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Cleland J.,London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine | Conde-Agudelo A.,National Health Research Institute | Peterson H.,University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill | Ross J.,FutuResearch Group | Tsui A.,Family and Reproductive Health
The Lancet | Year: 2012

Increasing contraceptive use in developing countries has cut the number of maternal deaths by 40% over the past 20 years, merely by reducing the number of unintended pregnancies. By preventing high-risk pregnancies, especially in women of high parities, and those that would have ended in unsafe abortion, increased contraceptive use has reduced the maternal mortality ratio-the risk of maternal death per 100 000 livebirths-by about 26% in little more than a decade. A further 30% of maternal deaths could be avoided by fulfi lment of unmet need for contraception. The benefi ts of modern contraceptives to women's health, including non-contraceptive benefi ts of specifi c methods, outweigh the risks. Contraception can also improve perinatal outcomes and child survival, mainly by lengthening interpregnancy intervals. In developing countries, the risk of prematurity and low birthweight doubles when conception occurs within 6 months of a previous birth, and children born within 2 years of an elder sibling are 60% more likely to die in infancy than are those born more than 2 years after their sibling.


Tsui A.O.,Family and Reproductive Health | McDonald-Mosley R.,Johns Hopkins University | Burke A.E.,Johns Hopkins University
Epidemiologic Reviews | Year: 2010

Family planning is hailed as one of the great public health achievements of the last century, and worldwide acceptance has risen to three-fifths of exposed couples. In many countries, however, uptake of modern contraception is constrained by limited access and weak service delivery, and the burden of unintended pregnancy is still large. This review focuses on family planning's efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies and their health burden. The authors first describe an epidemiologic framework for reproductive behavior and pregnancy intendedness and use it to guide the review of 21 recent, individual-level studies of pregnancy intentions, health outcomes, and contraception. They then review population-level studies of family planning's relation to reproductive, maternal, and newborn health benefits. Family planning is documented to prevent mother-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, contribute to birth spacing, lower infant mortality risk, and reduce the number of abortions, especially unsafe ones. It is also shown to significantly lower maternal mortality and maternal morbidity associated with unintended pregnancy. Still, a new generation of research is needed to investigate the modest correlation between unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use rates to derive the full health benefits of a proven and cost-effective reproductive technology. © 2010 The Author.


Dunkle K.L.,Emory University | Decker M.R.,Family and Reproductive Health
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology | Year: 2013

A growing body of international research documents strong associations between gender-based violence and HIV, both in the general population and among high-risk subpopulations such as female sex workers. The causal pathways responsible are multiple and complex, thus conceptual clarity is needed to best inform population-based, clinical, and individually oriented interventions. Our brief overview is intended to provide an introduction to the research on the various mechanisms that link GBV to HIV risk. We review the evidence, describe the causal pathways, provide a conceptual framework, and outline prevention and intervention priorities at both the individual and population levels. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.


Hindin M.J.,Family and Reproductive Health
Maternal and Child Health Journal | Year: 2014

Preventing unwanted adolescent pregnancy is key for keeping girls in school, leading to a more productive and healthier workforce in sub-Saharan Africa. Gender norms are an important indicator of the status of women and more conservative gender norms are associated with experiencing domestic violence, and poorer maternal and reproductive health care. This paper examines the association between adolescent childbearing and norms towards wife beating in sub-Saharan Africa, and the role of education in moderating this association. Data come from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys-nationally representative cross-sectional surveys conducted every 5 years. Country-by-country multivariable logistic regressions were conducted in 25 countries, and country and regional estimates were obtained using meta-analytical techniques. More than half of sub-Saharan African adolescents have a child, with levels ranging from 23 % in Rwanda to 69 % in Niger. Between 12 and 87 % of women believed wife beating is acceptable. In 20 of the 25 countries, women with a birth during adolescence were significantly more likely to believe wife beating is justified [OR = 1.39; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 130-1.39]. After multivariate adjustment, the overall finding remains statistically significant [AOR = 1.09; 95 % CI 105-1:13]. Education attenuates the observed association. Overall, the effects are strongest and most consistent in West Africa. Results suggest that women who have an adolescent birth more likely to hold more conservative attitudes. Working with adolescents to improve their attitudes on relationship expectations and the importance of furthering their education even after a pregnancy could be integrated into life skills and sexual education curricula. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Galinsky A.M.,Family and Reproductive Health | Waite L.J.,University of Chicago
Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences | Year: 2014

Objectives.The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity.Methods.We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project.Results.We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model.Discussion.The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners. © The Author 2014.


Tuncalp O.,Family and Reproductive Health
Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) | Year: 2012

Prostaglandins have mainly been used for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) when other measures fail. Misoprostol, a new and inexpensive prostaglandin E1 analogue, has been suggested as an alternative for routine management of the third stage of labour. To assess the effects of prophylactic prostaglandin use in the third stage of labour. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (7 January 2011). We updated this search on 25 May 2012 and added the results to the awaiting classification section. Randomised trials comparing a prostaglandin agent with another uterotonic or no prophylactic uterotonic (nothing or placebo) as part of management of the third stage of labour. The primary outcomes were blood loss 1000 mL or more and the use of additional uterotonics. Two review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality and extracted data. We included 72 trials (52,678 women). Oral or sublingual misoprostol compared with placebo is effective in reducing severe PPH (oral: seven trials, 6225 women, not totalled due to significant heterogeneity; sublingual: risk ratio (RR) 0.66; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.45 to 0.98; one trial, 661 women) and blood transfusion (oral: RR 0.31; 95% CI 0.10 to 0.94; four trials, 3519 women).Compared with conventional injectable uterotonics, oral misoprostol was associated with higher risk of severe PPH (RR 1.33; 95% CI 1.16 to 1.52; 17 trials, 29,797 women) and use of additional uterotonics, but with a trend to fewer blood transfusions (RR 0.84; 95% CI 0.66 to 1.06; 15 trials; 28,213 women). Additional uterotonic data were not totalled due to heterogeneity. Misoprostol use is associated with significant increases in shivering and a temperature of 38 o Celsius compared with both placebo and other uterotonics. Oral or sublingual misoprostol shows promising results when compared with placebo in reducing blood loss after delivery. The margin of benefit may be affected by whether other components of the management of the third stage of labour are used or not. As side-effects are dose-related, research should be directed towards establishing the lowest effective dose for routine use, and the optimal route of administration.Neither intramuscular prostaglandins nor misoprostol are preferable to conventional injectable uterotonics as part of the management of the third stage of labour especially for low-risk women; however, evidence has been building for the use of oral misoprostol to be effective and safe in areas with low access to facilities and skilled healthcare providers and future research on misoprostol use in the community should focus on implementation issues.


Morris M.,University of Washington | Wawer M.,Family and Reproductive Health
PLoS ONE | Year: 2010

Background: Higher prevalence of concurrent partnerships is one hypothesis for the severity of the HIV epidemic in the countries of Southern Africa. But measures of the prevalence of concurrency alone do not adequately capture the impact concurrency will have on transmission dynamics. The importance of overlap duration and coital exposure are examined here. Methodology/Principal Findings: We conducted a comparison of data from three studies of sexual behavior carried out in the early 1990s in Uganda, Thailand and the US. Using cumulative concurrency measures, the three countries appeared somewhat similar. Over 50% of both Thai and Ugandan men reported a concurrency within the last three partnerships and over 20% reported a concurrency in the last year, the corresponding rates among US men were nearly 20% for Blacks and Hispanics, and about 10% for other racial/ethnic groups. Concurrency measures that were more sensitive to overlap duration, however, showed large differences. The point prevalence of concurrency on the day of interview was over 10% among Ugandan men compared to 1% for Thai men. Ugandan concurrencies were much longer duration - a median of about two years - than either the Thai (1 day) or US concurrencies (4-9 months across all groups), and involved 5-10 times more coital risk exposure with the less frequent partner. In the US, Blacks and Hispanics reported higher prevalence, longer duration and greater coital exposure than Whites, but were lower than Ugandans on nearly every measure. Together, the differences in the prevalence, duration and coital exposure of concurrent partnerships observed align with the HIV prevalence differentials seen in these populations at the time the data were collected. Conclusions/Significance: There were substantial variations in the patterns of concurrent partnerships within and between populations. More long-term overlapping partnerships, with regular coital exposure, were found in populations with greater HIV epidemic severity. © 2010 Morris et al.


Dorman E.,Family and Reproductive Health
Expert review of pharmacoeconomics & outcomes research | Year: 2012

The biological basis for male contraception was established decades ago, but despite promising breakthroughs and the financial burden men increasingly bear due to better enforcement of child support policies, no viable alternative to the condom has been brought to market. Men who wish to control their fertility must rely on female compliance with contraceptives, barrier methods, vasectomy or abstinence. Over the last 10 years, the pharmaceutical industry has abandoned most of its investment in the field, leaving only nonprofit organisations and public entities pursuing male contraception. Leading explanations are uncertain forecasts of market demand pitted against the need for critical investments to demonstrate the safety of existing candidate products. This paper explores the developments and challenges in male contraception research. We produce preliminary estimates of potential market size for a safe and effective male contraceptive based on available data to estimate the potential market for a novel male method.


Blum R.W.,Family and Reproductive Health
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2014

Recent research has driven home the close relationship between place and health. Geography is often a greater driver of adolescent morbidity and mortality than behavior. To elucidate these relationships, the Well-Being of Adolescents in Vulnerable Environments study has collected and analyzed data on the health and well-being of adolescents' lowest income communities of five cities: Baltimore, United States; Ibadan, Nigeria; Johannesburg, South Africa; New Delhi, India; and Shanghai, China. © 2014 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine.


Mmari K.,Family and Reproductive Health | Sabherwal S.,Family and Reproductive Health
Journal of Adolescent Health | Year: 2013

Purpose To conduct a literature review of studies that examined risk and protective factors related to adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries. Methods A literature search was conducted using multiple databases, including PubMed, PsycINFO, Scopus, JSTOR, and the Interagency Youth Working Group. Review criteria included publications that: were conducted in a low- or middle-income country; had a sample size of at least 100 young people aged 10-24 years, and used multivariate analysis. All studies that were identified were also conducted between 1990 and 2010, a 20-year time frame. The literature search and initial review yielded a total of 244 studies that met the criteria and analyzed risk and protective factors related to the following outcomes: sexual initiation, number of sexual partners, condom use, contraceptive use, pregnancy and early childbearing, human immunodeficiency virus, sexually transmitted infections, and sexual coercion. Results Most studies that were conducted on adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries were largely focused in Sub-Saharan African contexts, and primarily examined factors related to sexual initiation and condom use. Most factors that examined an adolescent sexual and reproductive health outcome were also focused on the individual level, although an increasing number of studies within the past 10 years have focused on family-level factors. Few studies examined factors at the community or neighborhood level, which, to date, has largely been ignored in developing country contexts. Conclusions The review not only summarizes what is currently known in terms of risk and protective factors that relate to adolescent sexual and reproductive health in developing countries, but also highlights the gaps. Implications for future research are discussed. © 2013 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

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