Entity

Time filter

Source Type

Clayton, OH, United States

Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Navy | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 80.00K | Year: 2015

The proposed program will develop an integrated computational material engineering (ICME) toolbox that can enable improved heat exchangers (HX) designs by utilizing the design and manufacturing flexibility offered by use of additive manufacturing (AM). To accomplish this goal Faraday has composed a team of experts in AM (NC State and CalRAM), non-destructive evaluations (NDE) analysis (UC), ICME preparation techniques (UES, Inc.), and surface finishing (Faraday). In Phase I, the team will design, build, evaluate, finish, and apply ICME methodologies to establish the efficacy of an AM approach to produce HX components. Processing parameters for developing the ICME toolbox including test vehicles to improved AM process control, surface finish, and NDE analysis techniques, will be considered. It is envision that the Phase I base program will provide an excellent launching point into the Phase I option and the Phase II period such that the process can be further optimized toolbox that can be tested within the Phase II program. This knowledge could enable commercialization of AM technologies through any number of OEMs within the defense, energy, and aerospace industrial sectors due to their desire to reduce material costs, decrease labor content, and increase availability of parts at point of use.


Grant
Agency: Environmental Protection Agency | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 100.00K | Year: 2015

The proposed program addresses the need for a commercialized process to efficiently deposit a hard gold coating from a non-cyanide bath for electronics applications that also does not contain nickel or cobalt. Seventy percent of industrial gold use is in the deposition of gold coatings for electronics applications. Most of the electrodeposited gold is used to provide electrical contact surfaces with good corrosion and wear resistance, hardness, and low contact resistance on printed circuit boards and connectors, so-called “hard” gold. Acid gold cyanide baths are able to achieve the required high hardness levels, high wear resistance, and low electrical contact resistance of the gold deposit due to the incorporation of small amounts of additives, such as nickel and cobalt, in the bath. Although the deposit has the required functional properties, the method for obtaining that deposit is undesirable. Although gold is not a threat to the environment, the cyanide used in the gold plating bath is very toxic and listed as one of 17 “high- priority” chemicals by the U.S. EPA. Furthermore, nickel and cobalt are on the European Community Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) lists. Therefore, it is environmentally desirable to find an alternative plating bath that does not contain cyanide, nickel or cobalt. This Phase I project will demonstrate the feasibility of a cost-effective, fast, efficient process for hard gold plating for electronics applications, from a non-toxic, cyanide-free bath that does not contain nickel or cobalt. Coating properties, such as hardness, wear resistance and electrical contact resistance, will be evaluated and compared with properties of deposits from state-of-the-art cyanide baths as well as DC sulfite baths. Ideally, the FARADAYIC® gold sulfite plating process will be a drop-in replacement for acid gold cyanide plating. The only changes to current practice will be the change in chemistry and the purchase of a rectifier capable of delivering a FARADAYIC® waveform. Faraday has engaged two commercial partners, one printed circuit board manufacturer who intends to implement the process in their plants, and a chemistry vendor that has existing bulk formulation capabilities and marketing and distribution channels to drive the technology throughout the electronics market, as well as other applications. The proposed program addresses the need for a commercialized process to efficiently deposit a hard gold coating from a non-cyanide bath for electronics applications that also does not contain nickel or cobalt. Acid gold cyanide baths are able to achieve the required high hardness levels, high wear resistance and low electrical contact resistance of the gold deposit, due to the incorporation of small amounts of additives, such as nickel and cobalt, in the bath. The cyanide used in the gold plating bath is very toxic and listed as one of 17 “high-priority” chemicals by the U.S. EPA. The wastewater limits for total cyanide under EPA’s Metal Finishing Regulations are 1.3 ppm for any single day and 0.28 ppm as a monthly average. Furthermore, nickel and cobalt are on the European Community Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemical substances (REACH) lists. Therefore, it is environmentally desirable to find an alternative plating bath that does not contain cyanide, nickel or cobalt. Seventy percent of industrial gold use is in the deposition of gold coatings for electronics applications. Most of the electrodeposited gold is used to provide electrical contact surfaces with good corrosion and wear resistance, hardness, and low contact resistance on printed circuit boards and connectors – so-called “hard” gold. For example, a touch telephone in the home typically contains 33 gold-plated contacts. Soft gold is used in semiconductor applications, for example, for die bonding, and must be of high purity. Gold is also used in the decorative plating market for jewelry, watch cases, pens, eyeglasses, wire wheels, and bathroom fixtures. This demand represents approximately ninety tons per year. To Faraday’s knowledge, there is no commercially implemented cyanide-free hard gold plating process. We have engaged two commercial partners who are leaders in the printed circuit board and electroplating chemistry industries, and who believe sufficiently in the concept to commit time and in-kind resources to support this proposed effort. The first market entry point will be to validate the technology in conjunction with Faraday’s partner in the printed circuit board industry, first with an alpha scale pilot facility at Faraday, and subsequently with a beta-scale demonstration at Faraday’s partner’s facility. Faraday’s other commercial partner, a global vendor of plating chemistry, will provide the required plating bath. This level of manufacturing validation is absolutely essential to attract the attention and interest from the electronics industry’s well-entrenched distribution channel, i.e., the chemistry and equipment integrators, who have substantial market in-roads to the printed circuit board, chip-scale package, semiconductor, and decorative metal finishing market segments. The proposed effort seeks to utilize a non-toxic sulfite-based plating bath typically used for soft gold applications, and by introduction of FARADAYIC® Electrodeposition principles of pulse and pulse reverse process mediation, develop a fast, efficient, non-toxic hard gold plating process that achieves the required functional deposit properties. The FARADAYIC® Electrodeposition approach utilizes an asymmetrical waveform to control the deposition process directly at the substrate/bath interface, i.e., electric field mediation of the process, rather than chemical mediation. Optimization of the waveform parameters enables enhanced performance in environmentally benign chemistries, as the electric field control at the interface controls the deposition processes that require toxic chemistries in conventional DC processes. Compared to DC plating from an alkaline gold sulfite bath, the FARADAYIC® Electrodeposition process will: achieve or preferably exceed the same high plating rates as acid gold cyanide baths (in an analogous technology for Trivalent Chromium plating, we have achieved up to 5x higher plating/throughput rates as compared to conventional hexavalent chromium plating); improve the current efficiency compared to the acid gold cyanide bath; reduce the grain size, by favoring grain nucleation over grain growth, thereby increasing hardness and wear resistance and eliminating the need for nickel and cobalt; improve bath life by operating in an acidic pH range; and run in a pH range which is compatible with photoresists used in printed circuit board fabrication. If these functional properties and performance metrics can be achieved, gold sulfite could be substituted for hard acid gold cyanide baths, resulting in a substantial environmental benefit, as well as a cost benefit associated with reduced air, water and waste treatment requirements. The FARADAYIC® Electrodeposition process for cyanide-free plating processes for hard gold plating not only will have a strong environmental benefit from the elimination of cyanide, nickel and cobalt, but Faraday anticipates an increase in the plating rate and current efficiency of the plating process. Faraday has observed such increases in an analogous process, deposition of hard chrome from an environmentally benign trivalent chromium bath, where the company observed a 5x increase in plating rate. Compared to currently used gold plating from toxic cyanide baths, Faraday’s proposed process will (1) reduce waste disposal cost, (2) reduce ventilation cost and (3) improve working conditions. Since cyanide-containing sludge is considered a hazardous waste, sludge transportation and disposal costs will be greatly reduced if gold is plated from a non-cyanide bath. Ventilation cost will be reduced and working conditions will be improved because exposure limits will be greatly relaxed.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2015

The DOE seeks commercially viable, fabrication technologies for SRF cavities, specifically eco-friendly final polishing technologies. Current methods, such as conventional and buffered electropolishing, use high viscosity electrolytes containing hydrofluoric acid, which is not conducive to low-cost, high volume manufacturing and is potentially harmful to workers. Statement of How Problem is Being Addressed: robust, high throughput vertical Final Electropolishing process for SRF cavities, based on an Acid-Free Bipolar Electropolishing process, to replace conventional electropolishing for single and nine-cell cavities at the alpha/beta scale. The development of Bipolar EP for final surface finishing step will enable a manufacturing process that controls costs and reduces the environmental and health hazards associated with using acid solutions. What was done in Phase I? Phase I coupon studies identified a range of salt-based aqueous electrolytes that were able to electropolish niobium to an Ra as low as 0.05 m, at removal rates as high as 0.7 m/min. The performance via cavity testing was unable to be tested due to scheduling conflicts. However, we mimicked the geometric conditions inside a cavity using coupon work, and successfully transitioned the Bipolar EP process to those conditions while maintaining removal rates of 0.3 to 0.4 m/min at a surface finish below 0.2 m. A preliminary economic analysis showed the commercial viability as compared to conventional practice, with up to 4x lower cost for the International Linear Collider. What is planned for Phase II? Phase II will develop a process and apparatus for cost-effective, scalable,high yield Nb cavity processing based on Bipolar EP. We will design and build an alpha-scale Bipolar EP cell, based on vertical cavity orientation without rotation, applicable to single- and multi-cell cavity processing, optimize Acid-Free Bipolar EP parameters and cathode geometry and surface area to improve final electropolishing performance, test in single-cell and multi-cell cavities, and refine the economic and manufacturing analysis. Commercial Applications/Other Benefits: The proposed product is a cost effective and robust processfor bulk processing of niobium SRF cavities. The first market for cavities is for the International Linear Collider (~16,000), with applicability to many other cavity configurations and applications. Other markets for Bipolar EP include niobium-alloys that are hypoallergenic and commonly alloyed with titanium and zirconium to make implantable medical devices, and require HF acid for polishing. Elimination of HF acid for electropolishing of medical implants represents a commercial opportunity with a US market of ~$45B by 2014.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2014

The DOE seeks commercially viable, fabrication technologies for SRF cavities, specifically new or improved bulk processing technologies. Current methods, such as buffered chemical polishing (BCP), use high viscosity electrolytes containing hydrofluoric acid, which is not conducive to low-cost, high volume manufacturing and is potentially harmful to workers. The project team proposes to build upon recent work to develop a robust, high throughput vertical Bulk Electropolishing process for SRF cavities, based on the hydrofluoric acid-free Bipolar EP process, to replace BCP for single and nine-cell cavities at the alpha/beta scale. The development of Bipolar EP for both bulk (this program) and final (other programs) surface finishing steps, will enable a manufacturing process that utilizes the same chemistry for bulk and final polishing, with only a change in applied electric field parameters. This will enable a simple fluid management system, with minimal worker safety concerns and lower chemical and waste treatment costs. Phase I will first demonstrate the feasibility of the process on coupons to optimize Bipolar EP process parameters to achieve niobium removal rates that are compatible with bulk processing throughput rates, while maintaining desired surface finishes. Subsequently in Phase I, we will transition the Bipolar EP process from coupons to bulk processing of single-cell cavities, while maintaining the desired removal rates. The project team will determine the performance effect of the Bipolar EP Bulk Process via cavity testing, and develop a preliminary economic analysis showing the commercial viability of the technology as compared to conventional practice. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The proposed product is a cost effective and robust process for bulk processing of niobium SRF cavities. The market size for SRF cavities for the International Linear Collider is ~16,000 cavities, with applicability to many other cavity configurations and applications. Other markets for Bipolar EP include niobium-alloys that are hypoallergenic and commonly alloyed with titanium and zirconium to make implantable medical devices, and require HF acid for polishing. Elimination of HF acid for electropolishing of medical implants is an important need and represents a strong commercial opportunity with a US market of ~$45B by 2014.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2014

The DOE seeks commercially viable, fabrication technologies for SRF cavities, specifically eco-friendly final polishing technologies. Current methods, such as conventional and buffered electropolishing, use high viscosity electrolytes containing hydrofluoric acid, which is not conducive to low-cost, high volume manufacturing and is potentially harmful to workers. The project team proposes to build upon recent work to develop a robust, high throughput vertical Final Electropolishing process for SRF cavities, based on an Acid-Free Bipolar Electropolishing process, to replace conventional electropolishing for single and nine- cell cavities at the alpha/beta scale. The development of Bipolar EP for final surface finishing step will enable a manufacturing process that controls costs and reduces the environmental and health hazards associated with using acid solutions. Phase I will first identify an electrolyte, then demonstrate the feasibility of the process on coupons to optimize Bipolar EP process parameters to achieve niobium final surface finishes desired by the SRF community. Subsequently in Phase I, we will transition the Bipolar EP process from coupons to electropolishing of single-cell cavities, while maintaining the desired surface finish. The project team will determine the performance effect of the Bipolar EP Bulk Process via cavity testing, and develop a preliminary economic analysis showing the commercial viability of the technology as compared to conventional practice. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The proposed product is a cost effective and robust process for final electropolishing of niobium SRF cavities. The market size for SRF cavities for the International Linear Collider is ~16,000 cavities, with applicability to many other cavity configurations and applications. Other markets for Acid-Free Bipolar EP include niobium-alloys that are hypoallergenic and commonly alloyed with titanium and zirconium to make implantable medical devices, and require HF acid for polishing. Elimination of acids for electropolishing of medical implants is an important need and represents a strong commercial opportunity with a US market of ~$45B by 2014.

Discover hidden collaborations