de Benedictis F.M.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria |
de Benedictis D.,Azienda Ospedaliera |
Mirabile L.,Meyer Children Hospital |
Pozzi M.,Azienda Ospedaliero Universitaria |
And 2 more authors.
Pediatric Allergy and Immunology | Year: 2015
Upper airway obstruction is commonly misdiagnosed as asthma. We report on four children with recurrent respiratory symptoms who had been erroneously diagnosed as having asthma and who received anti-asthma medication for several years. The evaluation of spirometry tracing was neglected in all cases. Subglottic stenosis, tracheomalacia secondary to tracheo-esophageal fistula, double aortic arch, and vocal cord dysfunction were suspected by direct inspection of the flow-volume curves and eventually diagnosed. The value of clinical history and careful evaluation of spirometry tracing in children with persistent respiratory symptoms is critically discussed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Viazzi F.,University of Genoa |
Rebora P.,University of Milan Bicocca |
Giussani M.,Family Paediatrician |
Orlando A.,University of Milan Bicocca |
And 7 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2016
Primary hypertension is a growing concern in children because of the obesity epidemic largely attributable to western lifestyles. Serum uric acid is known to be influenced by dietary habits, correlates with obesity, and could represent a risk factor for hypertension. Preliminary studies in children highlighted uric acid as a potentially modifiable risk factor for the prevention and treatment of hypertension. The effect of lifestyle changes (increase of physical activity and dietary modifications) on blood pressure values, weight status, and serum uric acid levels in a cohort of 248 children referred for cardiovascular risk assessment were evaluated over a mean 1.5-year follow-up. At baseline, 48% of children were obese and 50% showed blood pressure values >90th percentile. At follow-up, a significant improvement in weight class (24% obese; P<0.0001) and blood pressure category (22% >90th percentile; P<0.0001) was found. Systolic blood pressure z-score (P<0.0001), uric acid value (P=0.0056), and puberty at baseline (P=0.0048) were independently associated with higher systolic blood pressure z-score at follow-up, whereas a negative association was observed with body mass index z-score decrease during follow-up (P=0.0033). The risk of hypertension at follow-up was associated with body mass index (P=0.0025) and systolic blood pressure (P<0.0001) z-score at baseline and inversely related to delta body mass index (P=0.0002), whereas the risk of showing hypertension ≥99th percentile was more than doubled for each baseline 1 mg/dL increase of serum uric acid (P=0.0130). Uric acid is a powerful determinant of blood pressure over time, independent of lifestyle modifications. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.
Alisi A.,Hepato Metabolic Disease Unit |
Bedogni G.,Clinical Epidemiology Unit |
Baviera G.,Family Paediatrician |
Giorgio V.,Hepato Metabolic Disease Unit |
And 6 more authors.
Alimentary Pharmacology and Therapeutics | Year: 2014
Background Gut microbiota modifiers may have beneficial effects of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) but randomised controlled trials (RCT) are lacking in children. Aim To perform a double-blind RCT of VSL#3 vs. placebo in obese children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. Methods Of 48 randomised children, 44 (22 VSL#3 and 22 placebo) completed the study. The main outcome was the change in fatty liver severity at 4 months as detected by ultrasonography. Secondary outcomes were the changes in triglycerides, insulin resistance as detected by the homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA), alanine transaminase (ALT), body mass index (BMI), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and activated GLP-1 (aGLP-1). Ordinal and linear models with cluster confidence intervals were used to evaluate the efficacy of VSL#3 vs. placebo at 4 months. Results At baseline, moderate and severe NAFLD were present in 64% and 36% of PLA children and in 55% and 45% of VSL#3 children. The probability that children supplemented with VSL#3 had none, light, moderate or severe FL at the end of the study was 21%, 70%, 9% and 0% respectively with corresponding values of 0%, 7%, 76% and 17% for the placebo group (P < 0.001). No between-group differences were detected in triglycerides, HOMA and ALT while BMI decreased and GLP-1 and aGLP1 increased in the VSL#3 group (P < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusions A 4-month supplement of VSL#3 significantly improves NAFLD in children. The VSL#3-dependent GLP-1 increase could be responsible for these beneficial effects. Trial identifier: NCT01650025 (www.clinicaltrial.gov) © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Pieruzzi F.,University of Milan Bicocca |
Antolini L.,University of Milan Bicocca |
Salerno F.R.,University of Milan Bicocca |
Giussani M.,Family Paediatrician |
And 7 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension | Year: 2015
Background: Hypertension and obesity in childhood are related to early cardiac damage, as left ventricular hypertrophy. Few studies have analyzed the independent effects of hypertension and weight excess on diastolic function and left ventricular geometry. Objective: We studied the effects of weight, waist circumference (as an index of fat distribution) and blood pressure on left ventricular mass index, the risk of left ventricular hypertrophy, diastolic function and left ventricular geometry in 526 children (237 girls, age range 6-15 years). Methods: Children were divided into normotensive, prehypertensive and hypertensive (US Nomograms) groups, and into normal-weight, overweight, and obese (International Obesity Task Force classification) groups. Left ventricular mass index, diastolic function and left ventricular geometry were assessed. Results: SBP z-scores and blood pressure categories significantly influenced cardiac mass (P < 0.001 and P = 0.02, respectively) and the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05, respectively). Obesity, BMI, and waist circumference z-scores were significantly associated with an increment in E/E m ratio (P < 0.001, P < 0.01, and P < 0.01, respectively). Increasing blood pressure values and the presence of prehypertension (P < 0.05) and hypertension (P < 0.003), but not weight excess, were associated with concentric cardiac remodeling. In contrast, concentric hypertrophy was associated with hypertension (P < 0.01), obesity (P < 0.001), and increasing waist circumference (P < 001). Conclusions: Blood pressure values and hypertension are independently associated with an increase of cardiac mass and the presence of cardiac hypertrophy. Obesity and waist circumference, but not hypertension, are associated with a worsening of diastolic function, whereas only hypertensive children show high prevalence of concentric remodeling. Blood pressure and body weight and fat distribution have an independent and different impact on left ventricular structure and function in children. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.