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São José do Rio Preto, Brazil

Fochi M.M.L.,Immunogenetics Laboratory | Fochi M.M.L.,FAMERP Toxoplasma Research Group | Baring S.,Obstetrics and Gynecology Service | Spegiorin L.C.J.F.,Obstetrics and Gynecology Service | And 7 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Gestational Toxoplasma gondii infection is considered a major risk factor for miscarriage, prematurity and low birth weight in animals. However, studies focusing on this topic in humans are scarce. The objective of this study is to determine whether anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles correlate prematurity and low birth weight in humans. The study examined 213 pregnant women seen at the High-Risk Pregnancy Hospital de Base, São José do Rio Preto, São Paulo, Brazil. All serological profiles (IgM-/IgG+; IgM-/IgG-; IgM +/IgG+) were determined by ELISA commercial kits. Maternal age, gestational age and weight of the newborn at birth were collected and recorded in the Statement of Live Birth. Prematurity was defined as gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight ≤ 2499 grams. The t-test was used to compare values (p < 0.05). The mean maternal age was 27.6±6.6 years. Overall, 56.3% (120/213) of the women studied were IgM-/IgG+, 36.2% (77/213) were IgM-/IgG- and 7.5% (16/213) were IgM+/IgG+. The average age of the women with serological profile IgM+/IgG+ (22.3±3.9 years) was different from women with the profile IgM-/IgG+ (27.9±6.7 years, p = 0.0011) and IgM-/IgG- (27.9±6.4 years, p = 0.0012). There was no statistically significant difference between the different serological profiles in relation to prematurity (p = 0.6742) and low birth weight (p = 0.7186). The results showed that prematurity and low birth weight did not correlate with anti-Toxoplasma gondii maternal serum profiles. Copyright: © 2015 Fochi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Barbosa A.P.,Retinopathy Outpatient Clinic | Barbosa A.P.,FAMERP Toxoplasma Research Group | Frederico F.B.,Retinopathy Outpatient Clinic | Frederico F.B.,Laboratory of Immunogenetics | And 17 more authors.
Scientia Medica | Year: 2015

Aims: To describe the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in peripheral blood and demonstrate its importance in the clinical follow-up of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis. Case description: Two immunocompetent patients were clinically diagnosed with acute ocular toxoplasmosis. The routine clinical evaluation consisted of fundus examination using binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy, color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography, and spectral domain optical coherence tomography. The serological diagnosis was made by ELISA (IgM, IgG) and confirmed by ELFA (IgG, IgM). The molecular diagnosis was made by PCR in peripheral blood using the B1 gene of Toxoplasma gondii as marker. The younger patient was male, had previous lesion in the right eye, complained of low visual acuity in the left eye and was under treatment. The older patient was male, had retinal detachment, and presented with sudden loss of acuity in the right eye. The fundus examination revealed chorioretinal scar in the left eye. IgG was reactive, IgM was non-reactive, and PCR was positive in the peripheral blood of both patients. New blood samples were collected for serological and molecular monitoring and PCR remained positive in both cases. Six weeks after treatment with oral sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine, the PCR yielded negative results. Conclusions: The results show that T. gondii antigens may be found in peripheral blood during ocular reactivations and that PCR may be a good tool for the follow-up of patients with ocular toxoplasmosis.

Previato M.,Immunogenetics Laboratory | Previato M.,FAMERP Toxoplasma Research Group | Frederico F.B.,Retinopathy Outpatient Clinic | Frederico F.B.,FAMERP Toxoplasma Research Group | And 17 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2015

Background: Toxoplasmosis was recently included as a neglected disease by the Center for Disease Control. Ocular toxoplasmosis is one clinical presentation of congenital or acquired infection. The laboratory diagnosis is being used worldwide to support the clinical diagnosis and imaging. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of serology and molecular methods to monitor acute OT in immunocompetent patients during treatment. Methods: Five immunocompetent patients were clinically diagnosed with acute OT. The clinical evaluation was performed by ophthalmologic examination using the Early Treatment Diabetic Retinopathy Study, best-corrected visual acuity, slit lamp biomicroscopy, fundoscopic examination with indirect binocular ophthalmoscopy color fundus photography, fluorescein angiography and spectral optical coherence tomography (OCT). Serology were performed by ELISA (IgA, IgM, IgG) and confirmed by ELFA (IgG, IgM). Molecular diagnoses were performed in peripheral blood by cPCR using the Toxoplasma gondii B1 gene as the marker. Follow-up exams were performed on day +15 and day +45. Results: Only five non-immunocompromised male patients completed the follow up and their data were used for analysis. The mean age was 41.2 ± 11.3 years (median: 35; range 31-54 years). All of them were positive for IgG antibodies but with different profiles for IgM and IgA, as well as PCR. For all patients the OCT exam showed active lesions with the inner retinal layers being abnormally hyper-reflective with full-thickness disorganization of the retinal reflective layers, which assumed a blurred reflective appearance and the retina was thickened. Conclusions: The presence of IgA and IgM confirmed the acute infection and thus was in agreement with the clinical evaluation. Our results show the adopted treatment modified the serological profile of IgM antibodies and the PCR results, but not the IgG and IgA antibodies and that imaging is a good tool to follow-up patients. © 2015 Previato et al.

Ayo C.M.,Immunogenetics Laboratory | Ayo C.M.,FAMERP Toxoplasma Research Group | Da Silveira Camargo A.V.,Immunogenetics Laboratory | Da Silveira Camargo A.V.,FAMERP Toxoplasma Research Group | And 14 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

This study investigated whether polymorphisms of the MICA (major histocompatibility complex class I chain-related gene A) gene are associated with eye lesions due to Toxoplasma gondii infection in a group of immunocompetent patients fromsoutheastern Brazil. The study enrolled 297 patients with serological diagnosis of toxoplasmosis. Participants were classified into two distinct groups after conducting fundoscopic exams according to the presence (n = 148) or absence (n = 149) of ocular scars/lesions due to toxoplasmosis. The group of patients with scars/lesions was further subdivided into two groups according to the type of the ocularmanifestation observed: primary (n = 120) or recurrent (n = 28). Genotyping of the MICA and HLA alleles was performed by the polymerase chain reaction-sequence specific oligonucleotide technique (PCR-SSO; One Lambda1) and the MICA-129 polymorphism (rs1051792) was identified by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR-RFLP). Significant associations involvingMICA polymorphisms were not found. Although the MICA∗002~HLA-B∗35 haplotype was associated with increased risk of developing ocular toxoplasmosis (P-value = 0.04; OR = 2.20; 95%CI = 1.05-4.60), and the MICA∗008∼HLA-C∗07 haplotype was associated with protection against the development ofmanifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis (P-value = 0.009; OR: 0.44; 95%CI: 0.22-0.76), these associations were not statistically significant after adjusting for multiple comparisons. MICA polymorphisms do not appear to influence the development of ocular lesions in patients diagnosed with toxoplasmosis in this study population. © 2015 Ayo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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