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Meerut, India

Subash N.,ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region | Subash N.,Farming Systems Research | Ram Mohan H.S.,ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region | Ram Mohan H.S.,Cochin University of Science and Technology | Sikka A.K.,ICAR Research Complex for Eastern Region
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

In the eastern region of Indo-Gangetic basin (EIGB), India, more than 80% of the rice (Oryza sativa L.) cultivated area is rainfed and monsoon rainfall is the critical and deciding factor for rice production. The districts comprising Bihar, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh and Jharkhand form the eastern Indo-Gangetic basin in India, broadly representing 10 agro-ecological sub-regions and one/two/three representative rain gauge sites depending on the size of the region in each sub-region was considered for analysis. The purpose of this study is to find out rainfall availability at different probability levels of 60, 70, 80 and 90% at weekly intervals during the crop season using Gamma distribution and also to find out initial and conditional probability of occurrence of dry and wet weeks and the probability of occurrence of two and three consecutive dry and wet weeks through Markov chain modeling approach. Weekly moisture availability index (MAI) was computed for 15 stations during the crop period, i e 18th Standard meteorological week (SMW) to 44th SMW to explore the weekly water availability (WA) and water demand (WD) of the area. The mean annual rainfall vary from 880.1 mm with a standard deviation of 213.6 mm at Jhansi (4.4 subregion) to 1589.6 mm at Dhanbad (12.3 sub-region) with a standard deviation of 460.3 mm. The eastern part of the EIGB receives more rainfall compared to the other part of the region. For Allahabad (western IGB) site, it is noticed that at 70% probability level, MAI is higher (>0.5) from 28th weeks and continued up to 35th week. However, the MAI never reaches > 1.0 in any of weeks. This indicates the crop will be always in moist situation for seven weeks and in the remaining weeks the crop will be under stress condition. But for Krishnanagar (Eastern IGB) site, the MAI is more from 25th to 35th week. Weekly values of MAI at different probability levels will be highly useful for planners at different risk levels.

Pandey P.C.,University of Leicester | Pandey P.C.,Birla Institute of Technology | Kumar P.,Kumaun University | Kumar P.,Banasthali University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2015

Contamination by any substance takes place through air, water or soil and causes serious effects on flora and fauna of the regions. Air-transmitted pollutants spread in a faraway place from emission points of the pollutant source via wind (speed and direction as causing factors). Fluoride is one the pollutant generated in aluminium industries which is harmful to human and plants in excess concentration. This study focuses on the use of spatial interpolation methods for assessment of fluoride concentration around aluminium industries. The samples were collected from different test sites in the study area to investigate the fluoride concentration level. The test sites include several locations such as industrial unit, river site, residential and distant villages. Then, the collected samples were used to predict the overall fluoride concentration in the entire study area. The aim of the study was to evaluate the spatial variation and presence of fluoride concentration in the surroundings of the aluminium industries. Geostatistical interpolation modelling was applied to assess the prediction of fluoride contamination for other non-sampling points using the direction and distance method of empirical Bayesian kriging (EBK) modelling. Thus, geospatial modelling was used to predict the contamination of fluoride around the study area to create environmental awareness. In particular, this study assesses the fluoride pollutant concentration which might become dangerous with slowly increasing concentration against its standard concentration, which will severely impact the human health. In overall, EBK can provide valuable information regarding the fluoride concentration on possible level of fluoride in concern to public health. © 2015, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

Sharma Y.P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Pramanick K.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sharma S.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kashyap P.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kashyap P.,Farming Systems Research
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2013

Rooted suckers of 22 Malus species were screened for their reaction to white root rot (Dematophora necatrix) under artificially inoculated field conditions. Observation on the rate of disease development comprised of foliage chlorosis, wilting and defoliation was recorded in situ. The plants were uprooted from the sick plot 30 days after the inoculation and measurement for necrosis on stem bark, wood, vascular region and mycelial colonization on the infected parts were recorded. Results showed that none of the species exhibited immune reaction. However, some of the species like M. prunifolia var. ringoasami and M. purpurea could delay the expression of disease symptoms indicating the tolerance to disease. Malus baccata from Kashmir and Shillong restricted the disease development to some extent better than the other indigenous crab apples. These three Malus species were further evaluated at variable disease pressure. Marked differences with respect to disease progress curve and mortality rate was observed at lower disease pressure. Maximum tolerance was recorded in M. prunifolia var. ringoasami followed by M. purpurea at low disease pressure.

Meena V.S.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Nambi E.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Kashyap P.,Central Institute of Post Harvest Engineering and Technology | Kashyap P.,Farming Systems Research | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2013

The ber (Zizyphus mauritiana L.) fruits of cv. Gola were subjected to various treatments of naphthalene acetic acid (NAAI) and ferrous sulphate to determine their effect on physico-chemical characteristics and shelf life of fruits. NAA @ 0, 50, 75 and 100 ppm and ferrous sulphate @ 0, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4% were applied alone as well as in combination form during fruit development stage (pea size). The results revealed that 100 ppm NAA and 0.4% FeSO4 was found most effective in significantly increasing the fruit weight (18.35 & 22.95%), fruit length (23.11 & 27.95%) and fruit width (20.15 & 17.9%) respectively over the control. Though, the TSS of fruits was slightly reduced. The application of 75 ppm NAA and 0.3% FeSO4 helped in maintaining the marketability and also reduced the fruit weight loss (2.19 and 2.41%) and fruit decay loss (10.37 and 9.81%), respectively over the control. Application of 100 ppm NAA and 0.4% FeSO4 was found most economical than the other treatments.

Pandey P.C.,University of Leicester | Kumar P.,Banasthali University | Rani M.,Farming Systems Research | Katiyar S.,Banasthali University | Tomar V.,Haryana Institute of Public Administration
Geofizika | Year: 2014

Fluorine is a highly reactive common element that does not occur in nature in the elemental state. It exists in the form of fluorides and accounts for about 0.3 g/kg of the Earth’s crust. Generally, it is found in the form of a number of minerals like fluorspar, cryolite and fluor-apatite. Fluoride has both positive and negative effects on individual health. Fluoride, in the form of fluorspar and cryolite is distributed extensively in the lithosphere, and is renowned as the thirteenth most common among elements in the earth’s crust. Hydrogen fluorides in gaseous form accumulate in the leaves of generally sensitive plants against a concentration gradient and therefore, considered as a most phytotoxic air pollutant and affects plants at extremely low concentration. As per our study, it is found that the fluoride impacts on fauna are in normal condition, but in coming times it may have adverse impact on fauna and flora of surroundings of Hindalco Industries Limited. © 2014, Geofizicki Zavod. All rights reserved.

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