Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: NMP-02-2015 | Award Amount: 8.65M | Year: 2016
Wear and corrosion of materials causes losses of 3-4% of GDP in developed countries and billions of Euros are spent annually on capital replacement and control methods for wear and corrosion infrastructure. As a result many important industries are dependent on surface engineering of protective coatings, making it one of the main critical technologies underpinning the competitiveness of EU industry. There are 2 main techniques that dominate the protective coatings sector: hard chromium (HC) plating and thermal spray (TS). However, HC plating faces a series of issues with most important the extremely negative health and environmental impact leading to the EC restriction of this method for using Cr\6 by the end of 2017. Similarly, recent toxicity studies concerning Co-WC cermet applied by TP have revealed that Co-WC particles are toxic in a dose/time-dependent manner. Consequently, there is the necessity of finding new, less hazardous methods and materials exhibiting the same or better performance compared to existing ones. The PROCETS project will took advantage of the use of nano-particles for production of composite coatings with superior properties compared to those of HC produced by electroplating or to Co-WC produced by TS. These novel nano-particles will be incorporated into existing production lines after appropriate modifications. The new procedures will be easily transferred by minor adaption to the present electroplating and TS facilities, and will combine flexibility and mass customization abilities, restrict environmental and health hazards and finally be available at acceptable cost. Thus, PROCETS main target is to deliver protective coatings covering a wide range of applications such as automotive, aerospace, metal-working, oil and gas and cutting tools industries via thermal spray and electroplating methods by utilizing more environmental friendly materials, compared to the currently used.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP-IP | Phase: NMP-2008-4.0-3 | Award Amount: 6.15M | Year: 2009
The basic scientific and technological concept of the project is to use agglomerated nanophased powders to be transferred onto a substrate in the form a coating with very little or none change of crystal structure. This will allow to obtain nano-structured coatings with a crystal size very close to the powder one. The concept will be extended to an important breakthrough concept that is the Supersonic deposition of nanostructured surfaces using multifunctional reactive aggregated nanopowders for coating deposition: the residual chemical energy stored inside the material (uncompleted chemical reactions) can be developed during the deposition to assist deformation effects and contributing to bond together particles onto the substrate via creep/liquid phase sintering mechanisms. Many different systems will be explored pertaining to the aeronautical, mechanical and biomedical fields. The main S/T objectives of the project are: Materials design of based on performance requirements; Development of agglomerated (typically 20-50 microns size) nanophased powder classes (crystal sizes 10-20 nm) suitable for deposition using cold spraying containing either solid lubricants and/or residual chemical enthalpy in proper metal matrix; Cold spraying process development for the reactive deposition (wide range of adds in temperature), and self lubricating nanostructured coatings (synthesis of new nanocomposite materials); Development of three classes of nanostructured coatings for very relevant tribological applications (with self lubricating properties, abrasion and fretting resistance, biocompatibility) which suffer from a complete lack of solutions in the fields of bearings, machines parts and medical devices; The above objectives relates perfectly to the call content since it is intended to develop: novel nanostructured coatings; improved wear behaviour; chemical inertness; new generation of solid lubricants and tribological materials
Achanta S.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Achanta S.,Falex Tribology N.V |
Feuerbacher M.,Jülich Research Center |
Grishin A.,KTH Royal Institute of Technology |
And 2 more authors.
Intermetallics | Year: 2010
New materials with tunable physical, mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties are attractive for many applications and stand as prospective substitutes for the existing engineering materials. In that respect, complex metallic alloys (CMA) have recently demonstrated promising traits where a myriad of physical, mechanical, chemical properties can be obtained by altering the structure. CMA's have a large crystal size with thousands of atoms per unit cell. In this work, some mechanical properties and tribological behavior of Al3Mg2 based CMA are discussed. The surface characterization, deformation mode, mechanical and tribological properties of bulk and thin film Al3Mg2 materials are investigated, and compared with existing engineering materials. The results revealed a contrasting tribological behavior of Al3Mg2 when used as either bulk material or as coating. Al3Mg2 coatings act as a low friction solid lubricant under certain conditions, with a coefficient of friction comparable to that of diamond-like carbon coatings. It is suggested that the quasi-crystalline nature of Al3Mg2-coatings renders the surface stiff and that the characteristics of the wear debris generated are responsible for the low friction behavior. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME | Phase: SME-1 | Award Amount: 1.52M | Year: 2010
The objective of the proposed research is to develop improved functionality and new coating applications for aluminium anodisation processes in surface engineering. Project will advance recent innovations towards preparation of ordered nanoporous, nanostructured materials using anodisation methods and applying them to develop commercially relevant novel materials and address the market potential for these improved materials. The nanostructuring process is the growth, during the anodising process, of nanoporous films consisting of well-ordered pores of Anodic Al Oxide in hexagonally close-packed distribution with large aspect ratio. The concept of self-assembly is not yet implemented in actual anodising Al processes due to a number of bottle-necks; project aims at developing pilot line equipment and methodologies enabling to overcome them. The objective is to solve actual market needs by achieving the single stage treatment and industrial evaluation of nanostructured aluminium alloys. The overall research methodology of the Nanocoat project will follow a progression from detailed laboratory studies through scale-up to applications testing on industrial aluminium grades under industrial relevant conditions, to evaluate their structural and functional characteristics, the reproducibility of the process, and to deliver to end-users suitable test structures as predemonstrators. It is expected that on controlling the formation of the anodised nano-size cell structures on aluminium it will be possible to achieve novel performance in terms of adherence, wettability, corrosion and wear, and adsorption/absorption properties. The scope of applications is very large in the field of surface engineering. The specific anodising markets to be addressed during the project are concerned with improved functionality and new coatings for traditional anodisation processes. In addition, new markets will be assessed, which are based on the enhanced performance of these coatings.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: BSG-SME-AG | Phase: SME-2013-2 | Award Amount: 2.28M | Year: 2013
The total annual estimated direct cost of corrosion, not including wear damage, in the worlds is estimated at about 3.1% of the worlds Gross Domestic Product (GDP). Protective coatings serve to prevent wear and corrosion and thus reduce the total loss from corrosion and wear. Hard chromium plating is one of the most widely used techniques for production of such coatings. However, hard chromium faces many problems: EU restrictions due to use hexavalent chromium, health issues for the plating industry personnel due to cancers events, functional defects of the coatings and low current efficiency. Thus, there is an urgent need to substitute chrome plating with an alternative one that could provide the same or even enhanced benefits that chrome has, without causing the above problems. The target of the project is to eliminate the use of hard chromium plating in European electroplating industry by delivering a suitable alternative, which will be the nano structured Ni-P and Ni-P composite coatings (with SiC or WC as reinforcing nanoparticles). The successful outcome of the HardAlt project will lead to the restriction or even elimination of the use of hexavalent chromium in electrodeposition industry and will not be subjected in EU legislations. As HardAlt coatings will present equal or even enhanced functional properties compared to hard chrome, they will be adopted by the metal working industry in applications where wear and corrosion resistance is of crucial importance. Significant benefit will be the customization of the HardAlt coatings in the need of each application using the same bath leading to raw materials saving and minimization of wastes from electroplating industry.
Georgiou E.P.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Achanta S.,Falex Tribology NV |
Dosta S.,University of Barcelona |
Fernandez J.,University of Barcelona |
And 4 more authors.
Applied Surface Science | Year: 2013
A nanostructured cermet coating consisting of alumina dispersed in a Fe-Cu-Al matrix was deposited by supersonic spraying. The experiments revealed a strong effect of deposition parameters and chemical composition of the powders on the structural characteristics of the Fe-Cu-Al + Al2O3 sprayed cermet. This cermet is made up of complex metallurgical phases as revealed by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The mechanical properties of the different phases detected were determined by nanoindentation. Finally, the friction and wear behavior of this nanostructured sprayed cermet were compared to the ones of benchmark materials. It was found that the Fe-Cu-Al + Al2O3 cermet coating exhibit better tribological properties than the benchmark materials thanks to an appropriate balance of hard and soft phases, and a nanostructuring. The wear mechanism was investigated to establish a 'structure-property' relationship for this type of nanostructured cermet coatings. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Beake B.D.,Micro Materials Ltd |
Achanta S.,Falex Tribology NV |
Liskiewicz T.W.,University of Leeds
Tribology - Materials, Surfaces and Interfaces | Year: 2010
Microtribological experiments are currently becoming an important tool in the tribological practice by offering maximum experimental benefits with minimum technical complexity. In this perspective paper several microtribological case studies are presented to illustrate potential methodologies. Results are presented and discussed in relation to: nanoscratch and nanowear experiments, accelerated nanowear technique, nano-impact test and method of capturing topography and material phase features. Two commercially available systems are used in this study, namely, NanoTest Platform and MUST tester. A general classification of tribological techniques has been proposed distinguishing between classical tribometers, atomic force microscopy based techniques and microtribometers. © 2010 Maney Publishing.
Achanta S.,Falex Tribology N.V. |
Jungk M.,Dow Corning |
Drees D.,Falex Tribology N.V.
Tribology International | Year: 2011
Greases are widely used in machinery and automotive components to protect components from frictional and wear losses. As a result, interaction properties like adhesion to the substrate, cohesion or consistency, and tackiness become crucial factors and often dictate their performance. All these properties are related to microstructural aspects of grease like thickener network, wetting agents, and additives. The aim of this paper is to use approachretraction experiments for qualitative/quantitative determination of the above mentioned properties and also understand the influence of grease constituents on these properties. It was found that among all the grease constituents, the thickener in particular dictates the cohesiveness and tackiness of a grease with less influence on the adhesion. The effect of thickener on the lubricating properties of the greases was not clear, which supports the notion that oil in the grease provides the lubrication and thickener to be a carrier. The data on cohesiveness/consistency obtained from this approachretraction experimental method correlate with the traditional cone penetration tests thus validating this methodology. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Maliar T.,Vilnius University |
Achanta S.,Falex Tribology N.V. |
Cesiulis H.,Vilnius University |
Drees D.,Falex Tribology N.V.
Industrial Lubrication and Tribology | Year: 2015
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate the tribological behaviour of commercially available SAE 10 mineral and rapeseed oils containing Fe particles synthesized directly in the oil phase. Design/methodology/approach - Sub-micron Fe particles (50-340 nm) were synthesized by wet chemical reduction reaction of FeSO4 by sodium borohydride in the rapeseed and mineral oils in the presence of surfactant: block copolymer (ENB 90R4) or oxyethylated alcohol (OS-20). A four-ball wear tribometer was used to investigate the tribological properties of mineral and rapeseed oil: coefficient of friction (COF), wear scar diameter and wear loss. Viscosity measurements of oil solutions and determination of synthesized Fe particles size were performed as well. Findings - The presence of Fe particles (0.1 weight per cent) in the rapeseed and mineral oils caused the little change in the COF but resulted in marked improvement of anti-wear property. The oils containing Fe particles with slightly higher viscosity are giving more friction due to viscous drag. The anti-wear enhancement is attributed to the formation of tribofilm and superior load-bearing capability of the modified oil. Both rapeseed and mineral oils irrespective of used surfactant in the presence of 0.1 weight per cent Fe particles (50-140 nm) show sufficiently improved anti-wear properties. Originality/value - The data collection about tribological behaviour of oils containing Fe particles and various additives in lubricants has a practical interest. The findings could be helpful to increase the knowledge of the behaviour of real tribological systems, where the metallic debris are generated during friction and contaminate the lubricating oil. © 2015 Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
Achanta S.,Catholic University of Leuven |
Achanta S.,Falex Tribology NV |
Celis J.-P.,Catholic University of Leuven
Wear | Year: 2010
Friction at different force, length, and time scales is of great interest in tribology. The mechanical, chemical, and physical (atomic) interactions, each operating at their own force and length scale, make friction a highly scale dependent event. This work is an attempt to trace important mechanisms of friction on commonly used engineering materials over a normal force scale ranging from nN up to N, and thereby altering the contact size from nm2 up to mm2. The relevance of existing theories on friction is verified on different engineering surfaces taking into account mechanical (hard/hard, hard/soft), chemical, and physical aspects of the sliding surfaces. The applicability of Amontons' law is experimentally investigated. For rough surfaces it was found that the existence of a constant coefficient of friction over a wide force and length scales is only a special case. For a hard/hard tribosystem (like DLC/Si3N4), a linear dependence of friction on normal force was observed, whereas a non-linear relationship was more evident on hydrophilic surfaces and hard/soft couples. Irrespective of the material system considered, the dependence of friction on normal force can be altered by modifying the surface roughness or texture of the material couple. In all, changes in the force and length scales bring about significant changes in the governing mechanisms of friction. The experimental findings were in good agreement with recent elasto-plastic and fractal contact mechanical theories on friction. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.