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Cambridge, United Kingdom

Sembiring A.,Udayana University | Pertiwi N.P.D.,Udayana University | Mahardini A.,Udayana University | Wulandari R.,Udayana University | And 9 more authors.
Fisheries Research | Year: 2015

Sharks are apex predators and keystone species that have a profound influence on the ecology and food-web dynamics of coral reefs and epipelagic marine ecosystems. However, sharks are being heavily overfished compromising the health of the world's reefs and pelagic environments. Although Indonesia is the world's largest and most diverse coral reef ecosystem, information on the exploitation of sharks in this region is scarce. Results of DNA barcoding of shark fin revealed two alarming findings: (1) a rarity of reef sharks that should dominate Indonesia's coastal ecosystems, and (2) a fishery that targets endangered sharks. The diversity and number of threatened species recovered in this study highlights the urgent need for improved regulation and control of Indonesia's shark fishery. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Atickem A.,University of Oslo | Williams S.,Flora and Fauna International | Bekele A.,Addis Ababa Institute of Technology | Thirgood S.,Macaulay Institute
African Journal of Ecology | Year: 2010

In the Web Valley of the Bale Mountains National Park, the pastoral people suffer from livestock predation by wild carnivores. A total of 704 livestock were reported to be killed by wild carnivores over a 3-year period, causing a loss of potential revenue of 12 USD per year per household. Reported annual predation rates equated to 1.4% of the livestock population of the study area. Spotted hyaenas were responsible for most livestock predation (57%), followed by leopards (18%), common jackals (16%) and servals (9%). Hyaenas killed all livestock types (horses, donkeys, mules, cattle, goats and sheep) whilst leopards, common jackals and servals killed mostly goats and sheep. A survey of 362 households revealed that the pastoral people keep dogs to protect livestock from carnivores. During 250 nights of observation in the ten settlements, pastoralists were alerted to the presence of hyaenas on 80 occasions by the barking of their dogs. Such tradition of keeping dogs presents a threat to the persistence of the endangered Ethiopian wolf through diseases transmission. Given the frequency of carnivore attacks on livestock, it is desirable to develop alternative livestock protection methods that both minimize livestock losses and reduce the risk of disease transmission to Ethiopian wolves. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Eisemberg C.C.,University of Canberra | Rose M.,Flora and Fauna International | Yaru B.,Oil Search Ltd. | Georges A.,University of Canberra
Biological Conservation | Year: 2011

Papua New Guinea has astonishing biological and cultural diversity which, coupled with a strong community reliance on the land and its biota for subsistence, add complexity to monitoring and conservation and in particular, the demonstration of declines in wildlife populations. Many species of concern are long-lived which provides additional challenges for conservation. We provide, for the first time, concrete evidence of a substantive decline in populations of the pig-nosed turtle (Carettochelys insculpta); an important source of protein for local communities. Our study combined matched village and market surveys separated by 30. years, trends in nesting female size, and assessment of levels and efficacy of harvest, each of which was an essential ingredient to making a definitive assessment of population trends. Opportunities for an effective response by local communities to these declines needs to consider both conservation and fisheries perspectives because local communities consider the turtle a food resource, whereas the broader global community views it as a high priority for conservation. Our study in the Kikori region is representative of harvest regimes in most rivers within the range of the species in Papua New Guinea, and provides lessons for conservation of many other wildlife species subject to harvest. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Gaos A.R.,San Diego State University | Lewison R.L.,San Diego State University | Yanez I.L.,Eastern Pacific Hawksbill Initiative | Wallace B.P.,Wildlife Conservation Society | And 10 more authors.
Biology Letters | Year: 2012

Adult hawksbill turtles (Eretmochelys imbricata) are typically described as open-coast, coral reef and hard substrate dwellers. Here, we report new satellite tracking data on female hawksbills from several countries in the eastern Pacific that revealed previously undocumented behaviour for adults of the species. In contrast to patterns of habitat use exhibited by their Caribbean and Indo-Pacific counterparts, eastern Pacific hawksbills generally occupied inshore estuaries, wherein they had strong associations with mangrove saltwater forests. The use of inshore habitats and affinities with mangrove saltwater forests presents a previously unknown life-history paradigm for adult hawksbill turtles and suggests a potentially unique evolutionary trajectory for the species. Our findings highlight the variability in life-history strategies that marine turtles and other wide-ranging marine wildlife may exhibit among ocean regions, and the importance of understanding such disparities from an ecological and management perspective. © 2011 The Royal Society.

Siler C.D.,University of Oklahoma | Davis D.R.,University of South Dakota | Diesmos A.C.,Herpetology Section | Guinto F.,Flora and Fauna International | And 3 more authors.
Zootaxa | Year: 2016

We describe a new species of lizard in the genus Pseudogekko from Sibuyan and Tablas islands in the Romblon Island Group of the central Philippines. The new species is diagnosed from other Philippine Pseudogekko by body size and shape, color pattern, and multiple differences in scale characteristics. Pseudogekko isapa sp. nov. has been collected only twice from leaves of shrubs in forested habitat on Sibuyan and Tablas islands. The distinctive new species of false gecko is un-doubtedly endemic to this single, isolated island group. The fact that populations of such a distinctive new species of Pseudogekko has escaped notice of herpetologists on the reasonably well-studied and largely protected Sibuyan Island fur-Ther emphasizes the secretive and forest-dependent habits of Philippine false geckos. These characteristics of their behav-ior and natural history render them difficult to study and challenge biologists' efforts to accurately assess their conservation status. Copyright © 2016 Magnolia Press.

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