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Ribeiro R.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Otte J.,FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific | Madeira S.,The Interdisciplinary Center | Hutchings G.H.,Institute for Animal Health | Boinas F.,The Interdisciplinary Center
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

African swine fever (ASF) is a frequently devastating hemorrhagic disease of domestic pigs and wild boar and Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto argasid ticks are the only biological vectors of African swine fever virus (ASFV) known to occur in Europe. Recently this disease emerged in Eastern Europe and Russian Federation, showing a huge potential for a rapid spread between countries. There is some risk of re-emergence of ASF in the countries where these ticks exist, that can contribute for the persistence of infection and compromise control measures. In this study we aimed to identify factors that determine the probability of infection and its dynamics in the tick vector Ornithodoros erraticus sensu stricto, with two Portuguese strains of ASFV. Our results suggest that these ticks have a high likelihood of excreting the two haemadsorbing ASF viruses of different host origins and that, in field surveys, the analysis of adults and 5th nymphal stage can provide the best chance of detecting virus infection. The results also indicate that infection of pigs with highly virulent ASF viruses will promote higher rates of infection and a higher likelihood for virus excretion by ticks. Nevertheless, there is also a risk, although lower, that ticks can become infected on pigs that have overcome the acute phase of infection, which was simulated in our study by membrane feeding ticks with low titres of virus. We believe these results can be valuable in designing and interpreting the results of ASF control programmes, and future work can also be undertaken as our dataset is released under open access, to perform studies in risk assessment for ASFV persistence in a region where O. erraticus sensu stricto ticks are present. © 2015 Ribeiro et al. Source

Konuma H.,FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

This paper is designed to reflect the current status of food and nutrition security across the world with emphasis on developing and Asian countries and future needs (projection) to attain food and nutrition security. It does so by analysing the FAO database on fruit production and demand analysis upto 2050 and providing recommendations on how we can achieve the future production targets following the Sustainable Crop Production Intensification (SCPI) approach that has been further elaborated and detailed in the "Save and Grow" approach. The basis of this FAO initiative is to produce more but not at the costs of environmental sustainability as it was the case in the past. Source

Welcomme R.L.,Imperial College London | Cowx I.G.,University of Hull | Coates D.,Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity | Bene C.,Worldfish Center | And 3 more authors.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences | Year: 2010

The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production. © 2010 The Royal Society. Source

Kongjaimun A.,Kasetsart University | Kaga A.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Tomooka N.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Somta P.,FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific | And 5 more authors.
Genome | Year: 2012

Yardlong bean (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Sesquipedalis Group) (2n = 2x = 22) is one of the most important vegetable legumes of Asia. The objectives of this study were to develop a genetic linkage map of yardlong bean using SSR makers from related Vigna species and to identify QTLs for pod length. The map was constructed from 226 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. subsp. unguiculata Unguiculata Group), azuki bean (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi), and mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in a BC 1F 1 ((JP81610 × TVnu457) × JP81610) population derived from the cross between yardlong bean accession JP81610 and wild cowpea (Vigna unguiculata subsp. unguiculata var. spontanea) accession TVnu457. The markers were clustered into 11 linkage groups (LGs) spanning 852.4 cM in total length with a mean distance between adjacent markers of 3.96 cM. All markers on LG11 showed segregation distortion towards the homozygous yardlong bean JP81610 genotype. The markers on LG11 were also distorted in the rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) map, suggesting the presence of common segregation distortion factors in Vigna species on this LG. One major and six minor QTLs were identified for pod length variation between yardlong bean and wild cowpea. Using flanking markers, six of the seven QTLs were confirmed in an F 2 population of JP81610 × TVnu457. The molecular linkage map developed and markers linked to pod length QTLs would be potentially useful for yardlong bean and cowpea breeding. © 2012 Published by NRC Research Press. Source

Kassam A.,University of Reading | Li H.,China Agricultural University | Niino Y.,FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific | Friedrich T.,FAO Cuba | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering | Year: 2014

The current growing demand for Conservation Agriculture (CA) at the national level in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region presents an opportunity to promote its widespread adoption and up-scaling through national policy and institutional support that appears necessary. Despite the obvious benefits of CA, it does not spread automatically unless the constraints that hinder adoption are understood and addressed in specific situations. These can include a combination of intellectual, social, financial, biophysical, technical, infrastructure constraints, or policy related support. Knowing what the bottlenecks are is important in developing strategies to overcome them. This paper presents: (a) some of the generic policy opportunities that exist for the adoption and uptake of CA; (b) a summary proceedings and outcome of the Regional Expert Consultation Workshop held in Beijing and sponsored by FAO Regional Office for Asia-Pacific which describes the status of CA in the Asia-Pacific region; (c) the challenges to CA adoption and uptake in the Asia-Pacific region; and (d) the conditions that need to be taken into account in designing and promoting policy and institutional support strategies for up-scaling CA. © 2014, Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering. All rights reserved. Source

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