FC Laboratory

Belfort, France

FC Laboratory

Belfort, France

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Placca L.,FC Laboratory | Placca L.,University of Technology of Belfort - Montbéliard | Placca L.,CEA Grenoble | Kouta R.,FC Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Polarisation curves performed at the Fuel Cell System Laboratory (FC LAB) at Belfort on a PEM fuel cell stack using a homemade fully instrumented test bench led to more than 100 variables depending on time. Visualising and analysing all the different test variables are complex. In this work, we show how the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method helps to explore correlations between variables and similarities between measurements at a specific sampling time (individuals). To complete this method, an empirical model of the PEM fuel cell is proposed by linking the different input parameters to the cell voltage using Multiple Linear Regression. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.


Wasterlain S.,FC Laboratory | Wasterlain S.,University of Franche Comte | Candusso D.,FC Laboratory | Candusso D.,INRETS | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2010

A single PEMFC has been operated by varying the assembly temperature, the air dew point temperature and the anode/cathode stoichiometry rates with the aim to identify the parameters and combinations of factors affecting the cell performance. Some of the experiments were conducted with low humidified reactants (relative humidity of 12%). The FC characterizations tests have been conducted using in situ electrochemical methods based on load current and cell voltage signal analysis, namely: polarization curves, EIS measurements, cyclic and linear sweep voltammetries (CV and LSV). The impacts of the parameters on the global FC performances were observed using the polarization curves whereas EIS, CV and LSV test results were used to discriminate the different voltage loss sources. The test results suggest that some parameter sets allow maximal output voltages but can also induce material degradation. For instance, higher FC temperature and air flow values can induce significant electrical efficiency benefits, notably by increasing the reversible potential and the reaction kinetics. However, raising the cell temperature can also gradually dry the FC and increase the risk of membrane failure. LSV has also shown that elevated FC temperature and relative humidity can also accelerate the electrolyte degradation (i.e. slightly higher fuel crossover rate) and reduce the lifetime consequently. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.


Tian G.,Tsinghua University | Wasterlain S.,University of Franche Comte | Wasterlain S.,FC Laboratory | Candusso D.,FC Laboratory | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Various PEMFC operating conditions can lead to irreversible damages as membrane break and gasket deterioration. If leak check procedures can highlight the lack of tightness in fuel cells, they are not appropriate to inform actually where the fault has occurred in the stacks. Thus, diagnosis procedures allowing the failed cells to be identified are needed. Then, these cells can be removed and replaced by safe ones. The article presents some descriptions of aged assemblies subjected to anode/cathode crossover and anode/cooling compartment leakage. Some experimental investigations are carried out with the goal to locate the defective cells. The open current voltages of the cells are monitored and analysed in different operating conditions. Experimental procedures combined with data analysis tools allow the detection of the failed cells, which show abnormal performance and voltage pattern when they are compared to the other safe cells. © 2009 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu.


Onanena R.,FC Laboratory | Onanena R.,University of Franche Comte | Onanena R.,INRETS | Oukhellou L.,INRETS | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2010

Durability is one of the limiting factors for spreading and commercialization of fuel cell technology. That is why research to extend fuel cell durability is being conducted world wide. A pattern-recognition approach aiming to estimate fuel cell operating time based on electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements is presented here. It is based on extracting the features from the impedance spectra. For that purpose, two approaches have been investigated. In the first one, particular points of the spectrum are empirically extracted as features. In the second approach, a parametric modeling is performed to extract features from both the real and the imaginary parts of the impedance spectrum. In particular, a latent regression model is used to automatically split the spectrum into several segments that are approximated by polynomials. The number of segments is adjusted taking into account the a priori knowledge about the physical behavior of the fuel cell components. Then, a linear regression model using different subsets of extracted features is employed for an estimate of the fuel cell operating time. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is evaluated on an experimental dataset. Allowing the estimation of the fuel cell operating time, and consequently its remaining duration life, these results could lead to interesting perspectives for predictive fuel cells maintenance policy. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Begot S.,FC Laboratory | Begot S.,University of Franche Comte | Harel F.,FC Laboratory | Harel F.,INRETS | And 7 more authors.
Energy Conversion and Management | Year: 2010

The implementation of Fuel Cell (FC) systems in transportation systems, as aircrafts, requires some better understanding and mastering of the new generator behaviours in low temperature environments. To this end, a PEMFC stack is tested and characterised in a climatic chamber. The impacts of the low temperatures over different FC operation and start-up conditions are estimated using a specific test bench developed in-lab. Some descriptions concerning the test facilities and the experimental set-up are given in the paper, as well as some information about the test procedures applied. Some examples of test results are shown and analysed. The experiments are derived from aircraft requirements and are related with different scenarios of airplane operation. Finally, some assessments concerning the FC system behaviour in low temperature conditions are made, especially with regard to the constraints to be encountered by the next embedded FC generators. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Wasterlain S.,FC Laboratory | Wasterlain S.,University of Franche Comte | Candusso D.,FC Laboratory | Candusso D.,INRETS | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Power Sources | Year: 2011

In the area of fuel cell research, most of the experimental techniques and equipments are still devoted to the analysis of single cells or very short stacks. However, the diagnosis of fuel cell stacks providing significant power levels is a critical aspect to be considered for the integration of fuel cell systems into real applications such as vehicles or stationary gensets. In this article, a new instrument developed in-lab is proposed in order to satisfy the requirements of electrochemical impedance studies to be led on large FC generators made of numerous individual cells. Moreover, new voltammetry protocols dedicated to PEMFC stack analysis are described. They enable for instance the study of membrane permeability and loss of platinum activity inside complete PEMFC assemblies. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.


Onanena R.,FC Laboratory | Onanena R.,University of Franche Comte | Onanena R.,INRETS | Oukhellou L.,INRETS | And 8 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

This paper deals with a pattern-recognition-based diagnosis approach, which aim is to estimate the Fuel Cell (FC) operating time, and consequently its remaining duration life. With the method proposed, both static and dynamic information extracted from the stack (i.e. polarization curve records and Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements) can be used. The complete diagnosis method consists of several steps. First, features are extracted from EIS measurements and polarization curves independently. This enables us to simplify the extracted information without losing relevant information, and to remove noise. For the polarization curves, an empiric model is exploited to ensure the feature extraction. For the impedance spectra, both expert knowledge and parametric modeling are used to extract features. In particular, a latent regression model is used to split automatically the imaginary part of the spectra into several segments that are approximated by polynomials. The next step of the method consists in selecting the most relevant features from the whole set of extracted features. This helps us to estimate the operating time, while adjusting the complexity of the model. The final step of the approach is a linear regression that uses the selected subset of features to estimate the FC operating time. The performances of the proposed approach are evaluated on a dataset made up of EIS measurements and polarization curves extracted from two FC lifetime tests. A mean error of about 2 h over a global operating duration of 1000 h can be obtained. Moreover, the portability of the method is shown by considering another FC ageing test conducted on a different FC stack type. © 2010 Professor T. Nejat Veziroglu. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


De Bernardinis A.,IFSTTAR LTN | Candusso D.,FC Laboratory | Diaw I.,IFSTTAR LTN | Diaw I.,Ecole Normale Superieure de Cachan | Harel F.,FC Laboratory
PCIM Europe Conference Proceedings | Year: 2012

The aim of the research work is to propose a power converter topology for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC) operating in potentiostatic mode and which allows applying the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) technique to a large stack composed of about one hundred cells. In CV mode, the fuel cell behavior is rather particular and the definition of a suitable power converter interface is not trivial. It implies to control the fuel cell potential during the cycling profiles applied, which is not a usual control method for large fuel cell stacks, and the converter should be current reversible to ensure the entire evolution of the potential cycle. DC-DC bidirectional-buck topology can be a candidate, as well as bidirectional-boost converter for a hybrid fuel cell - battery series connection in order to deal with low voltage limit conditions. DC-DC converter topologies will be simulated and their properties discussed in relation with selected working conditions, having as input real data issued from experimental cyclic voltammograms. © VDE Verlag GMBH - Berlin.


Paclisan D.,FC Laboratory | Paclisan D.,University of Technology of Belfort - Montbéliard | Charon W.,FC Laboratory | Charon W.,University of Technology of Belfort - Montbéliard
Engineering Applications of Artificial Intelligence | Year: 2013

Modelling complex dynamic mechanical systems, such as PEMFC, without any physical models is a difficult challenge but it could allow the monitoring of endurance tests of fuel cell systems. Neural networks are recognised as powerful numerical tools for predicting complex and nonlinear dynamic behaviours. They require only data limited to experimental inputs and outputs but the choice of an adapted architecture is critical. This paper presents a method for defining a neural network architecture optimised for the fuel cell systems. The associated experimental conditions specifying the vibration tests to train and validate were defined. They consist of swept sinus as well as random excitation forces. The resulting simulations are presented and analysed. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Placca L.,FC Laboratory | Placca L.,University of Technology of Belfort - Montbéliard | Kouta R.,FC Laboratory | Kouta R.,University of Technology of Belfort - Montbéliard
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011

For transportation applications, Proton Exchange Membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) are considered to be the most promising fuel cell technology due to their low operating temperature and pressure resulting in a possible quick start-up. However, to implement them in transportation systems, their reliability should be improved. In the present work, a single fuel cell is considered. It is composed of a membrane, catalyst layers (anode and cathode electrodes) and diffusion layers (anode and cathode electrodes). Those layers are considered as the critical components of the cell. Modelling the process degradations of those components is a great issue. In this work, Fault Tree (FT) is used for this modelling for two main reasons. At first, FT helps to model clearly and intuitively the different causal relations of the degradation mechanisms. Secondly, FT allows quantifying components specific degradations, and their effects on the global degradation of the cell. The cell is considered non repairable. Degradation modelling needs knowledge about mechanisms involving components failures. For 1000 simulations of 100 h operation in cycling conditions, the results of the FT show the most important degradations effects on the global degradation of the cell. This work also proposes degradation probability estimates for some specific events. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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