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Giannakeas V.,University of Toronto | Giannakeas V.,Familial Breast Cancer Research Unit | Lubinski J.,Pomeranian Medical University | Gronwald J.,Pomeranian Medical University | And 13 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

Women with a genetic predisposition to breast cancer may be at increased risk of cancer after exposure to ionizing radiation. It is unclear whether mammography screening increases the risk of breast cancer among BRCA1 and BRCA2 carriers. We identified 2,346 women with a BRCA1 (n = 1844) or BRCA2 (n = 502) mutation and no breast cancer, and we reviewed their history of mammography exposure. These women were followed for an average of 5.3 years and were observed for new breast cancer diagnoses. At study entry, 1808 women (77.1 %) reported ever having had a mammogram; of these, 204 women (11.2 %) reported having had a mammogram before age 30. We estimated the hazard ratios for the development of invasive breast cancer, conditional on the number of prior mammograms and on the age at first mammogram. Hazard ratios were estimated and stratified by gene (BRCA1 or BRCA2), relative to women with no exposure. We observed no significant association between prior mammography exposure and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 carriers (HR 0.79; 95 % CI 0.53-1.19; P = 0.26) or for BRCA2 carriers (HR 0.90; 95 % CI 0.35-2.34; P = 0.83). An early age at first mammogram (<30 years) did not increase breast cancer risk among BRCA1 carriers (HR 0.75; 95 % CI 0.41-1.37; P = 0.35) or among BRCA2 carriers (HR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.19-2.48; P = 0.57). Exposure to mammography in women with BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations is not associated with an increased risk of breast cancer. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media.


Abugattas J.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Neoplasicas | Llacuachaqui M.,Familial Breast Cancer Research Unit | Allende Y.S.,Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Neoplasicas | Allende Y.S.,Peruvian University of Applied Sciences | And 12 more authors.
Clinical Genetics | Year: 2015

The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast cancer patients in Peru has not yet been explored. We enrolled 266 women with breast cancer from a National cancer hospital in Lima, Peru, unselected for age or family history. DNA was screened with a panel of 114 recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations (HISPANEL). Among the 266 cases, 13 deleterious mutations were identified (11 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2), representing 5% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 44years. BRCA1 185delAG represented 7 of 11 mutations in BRCA1. Other mutations detected in BRCA1 included: two 2080delA, one 943ins10, and one 3878delTA. The BRCA2 3036del4 mutation was seen in two patients. Given the relatively low cost of the HISPANEL test, one should consider offering this test to all Peruvian women with breast or ovarian cancer. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.


Wong-Brown M.W.,Hunter Medical Research Institute | Meldrum C.J.,Pathology North | Carpenter J.E.,University of Sydney | Clarke C.L.,University of Sydney | And 5 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2015

Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC) lack expression of oestrogen, progesterone and HER2 receptors. The gene expression profiles of TNBCs are similar to those of breast tumours in women with BRCA1 mutations. Reports to date indicate that up to 20 % of TNBC patients harbour germline BRCA mutations; however, the prevalence of BRCA mutations in TNBC patients varies widely between countries and from study to study. We studied 774 women with triple-negative breast cancer, diagnosed on average at age 58.0 years. Samples of genomic DNA were provided by the Australian Breast Cancer Tissue Bank (ABCTB) (439 patients) and by the Department of Genetics and Pathology of the Pomeranian Medical University (335 patients). The entire coding regions and the exon–intron boundaries of BRCA1 and BRCA2 were amplified and sequenced by next-generation sequencing. We identified a BRCA1 or BRCA2 mutation in 74 of 774 (9.6 %) triple-negative patients. The mutation prevalence was 9.3 % in Australia and was 9.9 % in Poland. In both countries, the mean age of diagnoses of BRCA1 mutation carriers was significantly lower than that of non-carriers, while the age of onset of BRCA2 mutation carriers was similar to that of non-carriers. In the Australian cohort, 59 % of the mutation-positive patients did not have a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, and would not have qualified for genetic testing. The triple-negative phenotype should be added as a criterion to genetic screening guidelines. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


PubMed | Familial Breast Cancer Research Unit, Beckman Research Institute and Instituto Nacional Of Enfermedades Neoplasicas
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Clinical genetics | Year: 2015

The prevalence of BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations among breast cancer patients in Peru has not yet been explored. We enrolled 266 women with breast cancer from a National cancer hospital in Lima, Peru, unselected for age or family history. DNA was screened with a panel of 114 recurrent Hispanic BRCA mutations (HISPANEL). Among the 266 cases, 13 deleterious mutations were identified (11 in BRCA1 and 2 in BRCA2), representing 5% of the total. The average age of breast cancer in the mutation-positive cases was 44years. BRCA1 185delAG represented 7 of 11 mutations in BRCA1. Other mutations detected in BRCA1 included: two 2080delA, one 943ins10, and one 3878delTA. The BRCA2 3036del4 mutation was seen in two patients. Given the relatively low cost of the HISPANEL test, one should consider offering this test to all Peruvian women with breast or ovarian cancer.


PubMed | Carmel Medical Center and Familial Breast Cancer Research Unit
Type: Review | Journal: Gynecologic oncology | Year: 2016

Epithelial ovarian cancers can be divided into the more common, aggressive type II cancers and the less common, slow-growing type I cancers. Under this model, serous ovarian carcinomas can be subdivided into high-grade (type II) and low-grade (type I) tumours. The two-tier system for grading serous ovarian carcinomas is superior to more detailed grading systems in terms of predicting survival. Low-grade serous carcinomas typically present in young women and have a relatively good prognosis, despite being resistant to chemotherapy. Low-grade serous cancers have a high prevalence of KRAS and BRAF mutations, but a low prevalence of TP53 mutations (which are characteristic of high-grade serous cancers). Among women with low-grade serous ovarian cancer, the presence of a KRAS/BRAF mutation is a favorable prognostic factor. Studies of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor in low-grade serous ovarian cancer suggest that identifying MAPK mutations might eventually be useful in guiding treatment.


Jerzak K.J.,University of Toronto | Cockburn J.,Juravinski Cancer Center | Pond G.R.,Juravinski Cancer Center | Pritchard K.I.,University of Toronto | And 5 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2014

We determined the expression of two transcriptional variants of thyroid hormone receptor alpha (THRα1 and THRα2) in samples from a cohort of breast cancer patients and correlated expression levels with survival. 130 women who were diagnosed with invasive breast carcinoma between 2007 and 2008 were included. Representative sections of their tumours were analyzed in triplicate on a tissue microarray for expression of THRα1 and THRα2 by immunohistochemistry. The prognostic significance of THRα1 and THRα2 expression was assessed using Kaplan–Meier survival analyses, adjusted for known prognostic factors. Seventy-four percent of tumours had high expression of THRα1 (Allred score ≥6) and 40 % had high expression of THRα2. Expression of THRα2 correlated positively with ER expression (p < 0.001) and with PR expression (p < 0.001), but negatively with HER2 expression (p = 0.018). Patients with low THRα2 expression had inferior 5-year overall survival (75.3 %) compared to those with high expression (91.7 %; p = 0.06). In a multivariate model, high THRα2 expression was a significant and independent prognosticator of improved overall survival (HR = 0.84; 95 % CI 0.71–0.98). Many breast tumours express THRα2 at high levels and these patients experience improved survival. Thyroid hormone signalling may be important in a proportion of breast cancers and THRα2 expression may be a regulator of signalling in this pathway. © 2014, Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Shai A.,Lin and Carmel Medical Centers | Segev Y.,Familial Breast Cancer Research Unit | Narod S.A.,Familial Breast Cancer Research Unit
Familial Cancer | Year: 2014

Women who report a history of endometrial cancer in a first-degree relative are at increased risk of endometrial cancer, with a hazard ratio of 1.5 to 2.0. Only a minority of patients with familial endometrial cancer have a recognized cancer syndrome. Lynch syndrome is the most common genetic syndrome associated with endometrial cancer and a marked increased risk of colon cancer. Cowden syndrome is a rare condition resulting from a mutation in the tumor suppressor gene phosphatase and tensin homolog. The risk for endometrial cancer is about five times higher in women with Cowden syndrome than in the general population. Recently, a novel germline mutation in the POLD1 gene that encodes the catalytic subunit of DNA polymerase δ was described in several families with multiple cases of endometrial cancer. This mutation is also associated with colorectal cancer. The association between BRCA1 mutations and endometrial cancer has been investigated in several studies; it appears that the risk of endometrial cancer is restricted to women with a history of tamoxifen exposure. In recent years, research has focused on genetic polymorphisms that are associated with endometrial cancer risk. Although many polymorphisms have been identified, their clinical significance is unclear and they have not been adapted for clinical practice. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

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