Clayton, OH, United States
Clayton, OH, United States

Time filter

Source Type

Patent
Faraday Technology, Inc., Algaeventure Systems and Physical Sciences, Inc | Date: 2015-06-24

An apparatus for the concentration of suspended algae particles in an aqueous solution. The apparatus includes an electrolytic cell containing at least an anode and a cathode, and a filter. The electrolytic cell receives a solution containing suspended algae particles therein. A power supply is near the filter. A zone of depleted suspended algae particles is near the filter, formed under the influence of an applied electric field from the power supply.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

Statement of the problem or situation that is being addressed in your application. Coal-generated power represents a major source of electrical generation in the Nation, and will likely remain so for the foreseeable future. However, recently proposed limits on CO2 emissions from new electrical generation capacity will necessitate carbon capture functions to be installed on any new coal-fired power plant. Such capture technology opens numerous opportunities for exploiting the concentrated CO2 streams that will be generated in these contexts. • General statement of how this problem is being addressed. In this Phase I program, the feasibility of a novel microstructured copper electrocatalyst to afford conversion of CO2 to C2-C3 hydrocarbons using low-voltage power derived from waste heat or other sources will be investigated. Building on prior results showing enhanced selectivity for hydrocarbons, primarily ethylene, the proposed activity will explore the effects of various parameters in the electrocatalyst fabrication process on the catalytic performance of the resulting copper films. Further, the capability of wet ionic liquid electrolytes to enhance the hydrocarbon selectivity and reduce the required overpotential of the electrocatalytic conversion system will also be investigated. • What is to be done in Phase I? In the Phase I activity, copper electrocatalyst films will be electrodeposited onto stainless steel coupons and subjected to a literature oxide-reduction activation protocol using a variety of processing parameters. These functionalized coupons will be evaluated for their electrocatalytic performance, and the materials properties of the deposited films such as grain morphology and crystallographic configuration will be examined. A preliminary economic and scale-up analysis will be performed to evaluate the market feasibility using the experimental results from the program. • Commercial Applications and Other Benefits. The key future applications and future benefits of the proposed technology reside in mitigation of carbon emissions by providing a valuable conversion route for carbon dioxide captured from power generation facilities. The proposed electrocatalytic technology is intrinsically well suited for exploiting low-grade power sources, as their operating voltages are typically small, on the order a few volts. Successful development of an efficient technology for CO2 conversion using marginal energy sources has the potential to dramatically alter the economics of carbon captureenabled power generation. • Key Words: Carbon capture; CO2 conversion; pulsed electrochemical processing; copper electrocatalyst • Summary for Members of Congress: There is a pressing need to develop technologies capable of converting captured carbon dioxide to useful chemicals and/or fuels. The proposed program seeks to develop a copper electrocatalyst for conversion of carbon dioxide to hydrocarbons like ethylene, which are valuable as fuels and chemical feedstocks.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: STTR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

In the near term, in order to mitigate carbon emissions to the extent possible while carbon-neutral, renewable energy resources are developed sufficiently to address the total demand of the Nation, there is a significant need for technologies capable of up-converting captured carbon dioxide either to value-added products or to forms able to be safely sequestered. In particular, access must be opened to a larger and more diverse market than just direct sales of the captured CO2. Electrocatalytic conversion of CO2 to value-added materials has been demonstrated on a number of metallic and alloy materials. In the proposed Phase I program, tin electrocatalysts, known for their capability to reduce CO2 to formate, will be fabricated with novel microstructures enabled by pulsed-waveform electrodeposition. These electrocatalysts will be incorporated into a state-of-the-art benchtop flow-through electroreactor to demonstrate preliminary feasibility of economical conversion of CO2 to formate. Existing, patented electrodeposition cells with carefully tailored flow pathways will be retrofitted for electrodeposition of tin onto high-surface area substrates such as carbon felt and/or carbon paper. Pulsed-waveform electrodeposition will be used to fabricate tin electrocatalyst layers in a variety of micro-structural configurations. These electrocatalysts will be characterized by various methods and integrated into a state-of-the-art flow-through electroreactor for benchtop evaluation of their CO2 reduction performance. A high-level life-cycle analysis and near-term economic/scale-up analysis will be performed to provide insight, respectively, into the true environmental benefits afforded by the technology and the contours of its pathway to commercialization. In order to minimize carbon dioxide emissions from burning of fossil fuels, enhanced technologies for the conversion of captured carbon dioxide are needed. This program seeks to develop a process to transform carbon dioxide to formic acid by electrochemical means as a partial solution to this challenge. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: A suitably efficient and selective conversion process would provide a means for converting waste carbon dioxide to a significantly more valuable material with substantial market outlets in animal husbandry, fabric production, and in the manufacture of products as diverse as pharmaceuticals and PVC plastic. Significant public benefit in the form of mitigation of the atmospheric greenhouse gas burden would result from introduction of an economical process for diversion of emitted carbon dioxide.


A layer of chromium metal is electroplated from trivalent chromium onto an electrically conducting substrate by immersing the substrate and a counter electrode in a electroplating bath and passing a modulated electric current between the electrodes. In one embodiment, the current contains pulses that are cathodic with respect to said substrate and in another embodiment the current contains pulses that are cathodic and pulses that are anodic with respect to said substrate. The cathodic pulses have a duty cycle greater than about 80%.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

Currently available X-ray optics technologies such as compound refractive lenses, diffraction zone plates, and Kirkpatrick- Baez (K-B) mirrors allow for significant scientific discovery in modern synchrotron facilities. However, these optics each have limitations, variously including significant chromaticity (focal length dependence on photon energy), very long focal distances, and requirements for extremely high surface finish. One approach to mitigating the long focal distance of K-B mirrors is to combine mirror pairs into a single, bi- axially curved mirror form. This Phase I program seeks to demonstrate the feasibility of attaining the required surface form in (doped) silicon mirror substrates by pulsed- waveform electrochemical polishing. As well, the program aims to demonstrate the feasibility of pulsed- waveform electrodeposition of a suitable high-Z reflective material (viz., nickel) onto the prepared silicon surfaces. Pulsed electrochemical processing has significant established potential for both processing steps and is anticipated to provide an economical, effective means to achieving the required material forms for reflective X-ray optics in challenging geometries. In the Phase I program, custom-designed, patented electrochemical processing cells will be retrofitted to carry out polishing and nickel electrodeposition tests on doped silicon wafers. Preliminary electroanalysis will be performed as a means for informing and directing exploration of the electropolishing parameter space. Surface analysis will be accomplished by on-site non-contact optical profilometry, combined with cross-sectioning and microscopy, if required. A preliminary scale-up and economic analysis of the technology will be performed. In order to increase our capabilities to perform detailed scientific studies of complex materials and chemical systems, continued improvements in X-ray optics are required. In the proposed program, electrochemical processing techniques will be investigated as a potential means for fabricating such improved optics. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Future applications of the technology encompass the primary target market of X-ray optics, as well as potentially optics for lower-energy photons which pose challenges to current fabrication methods. The scientific investigations enabled by advancement of X-ray optics designs are substantial, especially as pertains to compositional surface mapping and high-resolution (large-scale) imaging and elemental/chemical analysis. While specific public benefits from such enabled activities are difficult to elaborate precisely, they are anticipated to be substantial.


Grant
Agency: Department of Defense | Branch: Air Force | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

ABSTRACT: There is a stated need for enhanced capabilities to strip functional coatings from, e.g., military aerospace parts, due to saturation behaviors exhibited by current stripping methods. In the proposed program, Faraday will develop low-cost, environmentally-sound drop-in/add-on unit operations based on pulsed FARADAYIC Stripping and ElectroWinning technologies, which would require only a power supply swap-out and installation of an auxiliary process tank, respectively. Faraday will establish processing conditions that allow for efficient FARADAYIC Stripping and FARADAYIC ElectroWinning recovery of dissolved metals, and evaluate the enhancement to stripping solution lifetime and processing rate afforded by this combination of technologies. We will identify suitable target operating metals concentrations to enable an appropriate balance of stripping rate/efficacy and electrowinning efficiency. We will initiate development of a transition plan for future implementation at Air Force and/or commercial partner maintenance facilities and perform an analysis of the economics, safety and material compatibility of the technology. Phase II will entail design and construction of a pilot-scale apparatus to strip coatings from specific aerospace parts of interest; evaluation of FARADAYIC Stripping performance on various substrate materials; development of alpha-scale components for prototype testing at Boeing and Air Force facilities; and completion of the technology transition plan. BENEFIT: The anticipated result of the proposed program is the demonstration, development and deployment of a low-cost, environmentally-benign augmentation of existing WC-Co HVOF stripping operations. In particular, application of pulsed FARADAYIC Stripping and Electrowinning technologies will be investigated for their capability to enhance stripping solution lifetime and enable recovery of dissolved metals. The process is scalable, will integrate directly with equipment available at USAF depots, and will result in significant cost reductions through extended lifetimes of stripping solutions and increased part stripping rates. Interest is also anticipated in the commercial aircraft market, as well as in any market segment in which wear-resistant coatings are needed, such as construction equipment, rail transportation manufacture, paper mill roll fabrication, and high-strength valve seals for undersea oil/gas extraction applications.


Grant
Agency: National Aeronautics and Space Administration | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 125.00K | Year: 2016

In this Phase I SBIR program, Faraday will develop a custom bench-scale electrochemical cell incorporating state of the art electrocatalysts in a gas-diffusion electrode (GDE) system to serve as proof-of-concept of the suitability of an electrochemical system for in situ hydrogen peroxide generation, to serve as a disinfectant solution for crew contact surfaces in space vehicles. Hydrogen peroxide is an appealing disinfectant due to its low toxicity and innocuous decomposition products (i.e., water and oxygen). Faraday will construct a bench-scale electroreactor to incorporate a custom-fabricated gas diffusion cathode and a commercial mixed-metal oxide anode, which will then be used in hydrogen peroxide generation tests. Adventitious hydrogen peroxide consumption at the anode will be avoided by inclusion of a selective membrane between the anode and cathode compartments. The performance of this electrochemical generation system will be enhanced through application of the FARADAYIC Process, which involves precise tuning of pulsed electrical potentials applied to the catalytic electrodes. The system will be characterized by the peroxide generation rate, the maximum achievable peroxide concentration, and the microbial disinfection capability demonstrated by the solutions generated. These efforts will provide a platform for scale-up and optimization efforts in Phase II and transition to commercialization in Phase III.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

A need has been identified for new fabrication methods to enable production of low-cost combustors for biomass with enhanced durability against high temperatures and corrosive environments. Biomass represents an abundant, renewable fuel source with significant unrealized potential to supplant nonrenewable fossil fuels in providing for the Nations energy needs. Cost concerns typically require that combustor hardware be composed of mild or low-alloy steels, which do not possess the required material properties to achieve acceptable lifetimes in biomass combustion applications. Accordingly, interest has been expressed in development of novel, low-cost approaches for fireside surface modifications of the base steel that will provide the desired thermal and chemical resistances. Identify and develop corrosion-resistant cobalt-chromium-molybdenum coatings for the inner surfaces of low-alloy steel biomass combustors to provide the necessary resistance to high temperatures 600-900 C) and corrosion from attack by alkali halides and water. Demonstrate the capability of pulsed electrodeposition to fabricate suitable coatings on the coupon scale, with scale-up in Phase II to coating electrodeposition and testing of combustor bodies on a demonstration scale. Various experimental electrodeposition conditions will be explored to determine those that afford cobalt-chromium-molybdenum coatings of varying composition on test substrates. These coatings will be evaluated for properties such as uniformity, adhesion, and thermal expansion coefficient match, after which the coating compositions will be down-selected to the most promising candidates, and applied to low-alloy steel coupons for corrosion testing in a simulated biomass combustion environment at 600-900 C. Results will inform the design of coating deposition and performance testing and apparatus for Phase II demonstration-scale combustors. Economic and market evaluation of the proposed coating technology will also be performed. Economical application of corrosion-resistant cobalt- chromium-molybdenum coatings to steel biomass combustors has the potential to facilitate enhanced economics and utilization of biomass as an energy source. Improved combustor technology will decrease the cost-of-ownership; integration with other technological advances catalytic converters) would presumably increase the extractible energy per mass of fuel, further enhancing cost-effectiveness. The technology has the potential to facilitate a transition of large-scale electrical generation from non- renewable fossil fuels to renewable biomass. The potential global market for generation steadily increasing from 14.6 petawatt-hours of fossil-fired generation in 2011) is substantial. The public benefit from reduced electricity prices and decreased net greenhouse gas emissions is anticipated to be significant.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2015

The DOE seeks commercially viable, fabrication technologies for SRF cavities, specifically eco-friendly final polishing technologies. Current methods, such as conventional and buffered electropolishing, use high viscosity electrolytes containing hydrofluoric acid, which is not conducive to low-cost, high volume manufacturing and is potentially harmful to workers. robust, high throughput vertical Final Electropolishing process for SRF cavities, based on an Acid-Free Bipolar Electropolishing process, to replace conventional electropolishing for single and nine-cell cavities at the alpha/beta scale. The development of Bipolar EP for final surface finishing step will enable a manufacturing process that controls costs and reduces the environmental and health hazards associated with using acid solutions. Phase I coupon studies identified a range of salt-based aqueous electrolytes that were able to electropolish niobium to an Ra as low as 0.05 m, at removal rates as high as 0.7 m/min. The performance via cavity testing was unable to be tested due to scheduling conflicts. However, we mimicked the geometric conditions inside a cavity using coupon work, and successfully transitioned the Bipolar EP process to those conditions while maintaining removal rates of 0.3 to 0.4 m/min at a surface finish below 0.2 m. A preliminary economic analysis showed the commercial viability as compared to conventional practice, with up to 4x lower cost for the International Linear Collider. Phase II will develop a process and apparatus for cost-effective, scalable, high yield Nb cavity processing based on Bipolar EP. We will design and build an alpha-scale Bipolar EP cell, based on vertical cavity orientation without rotation, applicable to single- and multi-cell cavity processing, optimize Acid-Free Bipolar EP parameters and cathode geometry and surface area to improve final electropolishing performance, test in single-cell and multi-cell cavities, and refine the economic and manufacturing analysis. Commercial Applications/Other Benefits: The proposed product is a cost effective and robust process for bulk processing of niobium SRF cavities. The first market for cavities is for the International Linear Collider (~16,000), with applicability to many other cavity configurations and applications. Other markets for Bipolar EP include niobium-alloys that are hypoallergenic and commonly alloyed with titanium and zirconium to make implantable medical devices, and require HF acid for polishing. Elimination of HF acid for electropolishing of medical implants represents a commercial opportunity with a US market of ~$45B by 2014


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2015

The DOE seeks commercially viable, fabrication technologies for SRF cavities, specifically eco-friendly final polishing technologies. Current methods, such as conventional and buffered electropolishing, use high viscosity electrolytes containing hydrofluoric acid, which is not conducive to low-cost, high volume manufacturing and is potentially harmful to workers. Statement of How Problem is Being Addressed: robust, high throughput vertical Final Electropolishing process for SRF cavities, based on an Acid-Free Bipolar Electropolishing process, to replace conventional electropolishing for single and nine-cell cavities at the alpha/beta scale. The development of Bipolar EP for final surface finishing step will enable a manufacturing process that controls costs and reduces the environmental and health hazards associated with using acid solutions. What was done in Phase I? Phase I coupon studies identified a range of salt-based aqueous electrolytes that were able to electropolish niobium to an Ra as low as 0.05 m, at removal rates as high as 0.7 m/min. The performance via cavity testing was unable to be tested due to scheduling conflicts. However, we mimicked the geometric conditions inside a cavity using coupon work, and successfully transitioned the Bipolar EP process to those conditions while maintaining removal rates of 0.3 to 0.4 m/min at a surface finish below 0.2 m. A preliminary economic analysis showed the commercial viability as compared to conventional practice, with up to 4x lower cost for the International Linear Collider. What is planned for Phase II? Phase II will develop a process and apparatus for cost-effective, scalable,high yield Nb cavity processing based on Bipolar EP. We will design and build an alpha-scale Bipolar EP cell, based on vertical cavity orientation without rotation, applicable to single- and multi-cell cavity processing, optimize Acid-Free Bipolar EP parameters and cathode geometry and surface area to improve final electropolishing performance, test in single-cell and multi-cell cavities, and refine the economic and manufacturing analysis. Commercial Applications/Other Benefits: The proposed product is a cost effective and robust processfor bulk processing of niobium SRF cavities. The first market for cavities is for the International Linear Collider (~16,000), with applicability to many other cavity configurations and applications. Other markets for Bipolar EP include niobium-alloys that are hypoallergenic and commonly alloyed with titanium and zirconium to make implantable medical devices, and require HF acid for polishing. Elimination of HF acid for electropolishing of medical implants represents a commercial opportunity with a US market of ~$45B by 2014.

Loading Faraday Technology, Inc. collaborators
Loading Faraday Technology, Inc. collaborators