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Ong W.K.,Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group | Sugii S.,Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group | Sugii S.,National University of Singapore
International Journal of Biochemistry and Cell Biology | Year: 2013

Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) are the mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) population found in the stromal-vascular fraction (SVF) of fat tissue. White adipose tissue (WAT), with well-established roles in lipid storage and adipokine secretion, is advantageous over bone marrow as the source of MSCs due to relative abundance and ease of isolation of the tissue. ASCs reside perivascularly within WAT and physiologically undergo adipogenesis to support WAT expansion in response to increased energy intake. Apart from adipogenesis, ASCs can be induced in vitro to differentiate into osteoblasts, chondroblasts, myocytes, neurons and other cell types. ASCs can also be reprogrammed to induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells more efficiently than other cell types. ASCs are immunoprivileged cells and secrete immunomodulatory, angiogenic, anti-apoptotic and haematopoietic factors that facilitate tissue repair. The multi-lineage differentiation capacity, unique immunobiological properties and secretome of ASCs offer tremendous therapeutic potentials in regenerative medicine. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


Choong P.F.,MAKNA Cancer Research Institute | Choong P.F.,University Tunku Abdul Rahman | Teh H.X.,University Tunku Abdul Rahman | Teoh H.K.,MAKNA Cancer Research Institute | And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Medical Sciences | Year: 2014

Four osteosarcoma cell lines, Saos-2, MG-63, G-292 and U-2 OS, were reprogrammed to pluripotent state using Yamanaka factors retroviral transduction method. Embryonic stem cell (ESC)-like clusters started to appear between 15 to 20 days post transduction. Morphology of the colonies resembled that of ESC colonies with defined border and tightly-packed cells. The reprogrammed sarcomas expressed alkaline phosphatase and pluripotency markers, OCT4, SSEA4, TRA-1-60 and TRA-1-81, as in ESC up to Passage 15. All reprogrammed sarcomas could form embryoid body-like spheres when cultured in suspension in a low attachment dish for up to 10 days. Further testing on the directed differentiation capacity of the reprogrammed sarcomas showed all four reprogrammed sarcoma lines could differentiate into adipocytes while reprogrammed Saos-2-REP, MG-63-REP and G-292-REP could differentiate into osteocytes. Among the 4 osteosarcoma cell lines, U-2 OS reported the highest transduction efficiency but recorded the lowest reprogramming stability under long term culture. Thus, there may be intrinsic differences governing the variable responses of osteosarcoma cell lines towards reprogramming and long term culture effect of the reprogrammed cells. This is a first report to associate intrinsic factors in different osteosarcoma cell lines with variable reprogramming responses and effects on the reprogrammed cells after prolonged culture. © Ivyspring International Publisher.


Ong W.K.,Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group | Tan C.S.,National University of Singapore | Chan K.L.,Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group | Goesantoso G.G.,Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group | And 12 more authors.
Stem Cell Reports | Year: 2014

Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) from the anatomically distinct subcutaneous and visceral depots of white adipose tissue (WAT) differ in their inherent properties. However, little is known about the molecular identity and definitive markers of ASCs from these depots. In this study, ASCs from subcutaneous fat (SC-ASCs) and visceral fat (VS-ASCs) of omental region were isolated and studied. High-content image screening of over 240 cell-surface markers identified several potential depot-specific markers of ASCs. Subsequent studies revealed consistent predominant expression of CD10 in SC-ASCs and CD200 in VS-ASCs across 12 human subjects and in mice. CD10-high-expressing cells sorted from SC-ASCs differentiated better than their CD10-low-expressing counterparts, whereas CD200-low VS-ASCs differentiated better than CD200-high VS-ASCs. The expression of CD10 and CD200 is thus depot-dependent and associates with adipogenic capacities. These markers will offer a valuable tool for tracking and screening of depot-specific stem cell populations. © 2014 The Authors.


Takeda K.,Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group | Sriram S.,Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group | Chan X.H.D.,Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group | Ong W.K.,Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group | And 21 more authors.
Diabetes | Year: 2016

Increased visceral fat, rather than subcutaneous fat, during the onset of obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing metabolic diseases. The inherent adipogenic properties of human adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) from visceral depots are compromised compared with those of ASCs from subcutaneous depots, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. Using ontological analysis of global gene expression studies, we demonstrate that many genes involved in retinoic acid (RA) synthesis or regulated by RA are differentially expressed in human tissues and ASCs from subcutaneous and visceral fat. The endogenous level of RA is higher in visceral ASCs; this is associated with upregulation of the RA synthesis gene through the visceral-specific developmental factor WT1. Excessive RA-mediated activity impedes the adipogenic capability of ASCs at early but not late stages of adipogenesis, which can be reversed by antagonism of RA receptors or knockdown of WT1. Our results reveal the developmental origin of adipocytic properties and the pathophysiological contributions of visceral fat depots. © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.


PubMed | Singapore Institute of Medical Biology, National University of Singapore, National University Hospital Singapore and Fat Metabolism and Stem Cell Group
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Stem cell reports | Year: 2014

Adipose-derived stem/stromal cells (ASCs) from the anatomically distinct subcutaneous and visceral depots of white adipose tissue (WAT) differ in their inherent properties. However, little is known about the molecular identity and definitive markers of ASCs from these depots. In this study, ASCs from subcutaneous fat (SC-ASCs) and visceral fat (VS-ASCs) of omental region were isolated and studied. High-content image screening of over 240 cell-surface markers identified several potential depot-specific markers of ASCs. Subsequent studies revealed consistent predominant expression of CD10 in SC-ASCs and CD200 in VS-ASCs across 12 human subjects and in mice. CD10-high-expressing cells sorted from SC-ASCs differentiated better than their CD10-low-expressing counterparts, whereas CD200-low VS-ASCs differentiated better than CD200-high VS-ASCs. The expression of CD10 and CD200 is thus depot-dependent and associates with adipogenic capacities. These markers will offer a valuable tool for tracking and screening of depot-specific stem cell populations.


PubMed | Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, University of Michigan, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, National University of Singapore and 4 more.
Type: | Journal: Cell metabolism | Year: 2016

Adipocytes package incoming fatty acids into triglycerides and other glycerolipids, with only a fraction spilling into a parallel biosynthetic pathway that produces sphingolipids. Herein, we demonstrate that subcutaneous adipose tissue of type 2 diabetics contains considerably more sphingolipidsthan non-diabetic, BMI-matched counterparts. Whole-body and adipose tissue-specific inhibition/deletion of serine palmitoyltransferase (Sptlc), the first enzyme in the sphingolipid biosynthesis cascade, in mice markedly altered adipose morphology and metabolism, particularly in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The reduction in adipose sphingolipids increased brown and beige/brite adipocyte numbers, mitochondrial activity, and insulin sensitivity. The manipulation also increased numbers of anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages in the adipose bed and induced secretion of insulin-sensitizing adipokines. By comparison, deletion of serine palmitoyltransferase from macrophages had no discernible effects on metabolic homeostasis or adipose function. These data indicate that newly synthesized adipocyte sphingolipids are nutrient signals that drive changes in the adipose phenotype to influence whole-body energy expenditure and nutrient metabolism.

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