. De Barjac, A.A. Bonnefoi (1968) and O. Lysenko (1985) schemes. The investigation made it possible to classify isolates as B. thuringiensis of?1 (var. thuringiensis, isolates NoNo 12, 20, 40, 41),?3a3B (var. kurstaki, isolates NoNo 15, 29, 49) and?14 (var. israelensis, isolates NoNo 14, 25, 33, 38, 44) serovars. With regard to biological properties (production of acetyl methyl carbonate, lecithinase, pigment, p-exotoxin; pellicle in broth culture; sucrose, mannose, cellobiose, salicin fermentation; starch degradation; proteolytic activity) these isolates are close to standard strains. Isolates are characterized by high productivity, entomocidal and larvicidal activity and can be used as producers of biologicals against insects and larvae. In the isolates of BtH1, BtH3a3b and BtH14 serovars the titers varied as 2.42×109-2.78×109; 1.85×109-2.15×109 and 2.65×109-3.28×109 CFU/ml, respectively. The activity against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say larvae in isolates NoNo 12, 41 of the BtH1 serovar was the same as in standard strain BtH1 with LD50 at 0.19 %. Entomocidal activity of the isolates NoNo 15, 29 and 49 of the BtH3a3b serovar expressed as LD50 for Ephestia kuehniella of the 2nd instar was 0.88; 0.82 and 0.92 %, respectively, while in the standard strain BtH3a3b the LD50 was 0.86 %. In the isolates NoNo 33, 44 of the BtH11 serovar the titer was the same as in the standard strain, and the activity was even higher compared to the standard. In the isolates NoNo 33, 44 the LD50 for the 4th instar Aedes aegypti larvae was 0.17×10-3 and 0.16×10-3 %, respectively, when in standard strain BtH14 it was 0.18×10-3 %. Thus, a total of 12 of the isolates which have been identified as B. thuringiensis are close to the type isolates on their biological characteristics and promising as producers of biologics with insecticidal action.


Levitin M.M.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Today, a global climate change is speeding up (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC, Switzerland) that limits leaving organisms' adaptation to the environment. As a result, the distribution of phytopathogenic fungi may obviously change. Particularly, in 1985 a new disease of wheat yellow leaf spot appeared in the European south of Russia (Krasnodar Region) (E.F. Granina et al., 1989). In 2005-2007 the causal agent of yellow leaf spot Pyrenophora tritici-repentis was found on wheat in North-Western Region of Russia. On some cultivars the disease severity reached 70 %, and pathogens become more virulent and viable. Despite the North Caucasus and the Far Eastwere specific areas for Fusarium graminearum in Russia, since 2003 F. graminearum appeared on the territory of the Russian North-West. The average disease severity on cereals was 93.3 % in 2007 and 87.3 % in 2008. Recently F. graminearum predominates on cereals in the Netherlands (J. Arts et al., 2003), GB (P. Jennings et al., 2004), North Germany (T. Miedaner et al., 2008) and Finland (T. Yli-Mattila et al., 2010). In the south of Russia, Septoria tritici predominates among species causing wheat glum blotch, and in the North-West it is Stagonospora nodorum. In 2003-2005, S. tritici became the main wheat pathogen in the North-Western Russia. On susceptible spring wheat cultivars the disease was found in 51 to 100 % plants, with a severity of 8 to 30 %. These observations suggest that global warming of climate leads to an expansion of thermophilic fungi species, and pathogens begin to spread from the south to the north. Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia soil fungi are influenced by climatic factors. They form the overwintering structures that protect them from external influences. Increasing the temperature can lead to a decrease of the latent period and to increase of pathogens aggressiveness. Temperature can influence the function of the parasites virulence genes and resistance genes in plants. Thus, it is necessary to control the emergence of new plant diseases, improve protective measures, and develop cultivars with high adaptability.


Mikhailenko I.M.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Reproduction in dairy herds recently has become increasingly important. The tendency to its reduction occurs everywhere in all countries with a developed dairy husbandry. On average, the number of lactations per cow is diminishing and now close to 3 while a genetic potential of many cattle breeds is over 10 lactations. To resolve this issue, a theoretical base should be developed using latest progress in various related sciences. The aim of the present study is the first theoretical justification for a key stage of the general concept of lactating cows' health management, proposed in our previous paper (I.M. Mikhailenko, 2014). Herein we suggest an approach to programming cow's life cycle from the first to the last economically reasonable lactation. As a result, the risk of animal culling and unnecessary costs are minimized. The problem is solved for the first time in biological science. Our theory is based on developed dynamic and probabilistic statistical models. At its core, this approach provides a science-based standard of animal feeding for optimized lactation during life cycle. The dynamic models for lifetime annual yields reflect animal age and nutrient intake with diet, and the probabilistic statistical modeling, used to control cows' culling due to ill health and diseases, is the most important feature of the developed approach to life-cycle control. All physiological states, from a heifer to the last lactation, are considered, and all the flows within the dairy herd and possible causes for culling are identified. These mathematical models allow assessing the risk of possible livestock losses, which are minimized due to optimized annual diet. The developed algorithm allows to specify adjustments in annual feeding rations during the cow's life cycle (the feeding strategies for dairy cattle), which ensure optimal reproduction rate, optimal number of possible lactation per cow and optimal annual yields. Thus, the use of a lactating cow is normalized resulting in healthy live-stock and maximized profitability of milk production. Since the individual approach to cows' feeding is a substantial reserve for increasing profitability of a dairy herd as a whole, the task of life cycle control is regarded at two levels, for an individual and for the herd on average. For a particular herd, the choice to one of the levels depends on whether there are the means to provide individual health control and dosing concentrated feed and food additives. Practically, the use of proposed mathematical models is mainly limited by lack of long-term (10-12 years) surveys of animal health as depended on the actual diet, since these data are necessary for identification and validation of the algorithms, but an experimental model such as 100-150 cows' dairy farm, equipped with systems for health monitoring and feed composition control, could improve the situation.


Grishechkina S.D.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Various groups of agents are involved in biological crop protection to control pests and diseases. Of them, Bacillus genus possessing activity against harmful insects and phytopathogens is most promising and widely used. In this, the biologicals based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) dominate. More than 70 varieties of Bt have been identified. These bacteria can survive for a long time after treatment. Preparations based on three Bt serovars (A, B, C) are mostly used for insects' biocontrol. Serovar A Bt subspecies can form crystal endotoxins which are active against Lepidoptera; serovar B Bt subspecies attack the larvae of mosquitoes and black flies, and phytophagous Diptera; and serovar C Bt subspecies are active against Coleoptera beetles. A new serovar F (fungi) of this bacillus was identified. Physiological and biochemical properties of Bacillus thuringiensis provide the assimilation of nutrient substrates and antibiosis against biocenosis partners. Batsikol, the biological preparation based on B. thuringiensis var. darmstadiensis (H10) with entomopathogenic action, was created at All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Microbiology (St. Petersburg). Batsikol contains components of culture liquid, spores, insecticidal and fungicidal exo- and endotoxins, due to which it possesses multifunctional properties. The article presents the mechanisms of entomopathogenic and antifungal action of microbial preparations based on Bt. Results of testing Batsikol effectiveness against various pests and diseases in field trials and vegetation experiments are shown. Liquid form of biological product was used in the study (spore titer of 3.5 1/2 109/ml). Field and vegetation tests were carried out in 1994-2013 in different regions of Russia (Leningrad, Novosibirsk, Volgograd region, North Ossetia, Stavropol and Primorsky regions). Batsikol was sprayed against phytophagous pests on vegetating plants. The efficacy against pests varied from 50 to 100 %. Different modes of application against phytopathogen were tested according to the type of parasitism and environmental characteristics of fungi (i.e., spraying, irrigation, seed treatment). In field experiments the efficacy of spraying strawberry plants against gray mold was 60-74 %. Soil watering was used against Fusarium wilt on tomatoes and flax with efficacy of 74-87 % and 34-42 %, respectively. When seeds were treated prior to sowing the efficacy was 66-71 % in case of soaking barley seeds against root rot, and 40-45 % while soaking potato tubers against damping-off. Based on the tests conducted with Batsikol in different regions of Russia, the spectrum of its activities against wide range of phytophagous pests and pathogenic fungi was revealed on different crops. The obtained data expand the understanding of Bt biology and, in particular, the action spectrum against various pests and diseases dangerous for many cultivated plants. Presented materials allow considering Bacillus thuringiensis as the basis of microbiological preparations with a multifunctional activity. The obtained data will allow expanding the scope of its application, and it will help to improve ecological situation.

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