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Kozhikode, India

Ved A.S.,Urbana University | Miley G.H.,Urbana University | Seetaraman T.S.,Farook College
ASME 2010 8th International Conference on Fuel Cell Science, Engineering and Technology, FUELCELL 2010 | Year: 2010

One of the major issues with DBFC is availability of Sodium borohydride and economics of converting sodium metaborate, product of reactions in DBFC, to sodium borohydide. Work has been done by L Kong et all [1] to convert Sodium metaborate to sodium borohydride using magnesium hydride. The work presented here discusses various other possibilities to recycle NaBO2 and how it could be coupled with existing wind and solar energy systems to make it economically viable. A little variation form Brown Schlesinger process[2], commonly used to produce sodium borohydide is proposed and with discussion on possible renewable energy system are presented below. a] Steam reforming of methane: Solar energy can be utilized to convert water into steam. Also possibilities of using geothermal energy where available cannot be ruled out. b] Using sea water to get sodium metal: Electrolysis of seawater enables us to have this process on board on offshore wind mills. Also presence of other salts in sea like calcium chloride favor electrolysis. c] Hydrolysis of NaBO2 to make boric acid: This is the deviation from the exiting Brown Schlesinger and thermoeconomics is under investigation d] Boric acid reacts with methanol to give trimethylborate e] Sodium metal in presence of hydrogen from steam reforming react to give sodium hydride f] Sodium hydride and trimethylboate react to give sodium borohydide and sodium methoxide which decomposes into methanol and NaOH Another method that would be included in this study is using NaBO2 to produce borohallide (BX3) which in presence of LiAlH4 would give B2H6 which with sodium carbonate (from sodium metaborate and methane or carbon dioxide) would give sodium hydroxide. This is under study and hence not much data is available right now. From the cost study it is seen that for the first mentioned process the initial cost associated is high and exact amount is still under debate. Advantage of utilizing renewable source is that the renewable energy can be converted into efficient source of energy for mobile applications. © 2010 by ASME.


Aarif K.M.,Mary Matha Arts and Science College | Prasadan P.K.,Mary Matha Arts and Science College | Basheer P.M.,Palishakkottu Purayil | Abdul Hameed S.V.,Farook College
Journal of Environmental Biology | Year: 2015

Data on population trend of birds in stop-over sites is a prerequisite for managers to implement/execute species/ecosystem-oriented conservation programme. However, such data for wetland birds and their associated ecosystems is meagre/unavailable in India. At this juncture, population trend of gulls in Kadalundi-Vallikkunnu Community Reserve (KVCR) was evaluated on the basis of primary and secondary data collected between 1989 and 2009. Data of 1,26,103 birds belonging to five species were recorded during the study. During 2005-2009, Black-headed Gull and Brown-headed Gull were dominant species, while Pallas's Gull and Slender-billed Gull were lesser in number. In response to data on observation made during 1989, population of scavenging gulls viz., Black-headed Gull and Brown-headed Gull was increased to 165 and 135% respectively, while the population of specialist gulls such as Pallas's Gull and Slender-billed Gull found to be stable or on decline. Increasing trend of scavenging gulls and declining pattern of specialist gulls could be attributed to the consequences of habitat loss and other anthropogenic pressure (over-fishing, mining, pro-human developmental activities and dumping of poultry wastes) in KVCR. Site-specific conservation measures need to be undertaken across the stop-over sites in the West and East Coast of India to conserve this vital habitat in the Central Asian Flyway. © Triveni Enterprises, Lucknow (India).


Abdullah K.K.,Farook College | Nair K.K.,MES College | Ramachandran N.,Timmonsville SHS | Varier K.M.,University of Calicut | And 5 more authors.
Pramana - Journal of Physics | Year: 2010

Mass attenuation coefficients (μ/ρ) for Zr, Nb, Mo and Pd elements around their K-edges are measured at 14 energies in the range 15.744-28.564 keV using secondary excitation from thin Zr, Nb, Mo, Rh, Pd, Cd and Sn foils. The measurements were carried out at the Kα and Kβ energy values of the target elements by two techniques: (1) Proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and (2) 241Am (300 mCi) source. In PIXE, 2 MeV proton-excited X-rays were detected by a Si(Li) detector. In the second case, X-rays excited by 59.54 keV photons from the targets were counted by an HPGe detector under a narrow beam good geometry set-up with sufficient shielding. The results are consistent with theoretical values derived from the XCOM package and indicate that the PIXE data have better statistical accuracy. © Indian Academy of Sciences.


Sreekar R.,CAS Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden | Sreekar R.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Mohan A.,Fergusson College | Das S.,Farook College | And 2 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Windbreaks often form networks of forest habitats that improve connectivity and thus conserve biodiversity, but little is known of such effects in the tropics. We determined bird species richness and community composition in windbreaks composed of remnant native vegetation amongst tea plantations (natural windbreaks), and compared it with the surrounding primary forests. Fifty-one, ten-minute point counts were conducted in each habitat type over three days. Despite the limited sampling period, our bird inventories in both natural windbreaks and primary forests were nearly complete, as indicated by bootstrap true richness estimator. Bird species richness and abundance between primary forests and windbreaks were similar, however a difference in bird community composition was observed. Abundances of important functional groups such as frugivores and insectivores did not vary between habitat types but nectarivores were more abundant in windbreaks, potentially as a result of the use of windbreaks as traveling routes, foraging and nesting sites. This preliminary study suggests that natural windbreaks may be important habitats for the persistence of bird species in a production landscape. However, a better understanding of the required physical and compositional characteristics for windbreaks to sustain bird communities is needed for effective conservation management. © 2013 Sreekar et al.


Latha P.,Providence College | Latha P.,University of Calicut | Abdullah K.K.,Farook College | Unnikrishnan M.P.,MES College | And 2 more authors.
Physica Scripta | Year: 2012

Coherent and incoherent scattering cross sections have been measured using a high purity germanium detector on elements in the range of Z=13-50 using 241Am gamma rays. The cross sections have been derived by comparing the net count rate obtained from the Compton peak of aluminum with the elastic/Compton peak of the target element. The measured cross sections for the coherent and incoherent processes are in agreement with the theoretical values. © 2012 The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

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