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Silver Spring, MD, United States

Huang L.,FDA CDER | Midthune D.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Krapcho M.,Management Information Services Inc. | Zou Z.,Management Information Services Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Biometrical Journal

Cancer registries collect cancer incidence data that can be used to calculate incidence rates in a population and track changes over time. For incidence rates to be accurate, it is critical that diagnosed cases be reported in a timely manner. Registries typically allow a fixed amount of time (e.g. two years) for diagnosed cases to be reported before releasing the initial case counts for a particular diagnosis year. Inevitably, however, additional cases are reported after the initial counts are released; these extra cases are included in subsequent releases that become more complete over time, while incidence rates based on earlier releases will underestimate the true rates. Statistical methods have been developed to estimate the distribution of reporting delay (the amount of time until a diagnosed case is reported) and to correct incidence rates for underestimation due to reporting delay. Since the observed reporting delays must be less than the length of time the registry has been collecting data, most methods estimate a truncated delay distribution. These methods can be applied to a group of registries that began collecting data in the same diagnosis year. In this paper, we extend the methods to two groups of registries that began collecting data in two different diagnosis years (so that the delay distributions are truncated at different times). We apply the proposed method to data from the National Cancer Institute's Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) program, a consortium of U.S. cancer registries that includes nine registries with data collection beginning in 1981 and four registries with data collection beginning in 1992. We use the method to obtain delay-adjusted incidence rates for melanoma, liver cancer, and Hodgkin lymphoma. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source

Weber K.,AnaPath GmbH | Hailey J.R.,GlaxoSmithCline | Mann P.C.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories Northwest | Seaton M.,FDA CDER | Funk K.A.,Experimental Pathology Laboratories
Toxicologic Pathology

This continuing education course presented at the Society of Toxicologic Pathology's 31st Annual Symposium explored and defined the many roles that toxicologic pathologists serve Good Laboratory Practice (GLP)-conducted toxicology and carcinogenicity studies. © 2014 by The Author(s). Source

Silva-Lima B.,University of Lisbon | Carlson D.,FDA CDER | Jones D.R.,Medicines and Healthcare Products Agency MHRA | Laurie D.,Novartis | And 5 more authors.
Clinical and Translational Science

Exploratory approaches for first-in-human clinical studies have evolved over the last few years and have stimulated the issuance of national regulatory guidances in some European countries as well as the United States. With the increasing implementation of these approaches and the recent preparation of a multiregional regulatory guidance (ICH M3 rev2), an exchange of experiences on the opportunities and challenges of exploratory clinical trials was desirable; thus, a workshop focusing on the use of this clinical approach was planned and conducted in Lisbon, Portugal, March 18-19, 2009 sponsored by the Portuguese Health Authority (INFARMED) and DIA. The structure of the workshop focused in three main areas. Regulatory representatives from Portugal, Belgium, Germany, the United Kingdom and the United States formally reviewed their experiences. This was followed by a discussion on issues from an ethics review perspective as well as an insight to the opportunities in the area of biologics. The industry perspective was presented by representatives from Merck, Pfizer, J&J, Novartis, Speedel, AstraZeneca, GSK, and Roche. Finally, through break out sessions, issues were identified to be addressed moving forward. It is the purpose of this paper to report on the outcome of this workshop. Clin Trans Sci 2010; Volume #: 1-4. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

Results of early nonclinical "General Toxicology" studies are used to set a safe starting dose for first-in-human (FIH) clinical trials. In FIH trials, the research subjects are typically healthy volunteers who have little to gain but much to lose if a trial goes wrong. With that in mind, good laboratory practice regulations require that a standardized system be used for the conduct, documentation, and retention of study-related materials. The study pathologist, working within that system of standards, documentation, and oversight, is key to the identification of potential target organs of toxicity and other toxicologically significant findings. © 2013 by The Author(s). Source

Kaverin N.V.,RAS D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology | Rudneva I.A.,RAS D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology | Timofeeva T.A.,RAS D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology | Ignatieva A.V.,RAS D. I. Ivanovsky Institute of Virology | And 3 more authors.
Virus Research

We believe that the monitoring of pleiotropic effects of the hemagglutinin (HA) mutations found in H5 escape mutants is essential for accurate prediction of mutants with pandemic potential. In the present study, we assessed multiple characteristics of antibody-selected HA mutations. We examined the pH optimum of fusion, HA heat inactivation, affinity to sialyl receptors, and in vitro and in vivo replication kinetics of various influenza H5 escape mutants. Several amino acid substitutions, including T108I, K152E, R162G, and K218N, reduced the stability of HA as determined by heat inactivation, whereas S128L and T215A substitutions were associated with significant increases in HA thermostability compared to the respective wild-type viruses. HA mutations at positions 108, 113, 115, 121, 123, 128, 162, and 190 and substitutions at positions 123, 199, and 215 affected the replicative ability of H5 escape mutants in vitro and in vivo, respectively. The T108I substitution lowered the pH optimum of fusion and HA temperature stability while increasing viral replicative ability. Taken together, a co-variation between antigenic specificity and different HA phenotypic properties has been demonstrated. © 2015. Source

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