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Artigues-près-Bordeaux, France

Guigou-Carter C.,CSTB | Balanant N.,Groupe QUALITEL | Villenave M.,FCBA
Proceedings of Forum Acusticum

Within the French project Acoubois concerning the development of acoustic performance evaluation and prediction method for lightweight wood-based buildings, an acoustic comfort investigation has been carried out in order to evaluate the acceptability of residents living in multifamily buildings with respect to the French regulation levels and the influence of low frequencies. The investigation is based on a questionnaire composed of 6 parts: (1) noise and vibration from the neighbors, (2) noise from neighbors using common areas (such as hallways, corridors, staircases,...), (3) noise from service equipment, (4) noise from collective areas (such as garages, stores, restaurants, etc.), (5) noise from outdoor, (6) noise within rooms of the dwelling. Questions are also concerned with general sensitivity to noise and the importance of sound insulation. In a second version of questionnaire, the residents are questioned regarding their concern of annoying their neighbors due to noise, and how they modify their behavior to limit this problem. A 5 level scale (1 not at all annoying and 5 extremely annoying) is used to evaluate the noise annoyance. Face-to-face interviews have been organized to collect answer to questionnaire; the resident is questioned regarding noise perception for two or three rooms in the dwelling (living room and 1 or 2 bedrooms depending on dwelling size). The questionnaire is presented and results are discussed with respect to acoustic measurements performed in the considered buildings. Source

Moreaux V.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | O'Grady A.P.,CSIRO | Nguyen-The N.,FCBA | Loustau D.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research
Plant Ecology and Diversity

Background: There is increasing interest in developing eucalypt stands in France for biomass energy, but the water requirements of eucalypt coppice are largely unknown.Aims: We assessed the water use and growth of two 5-year-old managed forest stands: an indigenous maritime pine stand and an introduced eucalypt stand.Methods: We used a combination of meteorological, sap flow, soil and biomass measurements, between September 2009 and July 2011.Results: The stand structure was the main driver of both water use and its partitioning between water balance components in each site. The evapotranspiration was high in the eucalypt stand, with a significant contribution of tree transpiration due to high leaf area index of the tree canopy. Under well-watered conditions, both species exhibited a similar stomatal behaviour in relation to vapour pressure deficit and, with high biomass production, the two stands presented a maximal water use efficiency in respect to their local environments and constraints. However, they experienced significant sensitivity to successive early spring and summer droughts. The unexpected prolonged soil water deficit in the eucalypt stand, induced by high water consumption and insufficient water supply, directly impacted leaf shedding and stem secondary growth. In contrast, the pines appeared conservative with respect to soil water deficits and maintained secondary growth. © 2013 Copyright 2013 The contribution of Anthony O'Grady was authored as part of his employment by CSIRO, and copyright is asserted in the contribution by Her Majesty in the Right of Australia. Denis Loustau, Virginie Moreaux and Nicolas Nguyen-The hereby waive their right to any copyright in the Article but not their right to be named as co-authors of the Article. Source

Boulet S.,FCBA
7th International Symposium on Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning - Proceedings of ISHVAC 2011

The notion of environmental high quality takes into account both the indoor ambient environment of users, with health and comfort preoccupations, and the impact on the outdoor environment. It aims to respect sustainable development principles but it also must base on human factors. Nowadays, the various approaches are essentially thermal, acoustical, visual or olfactory but the impact of one on the perception of the other one is important and must be taken into account. We want to break with this practice, developing an evaluation of the comfort with use of multi-criteria analysis as a decision-making tool, through the definition of a coherent family of criteria representing different components of the comfort. The objective of the presented study is the identification of parameters affecting comfort in moderate environment. We will analyse results through the multicriteria decision analysis, a confrontation between measurements and inquiries will be realized in case of validation. Source

Dupont C.,CEA Grenoble | Jacob S.,GIE ARVALIS ONIDOL | Marrakchy K.O.,CEA Grenoble | Hognon C.,CEA Grenoble | And 3 more authors.

A study was performed to elucidate the influence of biomass type on char steam gasification kinetics. Isothermal experiments were carried out in a thermobalance in chemical regime on nineteen biomass chars produced under the same conditions. The reactivity obtained varied of a factor of more than thirty. This large difference appeared to be correlated with the biomass inorganic elements. In particular, the catalytic effect of potassium (K) as well as the inhibiting effect of silicon (Si) and phosphorus (P) were highlighted. Three different types of rate evolution versus conversion could be observed depending on the ratio K/(Si + P) and were correlated with the ash surface composition after gasification. Conversion could be satisfactorily predicted versus time through simple models taking into account the influence of inorganic elements and thus further useable in simulation of industrial gasifiers fed by various biomass types. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Grull G.,Holzforschung Austria | Truskaller M.,Holzforschung Austria | Podgorski L.,FCBA | Bollmus S.,University of Gottingen | Tscherne F.,Holzforschung Austria
European Journal of Wood and Wood Products

Maintenance procedures of different wood coating systems were studied in field exposure trials with coated balcony constructions. Maintenance coatings were applied on one half of each of the balcony parts after 18 months and assessed after 24 months of total exposure time. It was found that the opaque white coating systems were the most durable ones reaching long intervals of required maintenance. For systems with lower durability on the maintained surfaces further degradation of the coatings was prevented. Different characteristics were observed for film forming and non film forming semi-transparent varnishes. Definitions of a series of limit states for coating systems on wood were suggested including esthetical limits and three levels of durability limits. Film forming coatings can reach two durability limits, i.e. the maintenance interval and the renovation interval. For non film forming coatings there is only one limit state of coating durability where maintenance is needed. The third durability limit is related to the coated substrate, i.e. the wood component, by the onset of decay in wood. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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