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Dunkle K.L.,Emory University | Decker M.R.,Family and Reproductive Health
American Journal of Reproductive Immunology | Year: 2013

A growing body of international research documents strong associations between gender-based violence and HIV, both in the general population and among high-risk subpopulations such as female sex workers. The causal pathways responsible are multiple and complex, thus conceptual clarity is needed to best inform population-based, clinical, and individually oriented interventions. Our brief overview is intended to provide an introduction to the research on the various mechanisms that link GBV to HIV risk. We review the evidence, describe the causal pathways, provide a conceptual framework, and outline prevention and intervention priorities at both the individual and population levels. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Source

Diamond-Smith N.,University of California at San Francisco | Bishai D.,Family and Reproductive Health
Demography | Year: 2015

Sex ratios in India have become increasingly imbalanced over the past decades. We hypothesize that when sex ratios become very uneven, the shortage of girls will increase girls’ future value, leading sex ratios to self-correct. Using data on children under 5 from the last four Indian censuses, we examine the relationship between the sex ratio at one point in time and the change in sex ratio over the next 10 years by district. Fixed-effects models show that when accounting for unobserved district-level characteristics—including total fertility rate, infant mortality rate, percentage literate, percentage rural, percentage scheduled caste, percentage scheduled tribe, and a time trend variable—sex ratios are significantly negatively correlated with the change in sex ratio in the successive 10-year period. This suggests that self-corrective forces are at work on imbalanced sex ratios in India. © 2014, Population Association of America. Source

Objective(s): Many adolescents in developing countries have an unmet need for contraception, which can contribute to poor reproductive health outcomes. Recent literature reviews have not adequately captured effective contraceptive services and interventions for adolescents in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study aims to identify and evaluate the existing evidence base on contraceptive services and interventions for adolescents in LMICs that report an impact on contraceptive behavior outcomes. Study Design: Structured literature review of published and unpublished papers about contraceptive services and interventions for adolescents in LMICs that report an impact on contraceptive behavior outcomes. Results: We identify common elements used by programs that measured an impact on adolescent contraceptive behaviors and summarize outcomes from 15 studies that met inclusion criteria. Effective programs generally combined numerous program approaches and addressed both user and service provision issues. Overall, few rigorous studies have been conducted in LMICs that measure contraceptive behaviors. Few interventions reach the young, the out of school and other vulnerable groups of adolescents. Conclusion(s): Though the evidence base is weak, there are promising foundations for adolescent contraceptive interventions in nearly every region of the world. We offer recommendations for programmers and identify gaps in the evidence base to guide future research. Source

Galinsky A.M.,Family and Reproductive Health | Waite L.J.,University of Chicago
Journals of Gerontology - Series B Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences | Year: 2014

Objectives.The pathways linking spousal health to marital quality in later life have been little examined at the population level. We develop a conceptual model that links married older adults' physical health and that of their spouse to positive and negative dimensions of marital quality via psychological well-being of both partners and their sexual activity.Methods.We use data from 1,464 older adults in 732 marital dyads in the 2010-2011 wave of the National Social Life Health and Aging Project.Results.We find that own fair or poor physical health is linked to lower positive and higher negative marital quality, spouse's health to positive quality, and that own and spouse's mental health and more frequent sex are associated with higher positive and lower negative marital quality. Further, we find that (a) sexual activity mediates the association between own and partner's physical health and positive marital quality, (b) own mental health mediates the association between one's own physical health and both positive and negative marital quality, and (c) partner's mental health mediates the associations of spouse's physical health with positive marital quality. These results are robust to alternative specifications of the model.Discussion.The results suggest ways to protect marital quality among older adults who are struggling with physical illness in themselves or their partners. © The Author 2014. Source

Tsui A.O.,Family and Reproductive Health | McDonald-Mosley R.,Johns Hopkins University | Burke A.E.,Johns Hopkins University
Epidemiologic Reviews | Year: 2010

Family planning is hailed as one of the great public health achievements of the last century, and worldwide acceptance has risen to three-fifths of exposed couples. In many countries, however, uptake of modern contraception is constrained by limited access and weak service delivery, and the burden of unintended pregnancy is still large. This review focuses on family planning's efficacy in preventing unintended pregnancies and their health burden. The authors first describe an epidemiologic framework for reproductive behavior and pregnancy intendedness and use it to guide the review of 21 recent, individual-level studies of pregnancy intentions, health outcomes, and contraception. They then review population-level studies of family planning's relation to reproductive, maternal, and newborn health benefits. Family planning is documented to prevent mother-child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus, contribute to birth spacing, lower infant mortality risk, and reduce the number of abortions, especially unsafe ones. It is also shown to significantly lower maternal mortality and maternal morbidity associated with unintended pregnancy. Still, a new generation of research is needed to investigate the modest correlation between unintended pregnancy and contraceptive use rates to derive the full health benefits of a proven and cost-effective reproductive technology. © 2010 The Author. Source

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