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Zhuchenko A.A.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

For the first time in the world, A.A. Zhuchenko has carried a system analysis of the adaptive potential in cultivated plants, identified crucial features and qualitatively new mechanisms of adaptive responses of plants during ontogeny and phylogeny, substantiated and formulated the key concepts of plant genetics, ecological genetics of cultivated plants, ecological and genetic foundations of the adaptive system of plant breeding, adaptive crop production, and the strategy for adaptive intensification of agriculture.


Kruglov Yu.V.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2016

Study of the taxonomic and functional diversity of soil microorganisms association is of great theoretical significance for understanding the structure of the soil microbial community, the nature of the interaction of individual species of microorganisms belonging to this community, as well as their participation in the processes of soil formation and circulation of substances. This article summarises a brief history of ideas about the functioning of soil microbial complex, providing transformation and mineralization of organic matter in soil formation processes. Soil as habitat for microorganisms is heterogeneous that defines microzonal character of the distribution and activity of microorganisms that live in it. The structure of the association of microorganisms and its physiological profiles vary in time and space (D.G. Zvyagintsev, 1987). This defines methodological difficulties and the significant variability of the results of the evaluation of soil microflora by various authors. This review discusses the methodological approaches in determining the physiological diversity of soil microorganisms association. Traditional methods of elective culture media in over a century allowed to reveal numerous physiological groups of microorganisms and developed an idea about their role in the cycle of matter, processes of soil formation and plant nutrition. However, such work is almost not given anything new in principle, both in environmental studies, as well as in agronomy over the past 20 years. At the end of the 1990s a method of analysis of the carbon source utilization profiles (SUP) of natural microorganisms association by BIOLOG system used previously only in medical and general microbiology was proposed to study the physiological diversity for the test strain (J.L. Garland, A.L. Mills, 1991). This approach was further developed by H. Insam (1997), M.V. Gorlenko and P.A. Kozhevin (2005) and others. A number of modifications of this method (Eso-Plates, ECOLOGY and others) characterized by a set of organic substrates, which, as the authors suggest, is most likely present in natural environments were worked out. Instrumentation of ECOLOG (M.V. Gorlenko, P.A. Kozhevin, 2005) allows to determine not only the range of organic substrates used by microorganisms, but also to quantify the consumption of each substrate. For the processing and interpretation of a significant amount of information obtained in the course of the analysis of soil samples there are an apparatus of multidimensional mathematical statistics, cluster analysis, rank distribution, and ecological indexes of Shannon and Pielou. SUP method (multisubstrat test) possesses a high performance, good resolution (104), a satisfactory reproducibility and is a high-tech and effective tool to assess the physiological diversity. The article deals with the positive and negative aspects of the method. SUP reflects to some extent the potential of aerobic soil microorganisms using low molecular weight organic compounds in the catabolism. However, because of availability of several modifications, as well as some technical problem it is difficult to compare the results obtained by different authors, there is no unified SUP analysis protocol that is required for the comparative environmental studies and the establishment of relevant national and international databases. Thus, analysis of the carbon source utilization profiles (SUP) in BIOLOG system now is under development and testing, and with the accumulation of experimental data and critical analysis, it has good prospects in soil ecology, in research of the relationship between microorganisms and plants, and in assessment of the impact of anthropogenic factors.


Ermolova V.P.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2016

Recently crystal-forming bacilli of thuringiensis group are considered the main microbial producers of insecticides. For these bacilli the high adaptability is characteristic leading to wide distribution of these anaerobic spore-forming bacteria in nature. The same Bacillus thuringiensis subspecies and variants were isolated on different continents regardless the presence and prevalence or absence of the host insects of this entomopathogen. In different countries and regions the researchers are searching for new B. thuringiensis isolates. In the paper the data are represented on B. thuringiensis isolation from natural substrates in the territory of Leningrad province. A total of 24 samples of soil, litter, water, silt, sick and died insects have been collected. The samples were cultivated on fish agar. Among more than 3,000 colonies, 62 ones with specific morphology were found. By microscopy with black aniline dye a total of 12 isolates of 62 isolates tested were found out to form both spores and differently shaped crystals of the endotoxin. The microorganisms were selected with regard to entomocidal and larvicidal activity and identified using H. De Barjac, A.A. Bonnefoi (1968) and O. Lysenko (1985) schemes. The investigation made it possible to classify isolates as B. thuringiensis of?1 (var. thuringiensis, isolates NoNo 12, 20, 40, 41),?3a3B (var. kurstaki, isolates NoNo 15, 29, 49) and?14 (var. israelensis, isolates NoNo 14, 25, 33, 38, 44) serovars. With regard to biological properties (production of acetyl methyl carbonate, lecithinase, pigment, p-exotoxin; pellicle in broth culture; sucrose, mannose, cellobiose, salicin fermentation; starch degradation; proteolytic activity) these isolates are close to standard strains. Isolates are characterized by high productivity, entomocidal and larvicidal activity and can be used as producers of biologicals against insects and larvae. In the isolates of BtH1, BtH3a3b and BtH14 serovars the titers varied as 2.42×109-2.78×109; 1.85×109-2.15×109 and 2.65×109-3.28×109 CFU/ml, respectively. The activity against Leptinotarsa decemlineata Say larvae in isolates NoNo 12, 41 of the BtH1 serovar was the same as in standard strain BtH1 with LD50 at 0.19 %. Entomocidal activity of the isolates NoNo 15, 29 and 49 of the BtH3a3b serovar expressed as LD50 for Ephestia kuehniella of the 2nd instar was 0.88; 0.82 and 0.92 %, respectively, while in the standard strain BtH3a3b the LD50 was 0.86 %. In the isolates NoNo 33, 44 of the BtH11 serovar the titer was the same as in the standard strain, and the activity was even higher compared to the standard. In the isolates NoNo 33, 44 the LD50 for the 4th instar Aedes aegypti larvae was 0.17×10-3 and 0.16×10-3 %, respectively, when in standard strain BtH14 it was 0.18×10-3 %. Thus, a total of 12 of the isolates which have been identified as B. thuringiensis are close to the type isolates on their biological characteristics and promising as producers of biologics with insecticidal action.


Rozhmina T.A.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Loshakova N.I.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2016

Fusarium wilt caused mainly by fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. lini, is one of the most harmful and widespread diseases in flax. To increase the efficiency of breeding faber and oil flax plants resistant to the pathogen, the sufficient set of the parent plants possessing effective R-genes is necessary. Development of monogene-based resistant varieties will allow to reduce the time required fro breeding, and provide essential suppression of disease. In the present research we tested the resistance of world Linum usitatissimum L. gene pool specimens to highly aggressive Fusarium oxysporum f. lini monoisolates, and also studied haw the expressivity of R-genes was influenced by the temperature. The study was conducted in 2006-2010 using 28 collection flax specimens characterized by high resistance to F. oxysporum f. lini population. Also highly aggressive monoisolates and the most widespread races of the pathogen were used. To identify R-genes, the F2 plants from crossing studied specimens with the lines possessing known R-genes were tasted with monoisolate 139 Fusarium oxysporum f. lini. To rank the specimens on fusarium wilt resistance, the tests were conducted in the nurseries and a climatic chamber at optimal temperature (26-28 °Ñ), and the plant damage was estimated at early yellow ripeness or early development, respectively. A total of 16 specimens were shown to possess effective resistance genes. The other 12 specimens, when tested with different monoilolates, seemed not to be effectively resistant, moreover, their resistance decreased depending on an increased aggressiveness of some races of the pathogen due to weather conditions of the year. Hybridological analysis data were in line with phytopathological tests specifying genetic distinctions of specimens 13896, l. 6 (Russia); Siciliana 285, l. 4 (Italy) and Honkej 21, l. 4 (China) with effective resistance genes Fu 4, Fu 7 and Fu 8, respectively. It was shown that at 26-28 °C during the seedlings-«herringbone» period an expressivity of resistance genes can decrease owing to increased aggressiveness of some races of the pathogen. At that, the effectiveness of Fu 7 gene was significantly influenced by the raised temperatures, whereas the effect of R-genes in the k-5657 (Minnesota, the USA) did not depend on the temperature. The found sources possessing various R-genes against fusarium wilt, when used in breeding, will help to avoid epiphytoty and to provide a sustainable flax production.


Provorov N.A.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Legume-rhizobia symbiosis (LRS) is considered as a unique model of evolutionary biology, which allows us to study the trade-off between the adaptive and progressive evolution in biological systems formed by prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Macroevolution of LRS results is establishing the compartments for hosting microsymbionts that activate the development of N2-fixing nodules by special signals-lipo-chito-oligosaccharide Nod-factors. This evolution is dissected into a number of stages connected with the formation of: a) nodule endophytic associations (ancestral forms of rhizo-bia which retained the ability to fix CO2 and N2 in pure culture characteristic for their ancestors, occupy the intercellular spaces in nodules); b) primitive subcellular symbiosis (rhizobia which lost the ability to fix CO2 are located in infection threads penetrating into plant cells); c) intracellular mutualism (rhizobia, penetrated the plant cells to form the non-specialized symbiosomes where fix N2, maintaining the reproductive activity); d) symbiosis of altmistic type (rhizobia in specialized symbiosomes differentiate into bacteroids which irreversibly lost their reproductive activity providing a sharp increase in the N2-fixation intensity). This evolution occurs under the influence of natural selection induced in endosymbiotic populations, which can be individual (Darwinian, frequency-dependent) or group (inter-deme, kin) depending on the stmcture of microbial populations defined by mechanisms of host infection. Under the influence of this selection, complexity of the organization and the integrity of the LRS are increased, which serve as criteria for its evolutionary progress, as well as ecological efficiency of symbiosis (its impact on the partners' productivity). This interaction between bacteria and plants has been evolved from pleiotropic symbioses (dynamic equilibrium between mutualism and antagonism) to the mutual partners' exploitation (their equivalent exchange by products of N2 fixation and photosynthesis) and then to a highly-efficient mutualism of «altruistic» type (increased intensity of the symbiotrophic plant nutrition by nitrogen is the result of viability loss by bacteroids). Characteristics of macro-and micro evolution of symbiosis opens the broad prospects for the construction of highly efficient forms of LRS, including the creation of «altruistic» rhizobia strains (in which an increased symbiotic efficiency is combined with a reduced survival outside plant) as well as a combination of alternative development programs for effective symbiosis (expensive and economical) independently arisen in different groups of legumes.


Levitin M.M.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Today, a global climate change is speeding up (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change - IPCC, Switzerland) that limits leaving organisms' adaptation to the environment. As a result, the distribution of phytopathogenic fungi may obviously change. Particularly, in 1985 a new disease of wheat yellow leaf spot appeared in the European south of Russia (Krasnodar Region) (E.F. Granina et al., 1989). In 2005-2007 the causal agent of yellow leaf spot Pyrenophora tritici-repentis was found on wheat in North-Western Region of Russia. On some cultivars the disease severity reached 70 %, and pathogens become more virulent and viable. Despite the North Caucasus and the Far Eastwere specific areas for Fusarium graminearum in Russia, since 2003 F. graminearum appeared on the territory of the Russian North-West. The average disease severity on cereals was 93.3 % in 2007 and 87.3 % in 2008. Recently F. graminearum predominates on cereals in the Netherlands (J. Arts et al., 2003), GB (P. Jennings et al., 2004), North Germany (T. Miedaner et al., 2008) and Finland (T. Yli-Mattila et al., 2010). In the south of Russia, Septoria tritici predominates among species causing wheat glum blotch, and in the North-West it is Stagonospora nodorum. In 2003-2005, S. tritici became the main wheat pathogen in the North-Western Russia. On susceptible spring wheat cultivars the disease was found in 51 to 100 % plants, with a severity of 8 to 30 %. These observations suggest that global warming of climate leads to an expansion of thermophilic fungi species, and pathogens begin to spread from the south to the north. Pythium, Rhizoctonia, Sclerotinia soil fungi are influenced by climatic factors. They form the overwintering structures that protect them from external influences. Increasing the temperature can lead to a decrease of the latent period and to increase of pathogens aggressiveness. Temperature can influence the function of the parasites virulence genes and resistance genes in plants. Thus, it is necessary to control the emergence of new plant diseases, improve protective measures, and develop cultivars with high adaptability.


Burkin A.A.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Kononenko G.P.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

A toxicity of plants eaten by animals at grazing land is shown to be complicated with various causes and clinical manifestations. In addition to phytotoxins and «infection» factors carried onto the plants by the insects (e.g., bacterial corynetoxins), the toxic metabolites of endophytic and epiphytic fungi are considered to play the significant role. Based on early understanding, the local risks for cattle, sheep and horses during grazing and stable periods were caused mainly by ergotism, my-rothecio- and fusariotoxicoses. Then, for a long time a mycotoxicological evaluation of local grass feeds was not carried out. To date, there is the only one study indicating differences between contaminations of the wild-growing gramineous plants and cultivated cereal crops (A.A. Burkin et al., 2010). The aim of the paper was to summarize our data of assaing 517 meadow grass samples from natural pastures and haying places in European Russia undertaken for the first time to determine contamination with mycotoxins. The spikes of fescue Festuca sp., couch grass Elytrigia repens (L.), timothy Phleum sp., and other locally occurring gramineous plants were selected in North Karelia, Tverskaya, Leningradskaya and Astrakhanskaya regions for July-October 2011. For summer and autumn 2014 collections the aboveground parts of gramineous plants and legumes were taken from Moskovskaya, Tverskaya, Astrakhanskaya regions and North Karelia. The average samples of the field sets of hay were obtained from the animal farms of Moskovskaya region from December 2013 up to April 2014. A multiple combined contamination of grassland gramineous plants and legumes by the mycotoxins was detected, particularly we have found the Fusarium fungi metabolites T-2 toxin (T-2), diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS), deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEN), fumonisins (FUM), the Alternaria metabolite alternariol (AOL), the Myrothecium metabolite roridin A (RoA), the «storage fungi» metabolites aflatoxin B1 (AB1), sterigmatocystin (STE), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), emodin (EMO), ochratoxin A (OA), citrinin (CIT), mycophenolic acid (MPA), PR-toxin (PR), and also the ergot alkaloids (EA). The common trend to changing the component composition and content of mycotoxins was revealed for collected samples of gramineous plants from Moskovskaya and Tverskaya regions (June-September) such as reed grass Calamagrostis sp., crested dog's tail Cynosurus cristatus L., sweet vernal grass Anthoxanthum odoratum L., cock's foot Dactyhs glomerata L., bromegrass Bromus sp., bluegrass Poa sp., oats Avena sativa L., fescue Festuca sp., bentgrass Agrostis sp., couch grass Elytrigia repens (L.), timothy Phleum sp., bristly foxtail grass Setaria sp. The complex of all examined mycotoxins was found to be formed in plants during early growing period (June). Moreover, AOL, STE, CPA and EMO were detected almost in all locations (80-98 % of samples), whereas DAS, EA, AB1, OA, STE and MPA occurred rarely (50-70 %). This period, in contrast to subsequent ones, was characterized by low level of T-2 (≤ 40 μg/kg), ZEN (≤ 56 μg/kg), EA (≤ 64 μg/kg), AOL (≤ 200 μg/kg) and EMO (≤ 315 μg/kg) and its negligible (no more than 10-fold) variations in all my-cotoxins with the exception of RoA. In the second collection of samples (July) AOL and EMO remained the significant contaminants (89 and 100 %) with an increased incidence of T-2, DON, ZEN and a wider range of the fiisariotoxins, CPA and EA amounts. During continued vegetation (August-September) there were stable high indices of prevalence and accumulation of T-2 (up to 795 μg/kg), AOL (up to 10000 pg/kg), EMO (up to 5620 pg/kg), a decreasing incidence of ABp CPA, OA, CIT, MPA, PR, DAS, DON, FUM, ZEN fiisariotoxins, and super high level of ZEN (up to 5750 pg/kg) occurred occasionally. The peculiarities of contamination of the legumes, such as meadow clover Fri-fohum pratense L., white clover Frifolium repens L., narrow-leaved vetch Vicia sp., wood vetch Vicia sylvatica L., meadow peavine Lathyrus pratensis L., the meadow grasses and the hay of various botanic compositions are discussed. For the first time a contamination of herbage with STE has been shown. The data obtained on RoA are especially important due to limited information of its prevalence.


Glotov A.G.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations | Glotova T.I.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Increasingly frequent outbreaks of atypical viral infections, detection of new viruses, modified isolates and quasitypes with a confirmed or potential emergence have become a worrying feature of the last decades characterized by extremely close international dealings. For the cattle industry, they pose real and serious threat because of a tendency to spread widely and quickly due to globalization and the use of standardized zootechnical and veterinary protocols. The Flaviviridae family comprises several genera of which the genus Pestivirus, including four viruses, i.e. The cattle viral diarrhea - mucosal disease (VD-MD) virus types 1 and 2, swine fever virus and sheep border disease virus, are important to farm animals (http://ictvonline.org/virusTaxonomy.asp). The characteristics of a new group of viruses genus Pestivirus of the Flaviviridae family, allocated in the period from 2000 to 2014 from the buffalo and cattle, as well as fetal calf serum used for cell cultures and vaccines production harvested in Australia, Canada, Mexico, Brazil and the United States and pack-aged in Europe (H. Schirrmeier et al., 2004; A. Cortez et al., 2006; E. Bianchi et al., 2011; B. Rodrigues et al., 2011; FI. Xia et al., 2011; FI. Xia et al., 2012; S. Peletto et al., 2012) are submitted in the review. The virus has been isolated in Thailand, Bangladesh and China (L. Liu et al., 2009; L. Mao et al., 2012; N. Haider et al., 2014). Messages on the isolation of the agent in other European countries, North America, Russia, India and Australia are absent (F.V. Bauermann et al., 2013). The widespread use of contaminated biological products can facilitate the penetration of the virus in different regions of continent causing their potential emergence for cattle. Strains of viruses presented cytopathic and noncytopathic biotypes not officially classified and have a variety titles in literature: a third type of viral diarrhea-mucosal disease in cattle (BVDV), an atypical pestivirus (HoBi-like), the fifth type of Pestivirus genus (N. Decaro et al., 2012). Based on phylogenetic analysis were identified two genetic groups: Brazilian and Thai, which differ from the prototype member of the genus - the BVD virus but having a great similarity in the manifestation of clinical signs, the ability to infect the foetus of cattle and buffalo (F.V. Bauermann et al., 2013). In cattle a spontaneous or experimental infection caused by HoBi-like virus is very similar to the cattle VD-MD and manifests as diarrhea, abortion, respiratory syndrome, persistent infection (F.V. Bauermann et al., 2013). The situation is aggravated by the fact that they like the BVDV are able to induce persistent infection and forms permanent epizootic foci (M.N. Weber et al., 2014). The discovery of this group of viruses requires a critical assessment of the diagnostic tools and vaccines against the BVDV. To date, the there are no tests for the detection of ruminants' pestiviruses or their antibodies, particularly due to high variability of this virus group. That is why their laboratory diagnosis should not rely on the use of a single test. The best approach would be serological diagnosis of the herd followed by the identification of persistently infected animals, the virus isolation and molecular analysis (F.V. Bauermann et al., 2013). Given the lack of HoBi-like infection diagnostics, these viruses can remain unnoticed and, presumably, compromising the effectiveness of control or eradication programs of BVDV realized in certain European countries and the United States (K. Stehl et al., 2004; J.F. Ridpath, 2010).


Mikhailenko I.M.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Reproduction in dairy herds recently has become increasingly important. The tendency to its reduction occurs everywhere in all countries with a developed dairy husbandry. On average, the number of lactations per cow is diminishing and now close to 3 while a genetic potential of many cattle breeds is over 10 lactations. To resolve this issue, a theoretical base should be developed using latest progress in various related sciences. The aim of the present study is the first theoretical justification for a key stage of the general concept of lactating cows' health management, proposed in our previous paper (I.M. Mikhailenko, 2014). Herein we suggest an approach to programming cow's life cycle from the first to the last economically reasonable lactation. As a result, the risk of animal culling and unnecessary costs are minimized. The problem is solved for the first time in biological science. Our theory is based on developed dynamic and probabilistic statistical models. At its core, this approach provides a science-based standard of animal feeding for optimized lactation during life cycle. The dynamic models for lifetime annual yields reflect animal age and nutrient intake with diet, and the probabilistic statistical modeling, used to control cows' culling due to ill health and diseases, is the most important feature of the developed approach to life-cycle control. All physiological states, from a heifer to the last lactation, are considered, and all the flows within the dairy herd and possible causes for culling are identified. These mathematical models allow assessing the risk of possible livestock losses, which are minimized due to optimized annual diet. The developed algorithm allows to specify adjustments in annual feeding rations during the cow's life cycle (the feeding strategies for dairy cattle), which ensure optimal reproduction rate, optimal number of possible lactation per cow and optimal annual yields. Thus, the use of a lactating cow is normalized resulting in healthy live-stock and maximized profitability of milk production. Since the individual approach to cows' feeding is a substantial reserve for increasing profitability of a dairy herd as a whole, the task of life cycle control is regarded at two levels, for an individual and for the herd on average. For a particular herd, the choice to one of the levels depends on whether there are the means to provide individual health control and dosing concentrated feed and food additives. Practically, the use of proposed mathematical models is mainly limited by lack of long-term (10-12 years) surveys of animal health as depended on the actual diet, since these data are necessary for identification and validation of the algorithms, but an experimental model such as 100-150 cows' dairy farm, equipped with systems for health monitoring and feed composition control, could improve the situation.


Grishechkina S.D.,Federal Agency of Scientific Organizations
Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya | Year: 2015

Various groups of agents are involved in biological crop protection to control pests and diseases. Of them, Bacillus genus possessing activity against harmful insects and phytopathogens is most promising and widely used. In this, the biologicals based on Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) dominate. More than 70 varieties of Bt have been identified. These bacteria can survive for a long time after treatment. Preparations based on three Bt serovars (A, B, C) are mostly used for insects' biocontrol. Serovar A Bt subspecies can form crystal endotoxins which are active against Lepidoptera; serovar B Bt subspecies attack the larvae of mosquitoes and black flies, and phytophagous Diptera; and serovar C Bt subspecies are active against Coleoptera beetles. A new serovar F (fungi) of this bacillus was identified. Physiological and biochemical properties of Bacillus thuringiensis provide the assimilation of nutrient substrates and antibiosis against biocenosis partners. Batsikol, the biological preparation based on B. thuringiensis var. darmstadiensis (H10) with entomopathogenic action, was created at All-Russian Research Institute of Agricultural Microbiology (St. Petersburg). Batsikol contains components of culture liquid, spores, insecticidal and fungicidal exo- and endotoxins, due to which it possesses multifunctional properties. The article presents the mechanisms of entomopathogenic and antifungal action of microbial preparations based on Bt. Results of testing Batsikol effectiveness against various pests and diseases in field trials and vegetation experiments are shown. Liquid form of biological product was used in the study (spore titer of 3.5 1/2 109/ml). Field and vegetation tests were carried out in 1994-2013 in different regions of Russia (Leningrad, Novosibirsk, Volgograd region, North Ossetia, Stavropol and Primorsky regions). Batsikol was sprayed against phytophagous pests on vegetating plants. The efficacy against pests varied from 50 to 100 %. Different modes of application against phytopathogen were tested according to the type of parasitism and environmental characteristics of fungi (i.e., spraying, irrigation, seed treatment). In field experiments the efficacy of spraying strawberry plants against gray mold was 60-74 %. Soil watering was used against Fusarium wilt on tomatoes and flax with efficacy of 74-87 % and 34-42 %, respectively. When seeds were treated prior to sowing the efficacy was 66-71 % in case of soaking barley seeds against root rot, and 40-45 % while soaking potato tubers against damping-off. Based on the tests conducted with Batsikol in different regions of Russia, the spectrum of its activities against wide range of phytophagous pests and pathogenic fungi was revealed on different crops. The obtained data expand the understanding of Bt biology and, in particular, the action spectrum against various pests and diseases dangerous for many cultivated plants. Presented materials allow considering Bacillus thuringiensis as the basis of microbiological preparations with a multifunctional activity. The obtained data will allow expanding the scope of its application, and it will help to improve ecological situation.

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