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Beecroft, Australia

Anderson O.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bekes F.,FBFD Pty LTD
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2011

To study the contributions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) to the gluten macropolymer and dough properties, wheat HMW-GS (x- and y-types) are synthesized in a bacterial expression system. These subunits are then purified and used to supplement dough mixing and extensigraph experiments through dough partial reduction and reoxidation to allow these exogenously added HMW-GS to incorporate into gluten polymers. Detailed results are given for seven mixing and two extension parameters. HMW-GS synthesized in bacteria behaved similarly under these conditions to the same HMW-GS extracted from wheat flour. These experiments initially focused on the HMW-GS of the D-genome of hexaploid wheat encoded at the Glu-D1 locus; e.g. the Dx2, Dx5, Dy10, and Dy12 subunits. Experiments used five different flours and results are shown to be consistent when normalized to results from Dx5. The incorporation of Dx-type subunits into the gluten disulfide bonded network has greater effects on dough parameters than incorporation of Dy-type subunits. When Glu-D1 x- and y-type subunits are incorporated together, there are synergistic effects greater than those with either subunit type alone. This synergistic effect was greatest with approximately equal amounts of Dx- and Dy-type subunits - implying a 1:1 stoichiometric relationship. © 2011. Source


Tomoskozi S.,Budapest University of Technology and Economics | Bekes F.,FBFD Pty LTD
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2011

In Australia in the early 1890s, the wheat breeder William Farrer and chemist Frederick Guthrie shared a vision of selecting cross-bred wheats for enhanced grain quality. Guthrie was the newly appointed chemist of the Department of Agriculture of the Colony of New South Wales. Their goal to select lines with good milling quality was difficult because Farrer's plots produced only ounces of grain for testing. In a day when there was no written background to the task, Guthrie set about devising small-scale milling equipment that could produce flour from the many small samples of grain coming from Farrer's breeding program. Guthrie used two pairs of small rolls manufactured by the Ganz Company of Budapest. The testing procedure was extremely tedious, requiring 13 successive passes of milling and sieving. Guthrie's test mill and the results have been described in several publications. In addition, his mill has been reconstructed as a one-quarter-scale model as a result of the efforts of Mr Colin Hopkins, a retired chemical engineer. In contrast to this 120-year-old technology, there is now more advanced technology for test milling very small grain samples (only 5 to 10 grams of grain) with the development of a novel laboratory micro-mill, the FQC-2000, manufactured by Inter-Labor, Hungary. These old and new developments have involved collaborations between Hungary and Australia. Source


Anderson O.D.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | Bekes F.,FBFD Pty LTD | D'Ovidio R.,University of Tuscia
Journal of Cereal Science | Year: 2011

An in vitro system for incorporating bacterially produced high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) into doughs was used to study the effects of specific domains of the HMW-GS. Synergistic effects of incorporating into doughs both the Dx5 and Dy10 subunits are localized to the N-terminal domains. All single and pair-wise combinations of original subunits and hybrid subunits with their N-terminal domains exchanged between Dx5 and Dy10 finds three classes of respondents: the greatest response is when the N-termini of both Dx5 and Dy10 are present, followed by presence of the Dx5 N-terminus alone, and the least response by the presence of the Dy10 N-terminus alone. In addition, studies of Dx5 variants possessing repetitive domains of different length and composition find evidence that the length of the HMW-GS repetitive domain is important for dough properties and that the exact composition of the repeat domain has a detectible, though lesser contribution. Finally, in this experimental system, the Glu-D1 x- and y-subunits function in the mixing experiments as if they were a fused dimer, although the exact molecular basis of the effect is not known. © 2011. Source


Bekes F.,FBFD Pty LTD
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2012

The aim of this two-part review is to highlight some of the numerous newer aspects of quality related wheat research and its achievements in the last two decades. In the first part - after a short introduction highlighting the essential need of quality improvement and its changing and widening meaning - a brief section describes directions of the more and multi-interdisciplinary wheat quality oriented research with special emphasis on the "omics"-type of population-based strategies and width the enlarging gap between breeding - and industry oriented quality research and its consequences. These general comments are followed by the session describing our understanding of the role of components of flour determining bread-making. The first two sections of the second part of the review overlook the new directions of quality related basic and applied research in breeding and breeding as well as in the wheat industry, including genetic, molecular biological, biochemical chemical, instrumental and model-making/predictive methodologies. A brief coverage of the directions and achievement in the more and more important two non-traditional quality areas, the nutrition- and health-related quality attributes are followed by a short conclusion and speculation on future direction. Source


Bekes F.,FBFD Pty LTD
Cereal Research Communications | Year: 2012

The aim of this two-part review is to highlight some of the numerous newer aspects of quality related wheat research and its achievements in the last two decades. The first part described the directions of more and more multi-interdisciplinary wheat quality oriented research with an enlarging gap between breeding - and industry oriented quality research. These general comments were followed by the session describing our understanding the role of components of wheat flour determining bread-making quality. This second part of the review overlooks the new directions of quality related basic and applied research in pre-breeding and breeding as well as in the wheat industry, including genetic, molecular biological, biochemical chemical, instrumental and model-making/predictive methodologies. A brief coverage of the directions and achievement in the more and more important two non-traditional quality areas, the nutrition- and health-related quality attributes are followed by a short conclusion and speculation on future direction. Source

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