FAR Technology Inc.

San Diego, CA, United States

FAR Technology Inc.

San Diego, CA, United States
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Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

Arguably the most important issue facing the further development of magnetic fusion via advanced tokamaks is to predict, avoid, or mitigate disruptions. This problem recently became one of the most challenging and hot topics in fusion research due to several potentially damaging effects, all of which can impact the ITER device. The Disruption Prediction And Simulation Suite DPASS) of codes will address all important disruption related topics: MHD dynamics, plasma edge physics, plasma-wall interaction physics and generation, and losses of runaway electrons. The numerical algorithm will allow extension in physics models and interface with other relevant codes. The DPASS will have a modular structure. Different aspects of disruption physics will be included in modules, which will be linked to a core. The core of the DPASS will be the already developed DSC-3D code, which solves the resistive one fluid non-linear time-dependent 3D MHD equations in the real geometry of the conducting tokamak vessel, utilizing the adaptive meshless technique. The DPASS will be validated against the JET disruption data and will be capable of predicting the disruption effects in ITER, it will be parallelized too. DPASS will contribute to the development of the disruption mitigation schemes and suppression of the runaway generation. Theoretical models relevant to disruptions and corresponding numerical algorithms will be carefully selected. Two numerical modules to simulate disruption mitigation schemes with massive gas and plasma jet injections will be developed, tested and incorporated into the DPASS. Initial simulations will be carried out. The DPASS will make a unique and timely contribution to the US and International tokamak fusion programs. With the projects completion, the DPASS will result in a powerful simulation tool, available and deliverable to the fusion energy science community. Being experimentally verified, the DPASS fits well the objectives of the FSP Fusion Simulation Project). Adaptive meshless method employed in the DPASS is an explicit contribution to the computational science.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2015

Development of an economically and environmentally attractive fusion energy source is the goal of the Fusion Energy Sciences program. One main approach for plasma heating and current drive in fusion devices is to use radio frequency (RF) waves. RF waves are used for heating and/or current drive in most magnetic plasma confinement devices, such as Tokamaks, Reversed Field Pinches, Stellarators and Mirror Machines, and are also used in industrial plasma sources. Numerical modeling of RF fields in both fusion and industrial plasma devices is a very important part of analysis of performance of such devices. FAR-TECH, Inc. will develop a new parallelized full wave radio frequency code to accurately model 3-D radio frequency fields in fusion and industrial plasma devices. Feasibility study of the proposed approach of solving wave equations was performed in Phase I. Feasibility was demonstrated for numerical calculation of the plasma conductivity kernel in 3-D configuration space. Feasibility was demonstrated for solving linear equations, obtained by discretization of the wave equations using the meshless formulation, by the Krylov subspace iterative methods or by efficient direct solvers. The goal in Phase II is to develop a new parallel full wave linear RF code, which will utilize the localized nature of plasma dielectric response to the RF field, use adaptive grid to better resolve resonances in plasma and antenna structures, and solve the formulated linear equations by iterative methods or efficient direct solvers. The commercial product will be a user friendly numerical tool with a graphical user interface, comprehensive post processing, and a user manual. The code will be used: in the design, operation and performance assessment of radio frequency systems in existing and planned fusion devices, industrial radio frequency plasma devices, and electron cyclotron ion sources; in basic research on plasma waves.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2011

Arguably the most important issue facing the further development of magnetic fusion via advanced tokamaks is to predict, avoid, or mitigate disruptions. This problem recently becameone of the most challenging and hot topics in fusion research due to several potentially damaging effects, all of which can impact the ITER device. Among four disruption related topics: MHD dynamics, plasma edge physics, plasma-wall interaction physics and generation and losses of runaway electrons, the DSC addresses the firstone. The numerical algorithm will allow extension in physics models and interface with otherrelevant codes. DSC will solve the resistive one fluid 3D MHD equations in the real geometry ofthe conducting tokamak vessel, utilizing the adaptive meshless technique and will finally beparallelized. The DSC will be validated against the JET disruption data and will be capable ofpredicting the disruption effects in ITER. DSC will contribute to the development of the disruption mitigation schemes and suppression of the runaway generation. The DSC code was implemented in 2D with all basic components of the full 3D version. It performs adaptive, meshless free-boundary plasma core simulations. Vacuum fields, the plasma surface and wall currents are calculated using both Green & apos;s functions and Poisson equation methods. For the first time the non-linear dynamics of the wall touching kink mode was simulated, including both fast ideal MHD regime till the saturation due to excitation of the Hiro currents, and the slower regime of the current quench due to resistive decay of the Hiro currents. A full one-fluid 3-D resistive MHD DSC will be developed capable of implementing realistic 3Dmodels of in-vessel components of tokamaks (e.g., LTX, JET, ITER, DIII-D, NSTX, J-TEXT). The m=1 kink mode simulations will be validated against JET disruption data base. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The DSC extends an innovative adaptive meshless method to a new area of application. DSC willmake a unique and timely contribution to the US and International tokamak fusion programs. With the projects completion, the DSC will result in a powerful simulation tool, available anddeliverable to the fusion energy science community. Being experimentally verified, the DSC can be a part of the software suite of the currently proposed Fusion Simulation Project (FSP).


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2011

The production of high-quality, high-charge-state ion beams is an area of intensive research and development worldwide for particle accelerators, atomic physics experiments, and industrial applications. Electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (ECRIS) generate multiply charged ions through electron impact ionization in a confined plasma. These sources reduce the cost to produce ion beams by reducing the accelerating voltage needed to achieve the desired beam energy. However, the three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the ECRIS magnetic field generates 3D structures in the extracted beam, which increases their emittance and reduces the efficiency with which they can be delivered to an accelerator. The complicated 3D geometry also makes numerical modeling a difficult task. FAR-TECH, Inc. proposes to use a mapping technique to develop a sophisticated modeling tool that can simulate the 3D ECRIS plasma in a reasonable amount of computation time. The tool will aid ECRIS users in operating existing ion sources and designing and building new ones. During Phase I, FAR-TECH developed a mapping technique to provide a useful means of estimating the electron distribution function (EDF) in 3D without the computational expense of a 3D calculation. This quasi-3D modeling technique (Quasi3D) predicts successfully the 3D nature of ECRIS properties as observed in experiments such as the triangular cross sections of extracted beam ions. Our Quasi3D mapping technique eliminates the most time consuming part of the computation. The quasi-3D mapping is only valid for electrons. The complete 3D model requires proper treatment of gas and ions. In phase II, we will develop a Monte-Carlo Particle-In-Cell (MC-PIC) simulation module for support gas tracking. The electrons from our Quasi3D mapping will be integrated with the MCC-PIC gas and ion simulations. The completed code will treat electrons and ions self-consistently and provide 3D ECRIS modeling capability, within a practical computation time, up to steady states of an ECRIS (tens of milliseconds). Simulation results will be validated against measurements on ECRIS devices. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Numerical modeling of ECRISs will improve the efficiency of rare isotope ion beam facilities as well as industrial applications using highly charged ions, such a materials processing and hadron therapy.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2012

Production of highly charged ions, in particular isotope ion beams, is a major effort worldwide, and in particular, in the Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics Department. Rare isotope ion beams, with extreme proton-to-neutron ratios, provides insight into the synthesis of new elements and the discovery of rare nuclei. Charge-breeders based on Electron-Beam-Ion-Sources (EBIS) are a promising method to supply ions with high quality high-charge ion beams. Due to limited simulation tools interpretation of data and optimization of design are extremely limited. FAR-TECH proposes to develop an integrated simulation tool for electron-beam based ion-sources, through physics-based modeling and sophisticated state-of-art computational algorithms. The tool will be modularized for each physical process in an EBIS; steady state electron beam, ion trapping by Monte Carlo Collision, and charge breeding by particle-in-cell for self-consistent space-charge calculations. The tool utilizes multiple processors and optimized grids for efficient computation and to accurately handle multi- scale problems.A prototype of the simulation was developed and tested. Simulations of electron beam, ion injection and charge breeding were performed. Comparisons with experiments showed that the simulation is able to predict, within the limits of experimental uncertainty, the efficiency of different methods of ion injection and trapping. The prototype developed in Phase I will be developed into a full-fledged numerical tool. Additional physics will be incorporated to replace approximate models currently used. Numerical algorithms will be improved to increase the speed at which the simulations run. Simulation results will be validated against measurements on EBIS devices. Finally, the modules will have easy-to-use graphical-user-interface with comprehensive diagnostics (post-processor) aided by visualization. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: A modularized simulation tool for electron-beam based ion-sources will guide and interpret current EBIS experiments; further assist design of new EBIS based charge breeders. The numerical tool can be applied to various ion-source modeling and of science such as accelerators and plasma related problems.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2012

Fast cycling synchrotrons and fixed-field alternate gradient accelerators offer an attractive solution for systems that require rapid acceleration of charged particles over a wide range of energies. The ability to rapidly tune the frequency of the accelerating cavity in devices represents a fundamental barrier to their implementation in a wide variety of applications for proton, ion and muon acceleration. An innovative rf cavity design that allows for rapid tuning of the rf cavity frequency over a wide range is being developed. This cavity will be designed using computer modeling, developed though cold testing, prototyping and testing. In Phase I the basic design concept was optimized to reduce power and heating of the tuning element leading to a new design concept. Cold testing verified the performance of the ceramic material use for tuning. Issues of mode conversion and variable tune timing were studied. In Phase II the rapidly tunable rf cavity prototype will be manufactured and tested. Testing requires the construction of an rf amplifier and a ramped high-voltage biasing scheme. Lower power testing to verify the design concept will be performed prior to full cavity production. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Fast cycling accelerators have a potential for wide use in proton, ion, electron and muon acceleration for basic research, industrial and medical applications. The small size and the ability to accelerate large particle intensities are attractive for proton drivers, light ion accelerators, electron based synchrotron light sources, accelerator driven subcritical nuclear reactors, and cancer therapy machines. The successful development of rapidly tunable rf cavities for these machines will significantly enhance the feasibility of these accelerators for basic research, industrial, and medical applications


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase II | Award Amount: 1.00M | Year: 2013

Numerical simulations of fusion plasmas is an important component of Fusion Energy Sciences program used in the design, operation and performance assessment of existing and proposed fusion experiments. Numerical stability analysis of plasma equilibrium is one of the most important steps in evaluating feasibility of different plasma confinement approaches. An efficient numerical Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability analysis tool of axisymmetric equilibria is required for an accurate analysis of plasma confinement. FAR-TECH, Inc. proposes to parallelize code MARS, to extend its capabilities and to significantly improve its performance. MARS calculates eigenmodes in axisymmetric toroidal equilibria within MHD kinetic plasma models. A feasibility study of parallelization of the MARS code was performed in Phase I. MARS eigenvalue solver was parallelized by repeating present MARS algorithm using parallel libraries and procedures. Significant performance improvement of the parallelized solver was demonstrated ensuring a significant performance improvement of the proposed parallelized MARS code. The goal of the Phase II project is to develop a fully parallel version of MARS in a package with an integrated equilibrium code. Our final product will be designed as a user friendly numerical tool including a graphical user interface, comprehensive post processing and a user manual. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The code will be used in nuclear fusion research institutions in the design and performance assessment of existing and proposed fusion experiments. It will help to expand the knowledge base of plasma confinement in different regimes. The main public benefit of the project is the availability of an efficient tool which will be used in creation of safe, clean and economical energy source based on nuclear fusion.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2015

Statement of the problem or situation that is being addressed: Ultrafast Electron Diffraction and Microscopy systems can provide snapshots of a dynamic system on a time scale of femtoseconds. It can be used to study: ultrafast phenomena in condensed matter physics; biological processes such as unfolding and re-folding of proteins; and the kinetics and mechanisms involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and antioxidant/anti- inflammatory drug action. A relatively inexpensive and compact system can allow greater access and increased data security for users. Statement of how this problem or situation is being addressed: A single-cavity RF photocathode gun accelerates electrons to around 1 MeV, after which, they are taken through an alpha magnet designed for a constant time-of-flight between the photocathode and sample chamber independent of small fluctuations of beam energy. The project will eventually establish a user facility at Northern Illinois University. What is to be done in Phase I? Phase I of this project will include the simulation and optimization of the beam evolution in the system including alpha magnet and focusing solenoids. We will also evaluate the choice of photocathode emitter, design any magnetic elements, specify and design the sample chamber and diagnostics system, and specify the laser system. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: The proposed Ultrafast Electron Diffraction microscopy device will create a new center for the study of ultrafast phenomena. It will help to educate students, and it will likely be used in the thesis work of one student in the particle accelerators field, one in chemistry, and one in engineering/nano-technology. The proposed device, or adaptations of it, will be offered for sale to commercial customers. This will put the technology into the hands of many additional research groups and companies. The proposed system may also be purchased by a company wishing to perform the research in private as a way of protecting trade secrets or to guarantee confidentiality. Key Words: Ultrafast Electron Diffraction, electron gun, alpha magnet, photoinjector Summary for Members of Congress: Ultrafast Electron Diffraction microscopy can provide snapshots of a dynamic system on a time scale of femtoseconds. It can be used to study: ultrafast phenomena in condensed matter physics; biological processes such as unfolding and re-folding of proteins; and the kinetics and mechanisms involved in inflammation, oxidative stress and antioxidant/anti-inflammatory drug action. A relatively cheap and compact system is being developed that can allow greater access and increased data security for users.


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

High-velocity high-density/mass plasma jets have important applications in magnetic fusion research for disruption mitigation, fueling, and driving plasma rotation. The essential potential of such a plasma jet as diagnostic probe for runaway electron (RE) beam-plasma interaction has been envisioned, but no suitable device has been developed and tested in a poof-of-principle experiment. Such a diagnostic probe will be of great benefit for developing a reliable, real-time technique for REs suppression/dissipation, a critical need for fusion reactors like the International Thermonuclear Nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Statement of how this problem is being addressed: FAR-TECH, Inc. proposes to provide a diagnostic probe for runaway electron beam-plasma interaction using a novel prototype system producing a high-velocity and high-density/mass C60/C plasma jet, accelerated in a plasma gun. The objectives are a first test bed demonstration of penetration through transverse magnetic field and then a proof-of-principle experiment on a large tokamak. What is to be done in Phase I? During Phase I we will investigate the feasibility, from the view point of the key physics issues involved, of the C60/C nanoparticle plasma jet injection into the disrupting target plasma carrying REs and confined by the tokamak magnetic field, for spectroscopy-based RE beam-plasma interaction. We will use semi-analytical physical models and computer code simulations. We will set firm grounds for a practical diagnostic device supporting the development of the disruption mitigation system for ITER. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: Plasma jets have many applications in the following areas of fusion plasmas: mitigation of plasma disruptions, core fueling for burning plasma, liner-compressed magnetized target fusion, and driving plasma rotation for improved stability. Thus our tool will have direct impact to the fusion community. The technology and tool developed for diagnostics of runaway electrons and disruption mitigation can be useful to impulse plasma deposition for coatinga, space science and technology, biomedicine, defense and in commercial sectors where application of nanoparticle plasma jets is pursued. Key Words: Active/passive diagnostic probe, collisional suppression of runaway electrons, high-velocity plasma jet, nanoparticles, disruption mitigation, tokamak plasma


Grant
Agency: Department of Energy | Branch: | Program: SBIR | Phase: Phase I | Award Amount: 150.00K | Year: 2016

Thermionic electron sources operating a microwave frequencies with longer lifetimes and increased performance will improve the reliability of synchrotron light sources and a new generation of high power terahertz light sources. Increasing the reliability of the electrons sources will improve the stability of operation for users. The robust thermionic electron source uses a short initial cell, followed by a cavity that is electrically uncoupled from the initial cell. The initial short gap delays the launch phase at which back-bombardment of the electrons onto the cathode will occur. This effectively decreases the beam power that will heat the cathode and increased the possible pulse width. The second cavity is uncoupled to the first cavity and is driven independently to maximize beam capture. In Phase I, the feasibility of producing the novel gun design will be determined through RF and beam dynamics simulation. The effectiveness of the short first cell followed by an independently driven cavity will be verified. The ability to cancel the coupling between the two cells will be confirmed and a design of the whole cavity structure will be developed. The cathode mounting system will be designed. Thermionic electron sources operating at microwave frequencies are current limited by electrons that reflect back from the radio frequency fields and heat the cathode. A novel cavity design is being investigated that will decrease the number of reflected electrons and improve the efficiency of the overall electron source. Commercial Applications and Other Benefits: This cavity will be an improvement over existing thermionic guns, allowing for operation at increased duty factor do to the reduction of the electron back-bombardment on the cathode. It has potential uses in synchrotron light sources and high power terahertz sources.

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