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Brito D.,FCT Inc. | Pereira P.,LECG | Pereira P.,University of Lisbon | Vareda J.,CEFAGE UE
International Journal of Industrial Organization | Year: 2010

We analyze if two-part access tariffs solve the dynamic consistency problem of the regulation of next generation networks. We model the industry as a duopoly, where a vertically integrated incumbent and a downstream entrant, that requires access to the incumbent's network, compete on Hotelling's line. The incumbent can invest in the deployment of a next generation network that improves the quality of the retail services. We have three main results. First, we show that if the regulator can commit to a policy, a regulatory moratorium may emerge as socially optimal. Second, we show that if the regulator cannot commit to a policy, it can induce investment only when the investment cost is low. Third, we show that in this case, two-part tariffs involve very large payments from the entrant to the incumbent. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Anifowose B.,Coventry University | Odubela M.,FCT Inc.
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2015

Climate change impacts are increasingly becoming more evident e.g. through heavy rainfall episodes and subsequent flooding. Methane is a significant greenhouse gas that has been linked to these impacts and the oil and gas industry is a major source of anthropogenic methane emission. Recent studies have suggested that the tropical region hold some unexpectedly high methane concentration and that the recent changes in the global methane burden are poorly understood. To address this research gap, we present a first effort to quantify methane emissions from one of the most vulnerable oil and gas infrastructures in Nigeria (a tropical country). A combination of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change tier-1 approach and an adapted Greenhouse Gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy Use in Transportation model was used to estimate methane emissions from the system 2C transport pipeline. We then tested the hypothesis of no significant change in methane emissions trend from the pipeline using the between group t-test inferential analysis. Key findings include: (a) a crude oil throughput of 55,143 to 1,500,500 barrels (8767 to 238,561 m3) emitted methane ranging from 0.04734 to 1.288MT (± 50 to 200%) respectively, and (b) surprisingly, methane emissions along the system 2C pipeline seem to have continued without significant change between 2005, and 2008 to 2012 despite the low crude oil throughput in 2009. This indicates the likelihood of continuous but rising methane emissions from the pipeline network over a six-year period; and only further research can ascertain if similar trend can be observed elsewhere in the tropical region. These findings are unique and contribute to the current global debate on methane emissions from the largely unmonitored tropical region. Therefore, we recommend that stakeholders should set up a study plan for the identification and continuous monitoring of methane emissions from the key oil and gas infrastructure and explore opportunities for geoengineering applications as part of climate change mitigation. Coordinated engagement in international schemes such as the Natural Gas STAR program, Climate and Clean Air Coalition, Global Methane Initiative amongst others would promote strategic and measurable methane reduction plans in Nigeria and other countries within/outside the tropical region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


We report 4 cases of patients diagnosed with stress-induced cardiomyopathy and the pattern of typical apical ballooning syndrome (ABS), who presented to our institution with chest pain, mildly elevated cardiac enzymes and ischemic electrocardiographic changes, found to have severe hypokinesis or akinesis of the mid to apical segments with dynamic basal segments on two-dimensional (2D) echocardiography along with a global longitudinal strain (GLS) pattern markedly different from the typical left anterior descending artery (LAD) myocardial infarction pattern. All of them had a similar GLS pattern on presentation, which was easy to recognize on the polar map the day of the event. Three of the patients underwent left heart catheterization and found to have nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD). We discuss the usefulness of early recognition of ABS using GLS images. Mini-Abstract In this case series we report 4 cases of patients diagnosed with stress induced cardiomyopathy apical ballooning syndrome (ABS), who presented to our institution with chest pain, mildly elevated cardiac enzymes and ischemic electrocardiographic changes. They were found to have severe hypokinesis or akinesis of the mid to apical segments with dynamic basal segments on echocardiography. A global longitudinal strain (GLS) pattern on polar map was markedly different from the pattern of proximal left anterior descending artery (LAD) myocardial infarction. All of them had a similar GLS pattern on presentation, which was easy to recognize on these polar maps images the day of the event. We discuss the usefulness of early recognition of ABS using global longitudinal strain images. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2007

Functional Coating Technology LLC, working with Northwestern University, has recently developed new anodes that are either all-oxide materials or oxides that contains a small amount of a nano electro-catalyst metal, e.g., Ru, formed by a novel self-assembly process. Since these anodes work well without Ni, they have potential for substantially improved sulfur tolerance. Prior works have shown that perovskite oxide anodes similar to ours have excellent sulfur tolerance, in some cases working with >10%H2S in the fuel! However, these anodes have typically not shown electrochemical performance consistent with higher power density (~1W/cm2), arguably the key requirement for implementing SOFCs in high power-to-weight ratio, airborne applications. Our new anodes provide this high performance as well as very good sulfur tolerance. The objective of this Phase I project is to explore the feasibility of new materials as high-performance sulfur-tolerant anodes. A main part will be to screen the current anode compositions and several new hybrid compositions in electrolyte-supported cells, using impedance spectroscopy to identify the anode contribution to the performance. The one or two best compositions would be chosen for more detailed testing in follow-up Phase II, that will feature implementation of the new anodes in thin-electrolyte cells for high power densities.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 733.46K | Year: 2007

In the phase I, We have demonstrated that high power densities can be achieved for SOFC using component surrogate fuels like dodecane or Tridecane via direct internal reforming. This approach can provide solutions for the highly power-dense applications required by Air Force (e.g. auxiliary power units for aircraft and unmanned aerial vehicles) and many portable and transportation applications in commercial sector. Because the stack power densities are high, the system can be compact and light-weight. Since there is no external reformer or water tank required (reforming is done with H2O-CO2 recycled from the exhaust), fuel efficiency is potentially higher than other designs, reducing the fuel pay load. In addition, fast system start-up can be accomplished in part using partial oxidation reforming for heating the stack. Addition of a novel catalyst to a conventional SOFC allowed stable operations with liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This approach has an advantage that the catalyst can be ¡°tuned¡± to work with various fuels. The proposed Phase II SBIR project is to demonstrate a stable, high power density operation of this catalyst-assisted SOFC using JP-8 realistic surrogate fuel and other potential sulfur free logistic fuels. Building on from successful demonstration during phase I, The proposed phase II will include optimization to the current materials, cell design as well as demonstration of small internal reforming model stacks. The Detailed modeling and experimental measurements will be combined in both cells and model stack level to better understand the interplay between mass transport, charge transport, catalytic reactions, and electrochemical reactions in complex multi-layer anode/catalyst structures.

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