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Li H.,The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins | Baldwin B.R.,FDA CBER | Zahnow C.A.,The Sidney Kimmel Comprehensive Cancer Center at Johns Hopkins
Molecular Cancer | Year: 2011

Background: The transcription factor, CCAAT enhancer binding protein-β (C/EBPβ), is expressed as several distinct protein isoforms (LAP1, LAP2 and LIP) that have opposing actions in cellular proliferation and differentiation. Increases in the ratio of LIP/LAP are associated with aggressive, metastatic breast cancer; however, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms that regulate LIP expression or the biological actions of an increase in the LIP/LAP ratio. Metastasis is highly dependent upon the suppression of anoikis and the role of C/EBPβ and LIP in this anchorage-independent, survival process is currently not known in mammary epithelial cells. IGF-1R signaling is important for the survival of breast cancer cells and crosstalk between IGF-1R and EGFR signaling pathways have been implicated in the development of more aggressive disease. We therefore evaluated in mammary epithelial cells whether IGF-1R signaling regulates the LIP/LAP ratio, analyzed the potential interplay between EGFR and IGF-1R signaling and addressed the biological significance of increased LIP expression in cellular survival and suppression of anoikis.Results: Our data provide the first evidence that IGF-1R signaling regulates LIP expression in an EGFR independent manner to increase the LIP/LAP ratio in mammary epithelial cells. Although crosstalk between IGF-1R signaling and EGFR signaling is detectable in MCF10A cells, this crosstalk is not required for the IGF-1 mediated regulation of LIP expression. Rather, the critical regulator of IGF-1 induced LIP expression appears to be EGFR-independent, Akt activity. Our data also demonstrate that increases in LIP expression promote cell survival via suppression of anoikis. Likewise, knockdown of total C/EBPβ leads to increased cell death and suggest that C/EBPβ expression is important for survival and resistance to anoikis. IGF-1 treatment can partially rescue vector control cells from anoikis; however, cells with reduced C/EBPβ expression do not survive anoikis.Conclusions: Taken together, our data demonstrate that IGF-1R signaling regulates LIP expression in an EGFR independent manner to increase the LIP/LAP ratio in mammary epithelial cells. C/EBPβ expression and elevations in LIP play an important role in regulating cellular survival via suppression of anoikis, in an IGF-1R mediated context or in a manner independent of IGF-1R signaling. © 2011 Li et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Thelwell C.,UK National Institute for Biological Standards and Control | Marszal E.,FDA CBER | Rigsby P.,UK National Institute for Biological Standards and Control | Longstaff C.,UK National Institute for Biological Standards and Control
Vox Sanguinis | Year: 2011

Background and Objectives The aim was to establish the 1st International Standard (IS) for alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) to standardise potency assignment of therapeutic products, calibrated in moles and mg active AAT in line with product labelling practice. Assigning total protein and antigen values to the IS was also investigated. Materials and Methods The active concentration of four candidate AAT preparations was determined in an international collaborative study by inhibition of trypsin (calibrated by active-site titration). Total protein and antigen content were determined for each candidate using local methods and in-house standards, and a common AAT preparation. The total protein content of the IS was also determined by amino acid analysis. Potency determination of recombinant and transgenic materials against the IS was investigated in a follow-up study. Results Data analysis for potency determination indicated no statistical difference between any of the candidates, or between the results for recombinant and plasma-derived products. Total protein content of the IS determined by amino acid analysis was consistent with the potency value. The variability in the total protein and antigen results for the other candidates was reduced when the data were recalculated relative to the IS. Conclusions Candidate C (05/162) was established by the WHO Expert Committee on Biological Standardization (ECBS) in 2006 as the WHO 1st IS for AAT with a potency of 243nmoles (12·4mg) active inhibitor per ampoule. In 2008, ECBS approved the IS for potency determination of recombinant material and assigned a total protein and antigen value of 12·4mg. © 2010 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2010 International Society of Blood Transfusion. Source

Goldblatt D.,University College London | Plikaytis B.D.,Centers for Disease Control and Prevention | Akkoyunlu M.,FDA CBER | Antonello J.,Sharp Corporation | And 22 more authors.
Clinical and Vaccine Immunology | Year: 2011

Lot 89SF has been the reference standard serum pool used in pneumococcal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) since 1990. In 2005, it was estimated that there remained between 2 and 5 years'supply of lot 89SF. Since lot 89SF was the reference standard used in the evaluation of the seven-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine Prevnar (PCV7), the link to clinical efficacy would be severed if stocks became completely depleted. Furthermore, demonstration of immune responses comparable to those elicited by PCV7 is a licensure approach used for new pneumococcal conjugate vaccines, so a replacement reference standard was required. A total of 278 volunteers were immunized with the 23-valent unconjugated polysaccharide vaccine Pneumovax II, and a unit of blood was obtained twice within 120 days following immunization. Plasma was prepared, pooled, and confirmed to be free from hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and HIV. The pooled serum was poured at 6 ml per vial into 15,333 vials and lyophilized. Immunological bridging of 007sp to 89SF was used to establish equivalent reference values for 13 pneumococcal capsular serotypes (1, 3, 4, 5, 6A, 6B, 7F, 9V, 14, 18C, 19A, 19F and 23F) by five independent laboratories. Antibody concentrations in 007sp were established relative to the lot 89SF reference preparation using the WHO reference ELISA. Subsequently, 12 existing WHO calibration sera had concentrations reassigned for 13 pneumococcal serotypes using new serum 007sp as the reference, and these were compared to concentrations relative to the original reference serum. Agreement was excellent for the 12 WHO calibration sera. The 007sp preparation has replaced 89SF as the pneumococcal reference standard. Sufficient quantity of this new preparation is available such that, with judicious use, it should be available for at least 25 years. Copyright © 2011, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved. Source

Su Z.,FDA NCTR | Labaj P.P.,University of Vienna | Li S.,New York Medical College | Thierry-Mieg J.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | And 172 more authors.
Nature Biotechnology | Year: 2015

We present primary results from the Sequencing Quality Control (SEQC) project, coordinated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Examining Illumina HiSeq, Life Technologies SOLiD and Roche 454 platforms at multiple laboratory sites using reference RNA samples with built-in controls, we assess RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) performance for junction discovery and differential expression profiling and compare it to microarray and quantitative PCR (qPCR) data using complementary metrics. At all sequencing depths, we discover unannotated exon-exon junctions, with >80% validated by qPCR. We find that measurements of relative expression are accurate and reproducible across sites and platforms if specific filters are used. In contrast, RNA-seq and microarrays do not provide accurate absolute measurements, and gene-specific biases are observed for all examined platforms, including qPCR. Measurement performance depends on the platform and data analysis pipeline, and variation is large for transcript-level profiling. The complete SEQC data sets, comprising >100 billion reads (10Tb), provide unique resources for evaluating RNA-seq analyses for clinical and regulatory settings. © 2014 Nature America, Inc. All rights reserved. Source

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