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Bogor, Indonesia

Kartika I.A.,FATETA IPB | Yuliani S.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development | Kailaku S.I.,Indonesian Center for Agricultural Postharvest Research and Development | Rigal L.,ENSIACET
Biomass and Bioenergy | Year: 2012

This research studied the moisture sorption behaviour of jatropha seed allowing the development of a model correlating the equilibrium moisture content (EMC) and the free fatty acids (FFA) content as a function of water activity and EMC, respectively. Two sets of sorption-isotherm experiment were performed to describe the relationship between EMC and FFA content with water activity, for both fresh and dried seeds. The seeds were conditioned in series of saturated salts having certain water activity and stored at different temperatures (20, 30, 40 °C). The nested experimental design and ANOVA (F-test at p  0.05) were applied to study the effects of temperature and water activity on the EMC of jatropha seed. EMC increased generally with the increase in water activity and with the decrease in temperature at either desorption or adsorption. The EMC was significantly affected by water activity, but the temperature did not significantly affect the EMC. The hysteresis effect was more pronounced at lower temperatures. The FFA content of seed was relatively constant at low water activity (a w < 0.8), but it was high at higher water activity. The moisture sorption behaviour of jatropha seed revealed that like most product, it exhibited the sigmoid pattern. The BET, GAB, Harkins-Jura, Halsey and Henderson models were recommended as adequate models in predicting the amount of moisture adsorbed or desorbed at known humidity. The relationship between EMC and FFA content of jatropha seed showed that the polynomial equation was the best fitting for either fresh or dried seed. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Evon P.,ENSIACET | Evon P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Amalia Kartika I.,FATETA IPB | Cerny M.,ENSIACET | And 3 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of mechanical pressing to extract oil from jatropha seeds using a twin-screw extruder. Experiments were conducted using a co-rotating (Clextral BC 21, France) twin-screw extruder. The influence of operating conditions on oil yield, specific mechanical energy and oil quality was examined. Operating conditions included screw configuration, pressing temperature and screw rotation speed.Generally, it was the screw configuration, or profile, that most affected oil extraction efficiency. The best oil yields, a minimum 57.5%, were obtained with a trituration zone composed of 10 monolobe and 10 bilobe paddles, and a pressing zone composed of 50mm long, reverse pitch screws with a -33mm pitch. In addition, oil extraction yield increased with decreasing temperature and screw rotation speed. Highest oil extraction yield (70.6%) with good press cake quality (residual oil content lower than 8%) was obtained under operating conditions of 153rpm screw rotation speed, 5.16kg/h inlet flow rate of jatropha seeds, and 80°C pressing temperature. The corresponding expressed oil was inexpensive to produce (71Wh/kg seed processed or 314Wh/kg expressed oil for specific mechanical energy) compared with another continuous technique, i.e. the single expeller press, commonly used for mechanical extraction of jatropha oil. Its quality was also satisfactory for biodiesel production. The acid value, the density and the kinematic viscosity were 5.4mg of KOH/g of oil, 915kg/m3 and 36.7×10-6m2/s, respectively. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.. Source


Amalia Kartika I.,FATETA IPB | Evon P.,ENSIACET | Evon P.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Cerny M.,ENSIACET | And 6 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2016

This study investigated biodiesel production from jatropha seeds in a single step, i.e. by simultaneous solvent extraction and transesterification of jatropha oil, and possibility to transform the obtained cakes into binderless particleboards. n-Hexane was used as extracting solvent. The best operating conditions were identified to obtain optimal biodiesel yield and quality, and optimal physical and mechanical properties for binderless particleboards. Biodiesel yield was usually influenced by operating conditions, and the influences of both n-hexane to seed and methanol to oil ratios were most significant. An increase in n-hexane to seed ratio (from 1:1 to 3:1) combined with the decrease in methanol to oil ratio (from 13.3:1 to 8.0:1) led to an improvement in biodiesel yield. The best biodiesel yield (92% with a fatty acid methyl ester purity >98%) was obtained from 2:1 n-hexane to seed ratio, 10.6:1 methanol to oil ratio, 200-600rpm stirring speed, 50°C temperature and 6h reaction time. Operating conditions had no significant effect on the biodiesel quality, except the n-hexane to seed ratio. Moreover, cohesive particleboards were produced from the obtained cakes, proteins and fibers acting respectively as binder and reinforcing fillers. An increase in the cake moisture content significantly improved the particleboard properties. The most promising binderless particleboard was manufactured from cake B under 20% cake moisture content and 160°C pressing temperature. Its properties were 0.87g/cm3 density, 8.4% moisture content, 7.2MPa modulus of rupture, 10.4GPa modulus of elasticity, 0.14MPa internal bonding strength, 52% water absorption and 20% thickness swelling after 24h immersion in water. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Amalia Kartika I.,FATETA IPB | Yani M.,FATETA IPB | Ariono D.,FTI ITB | Evon Ph.,National Polytechnic Institute of Toulouse | And 3 more authors.
Fuel | Year: 2013

The objective of this study was to investigate solvent extraction and in situ transesterification in a single step to allow direct production of biodiesel from jatropha seeds. Experiments were conducted using milled jatropha seeds, and n-hexane as extracting solvent. The influence of methanol to seed ratio (2:1-6:1), amount of alkali (KOH) catalyst (0.05-0.1 mol/L in methanol), stirring speed (700-900 rpm), temperature (40-60 °C) and reaction time (3-5 h) was examined to define optimum biodiesel yield and biodiesel quality after water washing and drying. When stirring speed, temperature and reaction time were fixed at 700 rpm, 60 °C and 4 h respectively, highest biodiesel yield (80% with a fatty acid methyl ester purity of 99.9%) and optimum biodiesel quality were obtained with a methanol to seed ratio of 6:1 and 0.075 mol/L KOH in methanol. Subsequently, the influence of stirring speed, temperature and reaction time on biodiesel yield and biodiesel quality was studied, by applying the randomized factorial experimental design with ANOVA (F-test at p = 0.05), and using the optimum values previously found for methanol to seed ratio and KOH catalyst level. Most experimental runs conducted at 50 °C resulted to high biodiesel yields, while stirring speed and reaction time did not give significantly effect. The highest biodiesel yield (87% with a fatty acid methyl ester purity of 99.7%) was obtained with a methanol to seed ratio of 6:1, KOH catalyst of 0.075 mol/L in methanol, a stirring speed of 800 rpm, a temperature of 50 °C, and a reaction time of 5 h. The effects of stirring speed, temperature and reaction time on biodiesel quality were not significant. Most of the biodiesel quality obtained in this study conformed to the Indonesian Biodiesel Standard. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Amalia Kartika I.,FATETA IPB | Pontalier P.Y.,ENSIACET | Rigal L.,ENSIACET
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2010

A new application of twin-screw extruder as a machine to conduct a thermo-mechanical pressing and a solvent extraction of sunflower oil in a single step and in a continuous mode was studied. Experiments were conducted using a CLEXTRAL BC 45 co-rotating twin-screw extruder and whole sunflower seeds with fatty acid methyl esters as a solvent. The influences of screw rotation speed (SS), feed rate (QS) and solvent-to-solid (S/S) ratio were examined to define the best performance of the oil extraction yield, the oil quality and the specific mechanical energy.Generally, the screw rotation speed, feed rate and solvent-to-solid ratio affected oil extraction yield. An increase of oil extraction yield was observed as screw rotation speed and feed rate were decreased, and solvent-to-solid ratio was increased. In addition, oil extraction yield increased as screw rotation speed and feed rate were simultaneously increased to QS/SS ratio of 0.2. Highest oil extraction yield (98%) with best cake meal quality (residual oil content lower than 3%) was obtained under screw rotation speed of 185rpm, feed rate of 30kg/h, and solvent-to-solid ratio of 0.55. Furthermore, the operating parameters and solvent-to-solid ratio influenced energy input. A decrease of screw rotation speed and feed rate followed by an increase of solvent-to-solid ratio increased energy input, particularly specific mechanical energy input. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. Source

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