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Bedford, United Kingdom

Danthine S.,ULg | Delatte S.,ULg | Blecker C.,ULg | Smith K.W.,Fat Science Consulting Ltd | Bhaggan K.,Loders Croklaan B.V.
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Filling fats are used in bakery and confectionery applications. These fats are made up of complex mixtures of triacylglycerols (TAG). The crystallization, melting behaviour and polymorphic stability of fat blends are determined by the behaviour of the TAGs that they contain. Filling functionalities are influenced by their fat composition but also by the processing conditions used for crystallization. In this study, the crystallization behaviour of fat blends, all based on shea stearin as hard fat (which is high in 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl glycerol (SOS)) combined with either sunflower oil, shea olein or rapeseed oil, were investigated by means of pulsed nuclear magnetic resonance (pNMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Blends containing either 30 or 40% shea stearin combined with one of the soft fats were selected as they met the criteria required for filling fats. Under static isothermal conditions (at 10°C, 15°C or 20°C), a two-step crystallization was observed for those blends, which can be explained by polymorphic transitions from α-form into more stable forms. All the selected blends exhibited different crystallization mechanisms according to the TAG composition of the liquid phase and their complementarity with TAG from the solid phase. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Smith K.,Fat Science Consulting Ltd | Bhaggan K.,Product and Process Development Loders Croklaan BV
Lipid Technology | Year: 2012

Crystallization in fats is of fundamental importance in the production and consumption of fats per se and of food and home and personal care (HPC) products in which fats form a major part. While crystallization of fats as such has been extensively reviewed over the past decade there has been less emphasis on the role of minor components. A review by Smith et al. [1] redressed this; this article is based on that review. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Garcia-Macias P.,University of Reading | Gordon M.H.,University of Reading | Frazier R.A.,University of Reading | Smith K.,Fat Science Consulting Ltd | Gambelli L.,Loders Croklaan B.V.
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2012

Four blends formulated with low saturated fatty acid content, with the saturated component rich in stearic acid, were prepared from shea stearin, interesterified shea stearin, fully hardened soybean oil and high oleic sunflower oil in order to study their performance as shortenings in puff pastry products. The blends had a low saturated fatty acid content (30.1±1.1%) compared to butter (65.9%). Saturates in the four blends examined came mainly from SSS, SOS, SSO and SOO. Puff pastry prepared from the blend that contained SOS as the main source of saturates had better properties than the other blends. It was similar to butter in compressibility of the baked product. The β-polymorphic form was present in all blends, although blends containing the highest levels of SSS also showed some β′ crystals. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


De Graef V.,Ghent University | Vereecken J.,Ghent University | Smith K.W.,Fat Science Consulting Ltd | Bhaggan K.,Loders Croklaan B.V. | Dewettinck K.,Ghent University
European Journal of Lipid Science and Technology | Year: 2012

TAGs play an important role in determining the functional properties of fat-based food products such as margarines, chocolate, and spreads. Nowadays, special attention is given to the role of the TAG structure and how it affects functional properties such as mouth feel, texture, and plasticity. Key to this research is the need to develop more healthy fats with a reduced level of trans and saturated fatty acids (SFAs), while maintaining the desired properties. In this study, fat blends with identical levels of SFA (50%) but differing in the ratio asymmetric/symmetric blends were evaluated by pulsed NMR and texturometry as a function of storage time and storage temperature. A higher trisaturated TAG content gave rise to a higher solid fat content (SFC) at higher temperature and a lower SFC at lower temperature for both palmitic and stearic based blends. On the other hand, the effect of symmetry on the SFC-profile of the blends was only clear for the stearic based blends. At lower temperatures, the SFC of symmetric TAG based blend (blend SM) was markedly lower than that of asymmetric TAG based blend (blend iS). However, from 30°C onwards, the SFC of blend SM was clearly higher than that of blend iS. The microscopic analyses revealed a denser crystal network for a higher degree of trisaturated TAG and for symmetric stearic based blends. Moreover, some blends showed a clear evolution of the microstructure during storage with smaller crystals transforming into larger ones. Finally, texture analyses demonstrated the importance of the crystallization and storage temperature on the hardness of the blends. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Source


Smith K.W.,Fat Science Consulting Ltd | Bhaggan K.,Loders Croklaan B.V. | Talbot G.,Fat Consultant | Van Malssen K.F.,Unilever
JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists' Society | Year: 2011

Over the years, there has been a steady stream of publications on the influence that minor components and additives have on the physical properties of fat continuous systems. These have been reviewed here. Both indigenous and added components are taken into account. The various materials have been discussed, ranging from partial glycerides and phospholipids to esterified sugars and polyols. Within the publications in this area, the (sub-)micron effects that these minor components have on nucleation, crystal growth, morphology, heat capacity and polymorphic stability have been described and discussed and, sometimes, explained. Similarly, the effects on a macroscopic level, such as visual aspects, melting profiles, post-hardening and rheology have been the subject of research. Although limited compositional information, especially of additives, hinders appropriate discussions of the relevant mechanisms, some generic guidelines as to what type and strength of effect can be expected have been derived. As a general rule, a more significant influence is observed when the acyl group of the minor component (where present) is similar to those present in the fat itself. Additives may have different effects depending on the fat they are added to, their concentration and the temperature, especially with increasing undercooling (which typically reduces the effect of additives). © 2011 AOCS. Source

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