Khabarovsk Vtoroy, Russia

Far Eastern State Medical University
Khabarovsk Vtoroy, Russia

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Ratmanov P.E.,Far Eastern State Medical University
History of Medicine | Year: 2015

The article describes research on the application of the Anglo-American concept of professionalism to the medical history of pre-revolutionary Russia (1856-1917). Approaches to the study of professions in the UK and the US are described, Western literature’s views are presented, in which the history of pre-revolutionary Russian medicine has been studied in line with the concept of professionalism, the experience of its application in relation to the medical history of pre-revolutionary Russia is discussed, the prospects for the use of this concept in relation to the country’s history of medicine is assessed as well. The concept of professionalism is widespread in English-language literature, dedicated to the profession of medicine. Regardless of the attitude towards it, modern scholars in their study of the original or translated English-language literature must take into account differences in theoretical approaches to the problem of professions. Most Western scholars who have studied the history of medicine in Russia have adhered to the tradition of describing Russian doctors of the second half of the 19th century and early 20th centuries in terms of the concept of professionalization. An analysis of Russian history of medicine with the use of the concept of professionalism does not give obvious advantages and leads to significant distortions (phenomena closer to the Anglo-American experience are studied in more detail). For local historians of medicine, the concept of professionalism is not relevant, since Russia developed a tradition for research of professional medical work based on the study of medical education and the scientific and social activities of doctors. Given the differences in professional bodies of doctors in the West and in Russia, perhaps there are prospects for the analysis of individual elements such as the concept of professionalization in terms of expert knowledge, autonomy (self-regulation), the activity of medical associations, commitment to public service, but not the whole paradigm in its entirety. In carrying out comparative studies of the historical aspects of the formation of the medical profession in the West and in Russia, understanding of the concept of professionalism is required. © Pavel E. Ratmanov.

Ratmanov P.E.,Far Eastern State Medical University
History of Medicine | Year: 2014

The article summarizes the approaches of Western historians of medicine to the typology of the Western medical tradition based on ‟kinds of medicine”: bedside, library, hospital, laboratory and public. © Pavel E. Ratmanov.

Pchelina I.V.,Far Eastern State Medical University | Aseeva Y.I.,Far Eastern State Medical University
History of Medicine | Year: 2016

The article is based on a variety of sources, including archival sources, and presents an academic biography of doctor of medical sciences, Professor E.I. Kropacheva (1926-2013), one of the first cardiovascular surgeons in the Khabarovsk Territory. Her work as a physician and scientist was inextricably linked with the Khabarovsk State Medical Institute. In 1959, at the institute’s department of surgery, she defended her thesis for the degree of candidate of medical sciences on clinical and anatomical inconsistencies in acute appendicitis. Particular attention is paid to the versatile nature of Professor Kropacheva’s scientific work in the field of surgery, one of the pillars of which was surgical treatment for acquired heart defects. In 1973, she became one of the first in the Far East to defend a thesis for the degree of doctor of medical sciences in cardiac surgery. The thesis describes the evaluation of the myocardium’s functional state in patients with rheumatic heart disease in the process of establishing indications for surgery. The article also examines the activities of Professor Kropacheva’s scientific and practical clinical school, which was created at the Khabarovsk State Medical Institute’s department of hospital surgery, and which she chaired for many years. The school’s leading research areas included emergency abdominal surgery, in particular, the treatment of peritonitis of varying complexity, gastric ulcers, and duodenal ulcers, as well as the immunological aspects of diagnosis and treatment in surgery. The authors note that during Professor Kropacheva’s many years of fruitful teaching, numerous skilled surgeons and scientists were trained. © I.V. Pchelina, Yu.I. Aseeva.

Keita A.K.,French National Center for Scientific Research | Bassene H.,IRD Montpellier | Tall A.,Institute Pasteur Of Dakar | Sokhna C.,IRD Montpellier | And 7 more authors.
PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases | Year: 2011

Background: Tropheryma whipplei is known as the cause of Whipple's disease, but it is also an emerging pathogen, detected in stool, that causes various chronic localized infections without histological digestive involvement and is associated with acute infections, including gastroenteritis and bacteremia. Methods/Principal Findings: We conducted a study in 2008 and 2009 using 497 non-diarrheic and diarrheic stool samples, 370 saliva samples, 454 sera samples and 105 samples obtained from water samples in two rural Sine-Saloum villages (Dielmo and Ndiop) in Senegal. The presence of T. whipplei was investigated by using specific quantitative PCR. Genotyping was performed on positive samples. A serological analysis by western blotting was performed to determine the seroprevalence and to detect seroconversion. Overall, T. whipplei was identified in 31.2% of the stool samples (139/446) and 3.5% of the saliva samples (13/370) obtained from healthy subjects. The carriage in the stool specimens was significantly (p&10 -3) higher in children who were between 0 and 4 years old (60/80, 75%) compared to samples obtained from individuals who were between 5 to 10 years old (36/119, 30.2%) or between 11 and 99 years old (43/247, 17.4%). The carriage in the stool was also significantly more common (p = 0.015) in subjects with diarrhea (25/51, 49%). We identified 22 genotypes, 16 of which were new. Only one genotype (#53) was common to both villages. Among the specific genotypes, one (#52) was epidemic in Dielmo (15/28, 53.4%, p&10 -3) and another (#49) in Ndiop (27.6%, p = 0.002). The overall seroprevalence was estimated at 72.8% (291/400). Seroconversion was detected in 66.7% (18/27) of children for whom PCR became positive in stools between 2008 and 2009. Conclusions/Significance: T. whipplei is a common bacterium in the Sine-Saloum area of rural Senegal that is contracted early in childhood. Epidemic genotypes suggest a human transmission of the bacterium. © 2011 Keita et al.

Mediannikov O.,Aix - Marseille University | Socolovschi C.,Aix - Marseille University | Bassene H.,Aix - Marseille University | Diatta G.,Aix - Marseille University | And 5 more authors.
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

As malaria cases in Africa decline, other causes of acute febrile illness are being explored. To determine incidence of Borrelia crocidurae infection during June 2010- October 2011, we collected 1,566 blood specimens from febrile patients in Senegal. Incidence was high (7.3%). New treatment strategies, possibly doxycycline, might be indicated for febrile patients.

Ryzhavskii B.Ya.,Far Eastern State Medical University | Litvintseva Ve.M.,Far Eastern State Medical University
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

Here we present the results of histochemical detection of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase in neurons of the neocortex, cerebellum, and brainstem. The positive reaction was observed in a low number of neocortical, midbrain, and pontine neurons. The maximum number of positive neurons was detected in the cerebellar cortex (Purkinje cells) and hippocampus. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media, Inc.

Ryzhavskii B.Y.,Far Eastern State Medical University | Zadvornaya O.V.,Far Eastern State Medical University
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2012

3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase is a key enzyme in the synthesis of steroid hormones in steroid-producing organs, including the brain producing neurosteroids. 3β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity can be a marker of steroid-producing cells. We present the results of histochemical assay of this enzyme in the neocortex, hippocampus, and cerebellar cortex of go nadectomized prepubertal rats. The positive reaction was detected in hippocampal neurons, ganglionic layer cells of the cerebellar cortex (Purkinje cells), and solitary neocortical neurons of male and female rats. Gonadectomy significantly increased enzyme activity in neocortical (layer V) and hippocampal neurons and had no effect on the intensity of the reaction in Purkinje cells. © 2012 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

Ryzhavskii B.Y.,Far Eastern State Medical University
Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine | Year: 2012

Morphometric characteristics and free radical oxidation in neurons of the neocortex and hippocampus of male and female rats were studied 1 month after administration of Sustanon-250 in a dose of 8 mg/kg during the pubertal period of ontogeny. The weight of the brain was shown to decrease in males. In both female and male rats, the width of the anterior parietal lobe and the numerical density of neocortical and hippocampal neurons decreased. Sex differences were found in free radical oxidation in the cerebral cortex. The intensity of this process increased significantly in females, but decreased in males.

Ryzhavskii B.Y.,Far Eastern State Medical University | Lebed'ko O.A.,Far Eastern State Medical University
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2016

We studied the effect of bleomycin (1 mg/kg) in 1-day-old rat pups (single intraperitoneal injection) and 4-day-old pups (3 injections on postnatal days 1, 2, and 3). The formation of hyaline membranes against the background of oxidative stress was documented in all bleomycin-treated rats. Repeated injection of bleomycin (4-day-old pups) led to more pronounced destructive alterations in the lungs characterized by the formation of microcysts and atelectases as well as hypertrophy of the interstitial connective tissue. These alterations persisted in 14-day-old rats. Administration of bleomycin during the neonatal period can be a promising approach to simulation of hyaline membrane disease (respiratory distress syndrome). © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media New York

Lebed'ko O.A.,Far Eastern State Medical University | Ryzhavskii B.Y.,Far Eastern State Medical University | Demidova O.V.,Far Eastern State Medical University
Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine | Year: 2015

We studied the protective effect of antioxidant echinochrome A on bleomycin-induced pulmonary fi brosis in rats at the early stages of postnatal ontogeny. Administration of echinochrome A was shown to reduce the severity of bleomycin-induced oxidative stress in the lungs, prevented the development of hypertrophy of interalveolar connective tissue and peribronchial lymphoid infi ltration, and normalized the ratio of volume densities of interalveolar septa and alveolar lumen. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.

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