Review of European Community and International Environmental Law | Year: 2011
With the development of REDD ('Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation') policies, determining who can claim rights over the forest and who will receive the REDD benefits has many implications. While REDD has the potential to benefit them, indigenous peoples are concerned that REDD activities may fail to adequately respect their rights. Several international instruments recognize indigenous peoples' rights to land and their rights are also enforced by courts. However, there is often a gap between the protection granted by international law and how it is implemented in practice. REDD may increase this difference. The following analysis of Guyana's REDD plan illustrates the risks that indigenous peoples may incur. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Euphytica | Year: 2011
Major changes have occurred in the global wheat-rust disease landscape over the last century. At the turn of the twentieth century pioneering rust research was driven by the need to combat devastating stem rust epidemics. A fundamental understanding of rust genetics and dispersal pathways emerged from this early work. Stem rust epidemics were also the driver behind the breeding programs that resulted in the green revolution of the 1960/70s. Successful incorporation of durable stem rust resistance into high yielding semi-dwarf wheat cultivars would change the wheat-rust disease situation beyond recognition. Associated intensification of the wheat cropping systems would also produce dramatic changes. Despite localized outbreaks, by the early 1990s stem rust was a disease under control. During this period of low stem rust incidence, yellow rust began to emerge as a substantial threat. Breakdown of Yr9 resistance resulted in damaging epidemics in Asia; an exotic incursion introduced yellow rust into Australia with highly significant subsequent impacts. The Australian incursion was almost certainly transmitted via an air traveller and the exponential growth in international air travel has increased the probability of other cross-continental movements. By the start of the twenty-first century, new rust threats had emerged. Durable stem rust resistance was broken down by the Ug99 race lineage identified in East Africa; new aggressive strains of yellow rust adapted to warmer temperatures were identified and spread across continents at a rapid rate. As in the past, major rust developments are one driver of global initiatives to mitigate the threat. Climate change and the response of pathogens to changing conditions are possible emerging issues, although other changes may prove to be more significant. Throughout this century of change a consistent theme is the adaptability of wheat-rust pathogens to cause recurring damage. Maintaining the gains of the previous decades will require sustained, collaborative, multi-disciplinary efforts. To keep pace with the evolving threats posed by wheat rusts there is a clear need for continuous vigilance and surveillance of both pathogen and host. Current international monitoring and surveillance efforts are described along with associated challenges. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Public health nutrition | Year: 2011
To present the Mediterranean diet as an example of a sustainable diet, in which nutrition, biodiversity, local food production, culture and sustainability are strongly interconnected. Review of notions and activities contributing towards the acknowledgement of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet. The Mediterranean region and its populations. Mediterranean populations. The acknowledgement of the Mediterranean diet as a sustainable diet needs the development of new cross-cutting intersectoral case studies to demonstrate further the synergies among nutrition, biodiversity and sustainability as expressed by the Mediterranean diet for the benefit of present and future generations.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2010
This article gives a brief review of the development and current situation in global irrigation, and looks at the drivers affecting irrigation performance, development and modernization. The article concludes that the options for new developments are limited, and that future investment will need to be more precisely targeted to specific niches in different agroecological and economic contexts. The paper notes the powerful implications of global climatic change on irrigation through changes in hydrology and water supply that, in conjunction with (1) continued demand for cheap food to satisfy continuously growing populations and changing dietary preferences (projected to 2050) and (2) increasing competition for high reliability water from higher value economic sectors, indicate irrigation performance and the productivity of agricultural water use must further improve, and are also likely to become more targeted at higher value enterprises. Improving management, through better institutions and better technology will require constant adaptation and finessing, with no silver bullets currently on the horizon. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Crop production has fallen up to 90 percent in some regions and failed completely in the country's east, a consequence of an El Nino weather pattern that has caused significant declines in rain in some parts of the world and floods in others. The Rome-based UN Food and Agriculture Organisation said the drought had decimated Ethiopian livestock and threatened food supplies for 10.2 million people. Access to pasture and water will worsen until the rainy season begins in March, FAO said. "The outlook for 2016 is very grim," said FAO representative for Ethiopia Amadou Allahoury. "Food overall will become harder to access if we continue to see prices rise, food stocks deplete and livestock become weaker, less productive, and perish." Brought to its knees by famine in 1984, Ethiopia's economy is now one of the fastest-growing in the world, leaving it better able to deal with such crises. Agriculture also plays a smaller role in the economy, but the FAO says it still provides half of gross domestic product and 80 percent of employment. The agency's plan includes distributing seeds and animal feed, vaccinating animals, delivering 100,000 sheep and goats to vulnerable households and giving farmers cash for bringing weakened and unproductive livestock to slaughter. Communities will be offered support with savings-and-loans schemes, irrigation projects, and education. El Nino, marked by warming sea-surface temperatures in the Pacific Ocean, causes both drought and flooding in Ethiopia. FAO said the latter was expected to be as destructive to agriculture as the lack of rain.