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PubMed | Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology and CBER FDA
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.) | Year: 2015

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) neutralization occurring at the E2 region 412-426 (EP-I) could be enhanced when antibodies directed specifically to the E2 region 434-446 (EP-II) were removed from serum samples of persistently infected patients and vaccinated chimpanzees, a phenomenon of so-called antibody interference. Here, we show that this type of interference can be observed in individuals after immunization with recombinant E1E2 proteins. One hundred twelve blinded serum samples from a phase I, placebo-controlled, dose escalation trial using recombinant HCV E1E2 with MF59C.1 adjuvant in healthy HCV-negative adults were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for binding reactivity to peptides representing the E2 regions 412-426 (EP-I) and 434-446 (EP-II). All samples were subsequently tested for neutralizing activity using cell-culture HCV 1a(H77)/2a chimera, HCV pseudotype particles (HCVpp) H77, and HCVpp HCV-1 after treatment to remove EP-II-specific antibodies or mock treatment with a control peptide. Among the 112 serum samples, we found 22 double positive (EP-I and EP-II), 6 EP-II positive only, 14 EP-I positive only, and 70 double negative. Depleting EP-II antibodies from double-positive serum samples increased 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) neutralizing antibody titers (up to 4.9-fold) in up to 72% of samples (P 0.0005), contrasting with ID50 neutralization titer increases in 2 of 70 double-negative samples (2.9%; P > 0.5). In addition, EP-I-specific antibody levels in serum samples showed a significant correlation with ID50 neutralization titers when EP-II antibodies were removed (P < 0.0003).These data show that antibodies to the region 434-446 are induced during immunization of individuals with recombinant E1E2 proteins, and that these antibodies can mask effective neutralizing activity from EP-I-specific antibodies. Elicitation of EP-II-specific antibodies with interfering capacity should be avoided in producing an effective cross-neutralizing vaccine aimed at the HCV envelope proteins.


Kachko A.,CBER FDA | Frey S.E.,Saint Louis University | Sirota L.,Office of Biostatistics and Epidemiology | Ray R.,Saint Louis University | And 4 more authors.
Hepatology | Year: 2015

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) neutralization occurring at the E2 region 412-426 (EP-I) could be enhanced when antibodies directed specifically to the E2 region 434-446 (EP-II) were removed from serum samples of persistently infected patients and vaccinated chimpanzees, a phenomenon of so-called antibody interference. Here, we show that this type of interference can be observed in individuals after immunization with recombinant E1E2 proteins. One hundred twelve blinded serum samples from a phase I, placebo-controlled, dose escalation trial using recombinant HCV E1E2 with MF59C.1 adjuvant in healthy HCV-negative adults were tested in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for binding reactivity to peptides representing the E2 regions 412-426 (EP-I) and 434-446 (EP-II). All samples were subsequently tested for neutralizing activity using cell-culture HCV 1a(H77)/2a chimera, HCV pseudotype particles (HCVpp) H77, and HCVpp HCV-1 after treatment to remove EP-II-specific antibodies or mock treatment with a control peptide. Among the 112 serum samples, we found 22 double positive (EP-I and EP-II), 6 EP-II positive only, 14 EP-I positive only, and 70 double negative. Depleting EP-II antibodies from double-positive serum samples increased 50% inhibitory dose (ID50) neutralizing antibody titers (up to 4.9-fold) in up to 72% of samples (P ≤ 0.0005), contrasting with ID50 neutralization titer increases in 2 of 70 double-negative samples (2.9%; P > 0.5). In addition, EP-I-specific antibody levels in serum samples showed a significant correlation with ID50 neutralization titers when EP-II antibodies were removed (P < 0.0003). Conclusion: These data show that antibodies to the region 434-446 are induced during immunization of individuals with recombinant E1E2 proteins, and that these antibodies can mask effective neutralizing activity from EP-I-specific antibodies. Elicitation of EP-II-specific antibodies with interfering capacity should be avoided in producing an effective cross-neutralizing vaccine aimed at the HCV envelope proteins. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.


Underbayev C.,Rutgers University | Underbayev C.,U.S. National Institutes of Health | Kasar S.,Rutgers University | Ruezinsky W.,Rutgers University | And 10 more authors.
Oncotarget | Year: 2016

In both human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and the New Zealand Black (NZB) murine model of CLL, decreased levels of microRNAs miR-15a/16 play an important role in the disease. Here we investigate the effects of this microRNA on early steps of B cell development and the capacity of miR-15a-deficient hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and B1 progenitor cells (B1P) to reproduce CLL-like phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that both miR-15a deficient HSC and B1P cells are capable of repopulating irradiated recipients and produce higher numbers of B1 cells than sources with normal miR-15a/16 levels. Furthermore, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived for the first time from NZB mice, provided insights into the B cell differentiation roadblock inherent in this strain. In addition, exogenously delivered miR-15a into the NZB derived B cell line provided valuable clues into novel targets such as Mmp10 and Mt2. Our data supports the hypothesis that miR-15a/16 deficient stem cells and B1Ps experience a maturation blockage, which contributes to B1 cells bias in development. This work will help understand the role of miR-15a in early events of CLL and points to B1P cells as potential cells of origin for this incurable disease.


PubMed | Osel, Inc., Solid Biosciences LLC, CBER FDA and Rutgers University
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Oncotarget | Year: 2016

In both human chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and the New Zealand Black (NZB) murine model of CLL, decreased levels of microRNAs miR-15a/16 play an important role in the disease. Here we investigate the effects of this microRNA on early steps of B cell development and the capacity of miR-15a-deficient hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) and B1 progenitor cells (B1P) to reproduce CLL-like phenotype both in vitro and in vivo. Our results demonstrate that both miR-15a deficient HSC and B1P cells are capable of repopulating irradiated recipients and produce higher numbers of B1 cells than sources with normal miR-15a/16 levels. Furthermore, induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells derived for the first time from NZB mice, provided insights into the B cell differentiation roadblock inherent in this strain. In addition, exogenously delivered miR-15a into the NZB derived B cell line provided valuable clues into novel targets such as Mmp10 and Mt2. Our data supports the hypothesis that miR-15a/16 deficient stem cells and B1Ps experience a maturation blockage, which contributes to B1 cells bias in development. This work will help understand the role of miR-15a in early events of CLL and points to B1P cells as potential cells of origin for this incurable disease.


PubMed | Eli Lilly and Company, European Medicines Agency, CSL Behring GmbH, Regulatory Affairs & Biological Safety Consulting and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology | Year: 2014

The report provides a summary of the presentations and discussions at the Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2013 organized by the Parenteral Drug Association (PDA) and held in Berlin, Germany, from June 4 to 6, 2013. The conference was accompanied by a workshop, Virus Spike Preparations and Virus Removal by Filtration: New Trends and Developments. The presentations and the discussion at the workshop are summarized in a separate report that will be published in this issue of the journal as well. As with previous conferences of this series, the PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2013 provided again an excellent opportunity to exchange information and opinions between the industry, research organizations, and regulatory bodies. Updates on regulatory considerations related to virus and transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) safety of biopharmaceuticals were provided by agencies of the European Union (EU), the United States (US), and Singapore. The epidemiology and detection methods of new emerging pathogens like hepatitis E virus and parvovirus (PARV 4) were exemplified, and the risk of contamination of animal-derived raw materials like trypsin was considered in particular. The benefit of using new sequence-based virus detection methods was discussed. Events of bioreactor contaminations in the past drew the attention to root cause investigations and preventive actions, which were illustrated by several examples. Virus clearance data of specific unit operations were provided; the discussion focused on the mechanism of virus clearance and on the strategic concept of viral clearance integration. As in previous years, the virus safety section was followed by a TSE section that covered recent scientific findings that may influence the risk assessment of blood and cell substrates. These included the realization that interspecies transmission of TSE by blood components in sheep is greater than predicted by assays in transgenic mice. Also, the pathogenesis and possibility of productive TSE infection of cell substrates were considered, and cell-based assays that may be suitable for use in TSE clearance studies were discussed. The current report provides an overview about the outcomes of the 2013 PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum, a unique event in this field.


PubMed | Eli Lilly and Company, European Medicines Agency, CSL Behring GmbH, Regulatory Affairs & Biological Safety Consulting and 8 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PDA journal of pharmaceutical science and technology | Year: 2014

This workshop was held on June 3, 2013, in Berlin, Germany, in conjunction with the PDA Virus & TSE Safety Forum 2013. A total of nine speakers presented on key considerations of virus filtration, including a historical overview and emerging trends in evaluating parvovirus filters. Several talks addressed understanding the mechanism of virus capture and breakthrough by filters, as well as addressing this risk by carefully controlling transmembrane pressure. Improvements to validation studies were proposed via the use of highly purified virus preparations, more relevant models such as Chinese Hamster Ovary retrovirus-like particles, as well as new assays for virus quantification. The workshop ended with a panel discussion covering a range of topics including virus breakthrough, up-stream media treatment, virus spike preparation quality control, and regulatory expectations.

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