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Khodavandi A.,University Putra Malaysia | Alizadeh F.,Islamic Azad University at Yasuj | Harmal N.S.,University Putra Malaysia | Sidik S.M.,University Putra Malaysia | And 5 more authors.
FEMS Microbiology Letters | Year: 2011

The efficacy of allicin compared with fluconazole in alleviating systemic Candida albicans infections was evaluated both in vitro and in vivo through a systemic candidiasis mouse model. Determination of in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for different C. albicans isolates revealed that both allicin and fluconazole showed different MICs that ranged from 0.05 to 12.5 μg mL-1 and 0.25 to 16 μg mL-1, respectively. A time-kill study showed a significant effect of allicin (P<0.01) against C. albicans, comparable to that of fluconazole. Scanning electron microscopy observation revealed that, similar to fluconazole, allicin produced structural destruction of C. albicans cell surface at low MIC and lysis or puncture at high MIC concentrations. Treatment of BALB/c mice systemically infected with C. albicans showed that although the allicin treatment (at 5 mg kg-1 day-1) was slightly less efficacious than fluconazole treatment in terms of the fungal load reduction and host survival time, it was still effective against C. albicans in terms of mean survival time, which increased from 8.4 to 15.8 days. These results demonstrate the efficacy of anticandidal effects of allicin both in vitro and in an animal model of candidiasis and affirm the potential of allicin as an adjuvant therapy to fluconazole. © 2010 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved. Source


Talaghat M.R.,Fars Technological and Environmental Research Center | Esmaeilzadeh F.,Shiraz University | Fathikalajahi J.,Shiraz University
Chemical Engineering Communications | Year: 2010

This article compares the effects of using various types of equations of state (Peng-Robinson, PR; Soave-Redlich-Kwong, SRK; Esmaeilzadeh-Roshanfekr, ER; Patel-Teja, PT; and Valderrama-Patel-Teja, VPT) on the calculated driving force and rate of gas consumption based on the Kashchiev model in simple and double-gas hydrate formation for methane, ethane, and their mixtures with 1130 experimental published data points with or without the presence of kinetic inhibitors at various pressures and temperatures. For the prediction of gas consumption rate in double-gas hydrate formation, the rate equation based on the Kashchiev model for simple gas hydrate formation was developed using the calculation of gas mole fraction in hydrate phase and then prediction of gas hydrate formation rate for each component in gaseous mixture. The total average absolute deviation was found to be 8.72%, 10.34%, 8.84%, 11.04%, and 14.16% for the PR, ER, SRK, VPT, and PT equations of state for calculating gas consumption in simple and double hydrate formation, respectively. © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. Source


The main objective of the present work is enhancement of the performance of gas hydrate kinetic inhibitors in the presence of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and polypropylene oxide (PPO) for simple gas hydrate formation in a flow mini-loop apparatus. PEO and PPO are high molecular weight polymers that are not kinetic inhibitors by their self. For this investigation, a laboratory flow mini-loop apparatus was set up to measure the induction time and rate of gas hydrate formation when a hydrate-forming substance (such as C1, C3, CO2 and i-C4) is contacted with water containing dissolved inhibitor in presence or absence of PEO or PPO under suitable temperature and pressure conditions. In each experiment, water containing inhibitors blend saturated with pure gas is circulated up to a required pressure. Pressure is maintained at a constant value during experimental runs by means of required gas make-up. The effect of PEO and PPO on induction time and gas consumption during hydrate formation is investigated in the presence or absence of PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) and l-tyrosine as kinetic inhibitors. Results were shown that the induction time is prolonged in the presence of PEO or PPO compared to the inhibitor only. Inclusion of PPO into a kinetic hydrate inhibitor solution shows a higher enhancement in its inhibiting performance compare to PEO. Thus, the induction time for simple gas hydrate formation in presence of kinetic hydrate inhibitor with PPO is higher, compare to kinetic hydrate inhibitor with PEO. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Baezzat M.R.,Fars Technological and Environmental Research Center | Parsaeian G.,Fars Technological and Environmental Research Center | Zare M.A.,Islamic Azad University
Quimica Nova | Year: 2011

Nitrate is quantitatively retained with 2,6-bis(4-methoxyphenyl)-4-phenyl pyrylium perchlorate (PPP) on microcrystalline naphthalene in the pH range of 6.5-9.0 from a large volume of aqueous solutions of various samples. The method was based on the complexation between PPP and nitrate and then, extraction of the resulted complex from aqueous solution by microcrystalline naphthalene. The solid mass consisting of the nitrate complex and naphthalene was then dissolved in dimethyl formamide (DMF) and absorption of the resulted solution was obtained at 328 nm. The linear calibration range for the determination of nitrate was 15-135 μg L-1 with the detection limit of 10 μg L-1. Source

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