Rio de Janeiro, Brazil


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Almeida M.Z.,Federal University of Bahia | Leda P.H.O.,Farmanguinhos | da Silva M.Q.O.R.,Federal University of Bahia | Pinto A.,Federal University of Bahia | And 3 more authors.
Brazilian Journal of Pharmacognosy | Year: 2014

We investigated the knowledge and practices of local residents in São Francisco do Conde, Bahia, regarding the use of medicinal and mystical plants with the aim of proposing strategies for the incorporation of phytotherapies into the local Unified Health System through local Basic Health Clinics. This municipality was founded during the early colonization of Brazil, introducing the monoculture of sugarcane and slave labor to the region, resulting in a currently largely Afro-Brazilian population. Key informants and local specialists were interviewed and workshops were undertaken at the Basic Health Clinics to collect data and information. The interviewees made 254 references to 126 plant species distributed among 107 genera and 50 families. Among the species cited with medicinal or mystical uses, 51.6% were considered autochtonous, and 42.8% were cited in at least one document of the Brazilian Health Ministry; of these, 11.1% were mentioned in four to eight documents, indicating potential for introduction to the local Unified Health System. The valorization of local knowledge and practices concerning the use of medicinal plants represents an important approach to public health efforts. © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Farmacognosia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

de Araujo G.L.B.,University of Sao Paulo | Pitaluga Jr. A.,Farmanguinhos | Antonio S.G.,São Paulo State University | Santos C.O.P.,University of Sao Paulo | Matos J.R.,University of Sao Paulo
Revista de Ciencias Farmaceuticas Basica e Aplicada | Year: 2012

Polymorphism can cause quality deviations during the production of medicines and can influence their effectiveness. Therefore, an understanding of this phenomenon and its implications opens a wide field of possibilities to be explored in the pharmaceutical field, including the emergence of new paradigms and tools for the quality assurance of medicines. This paper presents an introduction to basic aspects of the polymorphism phenomenon and its implications for the production and control of medicines, with emphasis on drug polymorphs.

Ribeiro I.M.,FarManguinhos | Tomassini T.C.B.,FarManguinhos | Ribeiro Dos Santos R.,Hospital Sao Rafael | De Azevedo W.F.,University of Porto | Soares M.B.P.,Hospital Sao Rafael
Journal of Natural Products | Year: 2011

The antimalarial activities of physalins B, D, F, and G (1-4), isolated from Physalis angulata, were investigated. In silico analysis using the similarity ensemble approach (SEA) database predicted the antimalarial activity of each of these compounds, which were shown using an in vitro assay against Plasmodium falciparum. However, treatment of P. berghei-infected mice with 3 increased parasitemia levels and mortality, whereas treatment with 2 was protective, causing a parasitemia reduction and a delay in mortality in P. berghei-infected mice. The exacerbation of in vivo infection by treatment with 3 is probably due to its potent immunosuppressive activity, which is not evident for 2. © 2011 The American Chemical Society and American Society of Pharmacognosy.

Queto T.,Instituto Fernandes Figueira | Gaspar-Elsas M.I.,Instituto Fernandes Figueira | Masid-de-Brito D.,Instituto Fernandes Figueira | Vasconcelos Z.F.M.,Instituto Fernandes Figueira | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Leukocyte Biology | Year: 2010

IL-13 and eotaxin play important, inter-related roles in asthma models. In the lungs, CysLT, produced by the 5-LO-LTC4S pathway, mediate some local responses to IL-13 and eotaxin; in bone marrow, CysLT enhance IL-5-dependent eosinophil differentiation. We examined the effects of IL-13 and eotaxin on eosinophil differentiation. Semi-solid or liquid cultures were established from murine bone marrow with GM-CSF or IL-5, respectively, and the effects of IL-13, eotaxin, or CysLT on eosinophil colony formation and on eosinophil differentiation in liquid culture were evaluated, in the absence or presence of: a) the 5-LO inhibitor zileuton, the FLAP inhibitor MK886, or the CysLT1R antagonists, montelukast and MK571; b) mutations that inactivate 5-LO, LTC4S, or CysLT1R; and c) neutralizing mAb against eotaxin and its CCR3 receptor. Both cytokines enhanced GM-CSF-dependent eosinophil colony formation and IL-5-stimulated eosinophil differentiation. Although IL-13 did not induce eotaxin production, its effects were abolished by anti-eotaxin and anti-CCR3 antibodies, suggesting up-regulation by IL-13 of responses to endogenous eotaxin. Anti-CCR3 blocked eotaxin completely. The effects of both cytokines were prevented by zileuton, MK886, montelukast, and MK571, as well as by inactivation of the genes coding for 5-LO, LTC4S, and CysLT1R. In the absence of either cytokine, these treatments or mutations had no effect. These findings provide evidence for: a) a novel role of eotaxin and IL-13 in regulating eosinophilopoiesis; and b) a role for CysLTRs in bone marrow cells in transducing cytokine regulatory signals. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

De Souza Ramos A.,Farmanguinhos | Ribeiro J.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | De Oliveira Lopes R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | De Souza R.O.M.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Synthetic Communications | Year: 2013

The b-ketoester tert-butyl acetoacetate was enantioselectively reduced to tertbutyl (S)-3-hydroxybutanoate by seven microorganism strains. The best result using free cells was obtained with the yeast R. rubra, which furnished 97.6% ee and higher than 99% of conversion within 24 h. After immobilization in calcium alginate spheres, R. rubra furnished 96% ee and higher than 99% ee within 24 h, even if substrate concentration was 58mM. Immobilized cells were reused three times without loss of enantioselectivity. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

De Oliveira Lopes R.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Ribeiro J.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | De Souza Ramos A.,Farmanguinhos | Miranda L.S.M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 3 more authors.
Tetrahedron Asymmetry | Year: 2011

Microorganisms were used to reduce 4-bromoacetophenone to (S)-4-bromophenylethanol and (R)-4-bromophenylethanol. After a fractional factorial design to identify the important variables for this reaction, Geotrichum candidum provided a 98.9% conversion with >99% ee of the (R)-isomer, while Rhodotorula rubra led to a 97.6% conversion with a 98.8% ee of the S-isomer. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Portella V.G.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Silva-Filho J.L.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Landgraf S.S.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | De Rico T.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | And 10 more authors.
Critical Care Medicine | Year: 2013

Objective: It is well known that sepsis causes damage in different organs, including kidneys. However, few studies have been conducted on the magnitude of the long-term effects of sepsis on the surviving population, in particular, in relation to kidney disease. In this study, we examined the impact of long-term effects of sepsis on a second kidney insult. Design: Prospective experimental study. Setting: University research laboratory. Interventions: Wild-type mice were subjected to the cecal ligation and puncture sepsis model. Control animals underwent identical laparotomy but without ligation and cecum puncture. On days 0, 7, and 14 after surgery, the ratio between urinary protein and creatinine was measured. Fifteen days after surgery, surviving mice were subjected to a second kidney insult through intraperitoneal injections of bovine serum albumin for 7 days. On day 22 after surgery, urinary protein and creatinine, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, lactate dehydrogenase, histologic parameters, macrophage infiltration, apoptotic cell, renal and plasmatic cytokines were determined. Measurements and Main Results: On days 7 and 14 after surgery, the urinary protein and creatinine observed in the septic animal group were higher than those observed in the control group. On day 22 after surgery, sepsis-surviving animals that were subjected to a second kidney insult showed more severe tubular injury compared with controls. This process seems to involve an immunosuppressive state because the concentrations of some renal cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 6, interferon-γ and chemokine ligand 2, were decreased and leukocyte numbers were increased. Conclusions: These results suggest that sepsis induces long-term effects in kidney structure aggravating tubule damage in a second kidney insult. © 2013 by the Society of Critical Care Medicine and Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

Ramos A.D.S.,Farmanguinhos | Ribeiro J.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Lopes R.D.O.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Leite S.G.F.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Souza R.O.M.A.D.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Tetrahedron Letters | Year: 2011

Seven wild-type microorganism strains were used to reduce ethyl 3-oxohexanoate to ethyl (R)-3-hydroxyhexanoate. Free cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus and Aspergillus niger led to higher than 99% of conversion with higher than 99% ee. After immobilization in calcium alginate spheres, cells of K. marxianus exhibited high enantioselectivity (>99% ee) and conversion level (99%) within 24 h even if substrate was added at concentration of 10 g/L (62 mM). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Fonseca L.B.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Nele M.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Volpato N.M.,Federal University of Rio Grande do Sul | Seiceira R.C.,Farmanguinhos | Pinto J.C.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro
Macromolecular Reaction Engineering | Year: 2013

PZQ is the primary drug for treatment of schistosomiasis, but its efficiency is severely affected by its bitter taste. The main objective of this paper is the preparation of PMMA nanoparticles loaded with PZQ through in situ miniemulsion polymerizations and intended for oral formulations. Polymerizations are performed with an ultra turrax and a high-pressure homogenizer. Obtained nanoparticles are analyzed by DSC, HPLC, DLS, GC, SEM, and PZQ dissolution profiles. Obtained results indicate the successful encapsulation of PZQ in all runs. Obtained data also show that the high-pressure homogenizer leads to the best performance, allowing for preparation of stable latexes, with narrower particle size distributions and higher encapsulation efficiencies. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

Salomao K.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Celular | De Souza E.M.,Laboratorio Of Biologia Celular | Carvalho S.A.,Farmanguinhos | Da Silva E.F.,Farmanguinhos | And 3 more authors.
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy | Year: 2010

From a series of 1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-arylhydrazone derivatives of megazol screened in vitro against Trypanosoma cruzi, eight (S1 to S8) were selected for in vivo screening by single-dose oral administration (200 mg/kg of body weight) to infected mice at 5 days postinfection (dpi). Based on significant decreases in both parasitemia levels and mortality rates, S2 and S3 were selected for further assays. Despite having no in vivo effect, S1 was included since it was 2-fold more potent against trypomastigotes than megazol in vitro. Trypomastigotes treated with S1, S2, or S3 showed alterations of the flagellar structure and of the nuclear envelope. When assayed on intracellular amastigotes, the selectivity index (SI) for macrophages was in the range of >27 to >63 and for cardiac cells was >32 for S1 and >48 for megazol. In noninfected mice, S1 did not alter the levels of glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT), or urea. S2 led to an increase in GOT, S3 to increases in GOT and GPT, and megazol to an increase in GOT. Infected mice were treated with each derivative at 50 and 100 mg/kg from dpi 6 to 15: S1 did not interfere with the course of infection or reduce the number of inflammatory foci in the cardiac tissue, S2 led to a significant decrease of parasitemia, and S3 decreased mortality. There was no direct correlation between the in vitro effect on trypomastigotes and amastigotes and the results of the treatment in experimental models, as S1 showed a high potency in vitro while, in two different schemes of in vivo treatment, no decrease of parasitemia or mortality was observed. Copyright © 2010, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

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