Buenos Aires, Argentina
Buenos Aires, Argentina

The Favaloro University is a private university in the city of Buenos Aires in Argentina. It was founded by surgeon René Favaloro in 1998; it obtained its definitive authorization on October 23, 2003 by decree 963/03 of president Néstor Kirchner. Favaloro did not see his project completely realised, for he committed suicide a few years before completion. Wikipedia.

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News Article | May 26, 2017
Site: www.bbc.co.uk

A project aiming to "scientifically understand the mindset of terrorists" has published insights that the scientists say could have implications for terror prevention. Researchers worked with a group of 66 incarcerated ex-combatants from a paramilitary terrorist group in Colombia, a country with one of the greatest insurgency rates in the world. This unique experiment revealed what the team described as an "abnormal pattern of moral judgment" in terrorists. The scientists say a psychological "score" based on this could be an accurate way to discriminate between the mindset of a terrorist and that of a non-criminal. The researchers, based in Argentina, the US, Colombia and Chile, published their findings in the journal Nature Human Behaviour. Agustín Ibanez and Adolfo García, from Favaloro University in Buenos Aires, who were part of the international research team, told BBC News they had spent four years working with Colombian law enforcers to secure permission to work with this large group of dangerous, incarcerated terrorists. The study participants were former members of right-wing paramilitary groups, all of whom had been convicted of murder. Many had been involved in massacres with hundreds of victims. They took part in a series of psychological tests, including an assessment of moral cognition. This involved presenting the subjects with a series of scenarios in which characters either deliberately or accidentally caused harm to others. Each subject was then asked to rate the scenario on a scale from totally forbidden (1) to totally permissible (7). Dr Ibanez said: "The typical response is that attempted harm should be more objected to than accidental harm. [But] the pattern in terrorists was the opposite." The pattern this research revealed was that "extreme terrorists judge other people's actions by focusing on the outcomes of an action rather than its underlying intentions. "This is the first study to demonstrate this psychological trait, [and it suggests that] a terrorist's moral code actually approves of any action if it contributes to achieving a given aim." The researchers hope the conclusions could help build a psychological profile for use in forensics and law enforcement. But they say further research will need specifically to examine how predictive this measure of moral cognition is when it comes to "identifying dangerous insurgent individuals". They also pointed out that there were likely to be differences in the "origins and psychological traits of different forms of terrorism". "For example, in the population we studied, religion does not seem to be a relevant factor. [In fact], most ex-combatants in Colombia joined paramilitary groups for economic reasons - because they were paid a salary. "But I would envisage forensic psychologists ultimately using a moral score like this to help assess how much of a threat a particular individual poses - in addition to other measures of aggression and emotions, as well as other cognitive and social tasks," Dr Ibanez told BBC News. Prof Seena Fazel, from the University of Oxford, a psychiatrist focusing on the relationship between mental illness and violent crime, told BBC News that the study was "a step forward". He said there was value in the study's comparison of terrorists and non-criminals - the team carried out the same battery of tests on 66 healthy individuals from the same geographical region who had no terrorist background. "I'd be interested in identifiable and modifiable factors that can either stop people repeating [a violent act] or stop them committing it in the first place. That would be where research could be very useful. "These type of assessments rely on detailed interviews, so we're not at a point where we could scale up and implement this."

Forastiero R.,Favaloro University
Acta Bioquimica Clinica Latinoamericana | Year: 2016

Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) in patients with a history of thrombotic clinical complications in both venous and arterial territory and/ or obstetric morbidity define the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). aPL in patients' plasma can be detected as lupus anticoagulant (LA) activity through the prolongation of phospholipid-dependent clotting tests or through solid-phase assays such as ELISAs for anti-cardiolipin antibodies (aCL) or anti-b2 glycoprotein I(ab2GPI).Diagnosis of APS requires that aPL are demonstrated in at least 2 opportunities with no less than 12 weeks between two laboratory evaluations. aCL and ab2GPIof IgG and/ or IgM isotypes must be present at moderate or high titers. In recent years, there have been several recommendations for the evaluation of LA and also aPL by immunological methods. This article describes the international guidelines available for a correct diagnosis of aPL in the laboratory.

Chennu S.,University of Cambridge | Noreika V.,Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain science Unit | Gueorguiev D.,Medical Research Council Cognition and Brain science Unit | Blenkmann A.,Ramos Mejia Hospital | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2013

Hierarchical predictive coding suggests that attention in humans emerges from increased precision in probabilistic inference, whereas expectation biases attention in favor of contextually anticipated stimuli. We test these notions within auditory perception by independently manipulating top-down expectation and attentional precision alongside bottom-up stimulus predictability. Our findings support an integrative interpretation of commonly observed electrophysiological signatures of neurodynamics, namely mismatch negativity (MMN), P300, and contingent negative variation (CNV), as manifestations along successive levels of predictive complexity. Early firstlevel processing indexed by the MMN was sensitive to stimulus predictability: here, attentional precision enhanced early responses, but explicit top-down expectation diminished it. This pattern was in contrast to later, second-level processing indexed by the P300: although sensitive to the degree of predictability, responses at this level were contingent on attentional engagement and in fact sharpened by top-down expectation. At the highest level, the drift of the CNV was a fine-grained marker of top-down expectation itself. Source reconstruction of high-density EEG, supported by intracranial recordings, implicated temporal and frontal regions differentially active at early and late levels. The cortical generators of the CNV suggested that it might be involved in facilitating the consolidation of contextsalient stimuli into conscious perception. These results provide convergent empirical support to promising recent accounts of attention and expectation in predictive coding. © 2013 the authors.

Quandt F.,University of Hamburg | Hummel F.C.,University of Hamburg | Hummel F.C.,Favaloro University
Experimental and Translational Stroke Medicine | Year: 2014

Neuromuscular stimulation has been used as one potential rehabilitative treatment option to restore motor function and improve recovery in patients with paresis. Especially stroke patients who often regain only limited hand function would greatly benefit from a therapy that enhances recovery and restores movement. Multiple studies investigated the effect of functional electrical stimulation on hand paresis, the results however are inconsistent. Here we review the current literature on functional electrical stimulation on hand motor recovery in stroke patients. We discuss the impact of different parameters such as stage after stoke, degree of impairment, spasticity and treatment protocols on the functional outcome. Importantly, we outline the results from recent studies investigating the cortical effects elicited by functional electrical stimulation giving insights into the underlying mechanisms responsible for long-term treatment effects. Bringing together the findings from present research it becomes clear that both, treatment outcomes as well as the neurophysiologic mechanisms causing functional recovery, vary depending on patient characteristics. In order to develop unified treatment guidelines it is essential to conduct homogenous studies assessing the impact of different parameters on rehabilitative success. © 2014 Quandt and Hummel; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Bipolar Disorders are among the ten leading causes of morbity and lithium is considered first-line treatment and the most cost-effective. Nevertheless, its use takes a back seat to other treatment options less effective, safe and more expensive; and the reasons for this remains unclear. The present study investigates clinical concepts related to its underutilization. An anonymous questionnaire concerning different aspects of lithium clinical use (compared efficacy, adverse effects, practical aspects regarding its use, use in special populations) was administered during the XXV Congress of the Argentinean Psychiatrist Association. 164 questionnaires were analyzed. Less than one-third of the sample referred lithium as their most frequent treatment option, although almost 60% qualified it as effective. Almost two-thirds considered its utilization as more complex and ill-ascribed adverse effects to it. One third referred not to use it in youth and senior populations. Contrary to current recommendations, lithium is under utilized. This is the first report on the possible causes leading to such phenomena, which can be related to ill concepts regarding its safety, clinical use and adverse effects; although not to its effectiveness.

Forastiero R.,Favaloro University
Hematology | Year: 2012

Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disease characterized clinically by the occurrence of venous or arterial thrombosis, and/or pregnancy morbidity. The detection of persistently elevated levels of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) is a requisite laboratory feature for the diagnosis of APS. The positivity for at least one aPL test: lupus anticoagulant and/or IgG/IgM anticardiolipin and/ or IgG/IgM antiβ2glycoprotein I antibodies must be detected. Sometimes aPL coagulopathy may start with a hemorrhagic syndrome when a severe thrombocytopenia, or an acquired thrombocytopathy, or an acquired fator VIII inhibitor, or an acquired prothrombin deficiency is present. aPL-associated thrombocytopenia is usually moderate without clinical manifestations. Except in the occasional situations in which thrombocytopenia is associated with thrombotic microangiopathy, such as catastrophic APS, bleeding is uncommon in APS patients. When platelet counts are less than 30×109/L and there are symptoms of bleeding, the treatments used are the same for idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. In rare occasions a hemorrhagic diathesis due to the occurrence of non-neutralizing anti-prothrombin antibodies causing severe hypoprothrombinemia (HPT) can be observed. Levels of prothrombin in plasma are less than 10-20% in cases with HPT-related bleeding requiring transfusion and/or corticosteroid treatment. The APS mainly causes thrombosis, and pregnancy losses. However, other clinical manifestations are also associated with the presence of persistent autoimmune aPL. Bleeding is uncommon but can be the first clinical manifestation in patients having severe thrombocytopenia or prothrombin deficiency. © W. S. Maney & Son Ltd 2012.

The Barratt Impulsiveness Scale was designed to assess the impulsivity construct in three dimensions: attentional, motor and unplanned. The scale has been applied to patients with different diagnoses in which the impulsivity symptoms are characteristic. In Argentina there aren't studies that evaluate the psychometrics properties of the scale in clinical population. The objective of the research was to evaluate the psychometrics properties in a sample of the city of Buenos Aires. 150 adult subjects were selected: 67 didn't have relevant psychiatric diagnoses, 56 met criteria for bipolar disorder and 27 had Attention Deficit Disorder. The internal consistency, the construct validity, discriminative validity and the factorial structure were assessed. The Cronbach alpha was 0.84 for the total scale. Also the instrument has demonstrated acceptable indicators of construct and discriminative validity. Significant differences were found when the results of the present study and the original factorial structure were compared. The results support the usefulness of the scale in the psychiatric, scientific and clinical context to evaluate the impulsivity construct. The total score of the scale obtained the strongest indicators of reliability and validity.

Samame C.,Favaloro University | Martino D.J.,Favaloro University | Strejilevich S.A.,Favaloro University
Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica | Year: 2012

Objective: Deficits in social cognition have been reported in euthymic subjects with bipolar disorder (BD). However, some studies have failed to find differences favoring controls. As most investigations have been conducted with small samples, they have not had sufficient power to detect statistically significant differences. Furthermore, studies communicating positive results have scarcely attempted to estimate effect sizes for patient-control differences. The aim of this study was to summarize the findings of reports on social cognition in patients with euthymic BD and to combine their data to identify possible deficits and quantify their magnitude. Method: Systematic literature review and meta-analysis. Results: Impairments of moderate magnitude (0.5

Strejilevich S.A.,Favaloro University | Strejilevich S.A.,Cognitive Neurology Institute INECO | Martino D.J.,Favaloro University
Journal of Affective Disorders | Year: 2013

Objective: Neurocognitive dysfunction is considered as the main predictor of overall outcome of BD. The issue of whether neurocognitive dysfunction in BD is progressive-or not-has become critical in the effort to define staging models for these disorders. Data about cognitive dysfunction evolution are scarce and contradictory. While some studies showed a progressive pattern others have found a stable form of evolution. Methods: Twenty four patients with BD aged 60 years or older (E-BD), 24 patients with BD aged 40 years or younger (Y-BD) and 20 healthy controls matched by the E-BD group were evaluated with traditional clinical instruments and an extensive neuropsychological battery was completed. We used ANOVA and Chi-squared for comparisons. Raw score of neurocognitive tasks was transformed to standardized Z-score from the normative data of each test to avoid the effect of age. In order to decrease the risk of type I errors, one-way multivariate analysis of variance was conducted. Results: Despite having an illness duration that was 4 times longer, E-BD did not differ in terms of key cognitive domains compared to Y-BD. These data do not support the hypothesis of a progression of cognitive dysfunction due to illness chronicity. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Craiem D.,Favaloro University | Magin R.L.,University of Illinois at Chicago
Physical Biology | Year: 2010

New lumped-element models of red blood cell mechanics can be constructed using fractional order generalizations of springs and dashpots. Such 'spring-pots' exhibit a fractional order viscoelastic behavior that captures a wide spectrum of experimental results through power-law expressions in both the time and frequency domains. The system dynamics is fully described by linear fractional order differential equations derived from first order stress-strain relationships using the tools of fractional calculus. Changes in the composition or structure of the membrane are conveniently expressed in the fractional order of the model system. This approach provides a concise way to describe and quantify the biomechanical behavior of membranes, cells and tissues. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.

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