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Faisalābād, Pakistan

Niaz M.,The University of Faisalabad | Iftikhar T.,The University of Faisalabad | Tabassum R.,Faisalabad | Zia M.A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
International Journal of Agriculture and Biology | Year: 2010

The production potential of Bacillus licheniformis strain RT7YC for extracellular α-amylase was analyzed through solid state fermentation. Enzyme concentration produced under varying concentrations of substrate and ecological variables was calculated by using DNS and starch-iodine methods. The maximum production of α-amylase was obtained at 20% wheat bran. It was observed that corn steep liquor was found as best nitrogen source for α-amylase production. It was also found that enzyme was stable at 60°C when treated for 10 min. Moreover, it was also much stable at 10 mM concentration of CaCl2. © 2010 Friends Science Publishers.

Sagheer M.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Ali K.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Hasan M.-U.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | Rashid A.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 2 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Zoology | Year: 2013

Acetone extracts of four plants, Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco), Pegnum hermala (Hermal), Saussurea costus (Kust-e-shireen) and Salsola baryosma (Khar booti) at different concentrations viz., 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% were evaluated for their repellent and toxicological effects against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst). The results showed that the highest percent repellency (93.33%) was achieved in N. tabacum extract followed by S. baryosma, P. hermala and S. costus. The highest mortality (6.69%) was recorded in N. tabacum extract at 10% concentration after an interval of 72 hours. In conclusion, N. tabacum and S. baryosma extracts are more effective in terms of their repellent and toxicant action against T. castaneum than those of P. hermala and S. costus and could be recommended for the management of red flour beetle in integration with other control measures. © 2013 Zoological Society of Pakistan.

File photo of a boy (L) guiding his herd of cows while heading to his village on the outskirts of Mithi, in the Sindh province March 12, 2014. "Had I stayed behind in my village, my family would have been starving," the 45-year-old said. "I thought better to move to the city and try my luck." An unusually warm and nearly dry Pakistan winter, with rainfall just a third of normal, has ruined crops and made life increasingly hard for the country’s small-scale farmers, experts say. Many farmers say they are struggling to adapt to increasingly unreliable weather, and in many cases have had to migrate to cities and towns to find jobs to help them survive. "I feel really unable to keep pace with weather patterns that are shifting so rapidly,” said Khan, who comes from Gujar Khan, a village about 55 kilometers (35 miles) from the capital. Late season heavy rain in mid-February and scattered snow in the mountains of northern Pakistan have raised some hopes of recovery, but have also led to new problems, including a late surge of weeds, farmers say. Now “we have to buy herbicides to fight the weeds,” bemoaned Karam Nawaz, a maize farmer in Sialkot district, in the lower northeastern parts of the country. Rab Nawaz Gujar, who grows mustard, pulses and barley on 78 hectares (192 acres) in the suburbs of Chakwal, in Pakistan’s northeast, predicted harvests of winter crops would be down in his area by half. Winter rains this year were two months late and rainfall has been nearly 65 percent below normal since January 1, said Ghulam Rasul, director general at the Pakistan Meteorological Department. He predicted that could cut winter harvests of some crops by at least 30 percent. About a quarter of Pakistan’s farmland is entirely dependent on rainfall to provide enough water, and in those areas farmers growing wheat, maize, mustard, pulses and vegetables may not be able to save much of their crop, said Sirat Asghar, a former Pakistan agriculture secretary. Pakistan’s key wheat crop, sown between October and December and harvested in March and April, is likely to see a decline from an expected 26 million tonnes to 23 million tonnes, agriculture officials said. "The worst impacts of dry and warm winter have come for wheat farmers,” Ibrahim Mughal, chairman of the Pakistan Agri Forum, a farmers’ non-governmental organization, told Thomson Reuters Foundation by phone from Lahore. Khuda Buksh, an agriculture scientist at Faisalabad Agriculture University, in central Pakistan, said the expected decline in harvests could trigger a spike in wheat prices, and some poor rural households would find it difficult to harvest or buy enough to meet their needs. "Sensing the precarious scenario of household food insecurity, many male family members have already headed toward nearby urban areas in search of jobs to tackle the emerging situation,” he said in a telephone interview. Weather scientists at the Pakistan Meteorological Department blame the extended dry winter conditions on a combination of global warming-induced climate change and a strong El Niño phenomenon. "The country has suffered so much because of the El Niño,” Rasul, of the Pakistan Meteorological Department, said in an interview. He predicted, however, that the phenomenon would largely have passed by April.

Ali M.A.,Wheat Research Institute | Ali M.A.,University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna | Jabran K.,Faisalabad | Awan S.I.,Jammu University | And 6 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2011

Sorghum grown under rain-fed conditions is usually affected by drought stress at different stages resulting in negative effect on yield. The assessment and quantification of morpho-physiological diversity for the traits contributing towards drought tolerance at these stages is of vital importance. For this purpose, drought stress was imposed on 44 sorghum accessions at seedling stage and natural incidence of water stress at post anthesis stage. The data of 21 different morpho-physiological traits were subjected to different multivariate techniques, including correlation, principal component (PC) and cluster analysis to assess the diversity for drought tolerance in sorghum. The correlation analysis revealed that selection for long roots; higher root/shoot ratio, leaf area and leaf dry matter could be performed simultaneously. There was positive association between relative water contents and cell membrane stability but both of these traits were negatively correlated with residual transpiration and excised leaf weight loss. Principal component (PC) analysis showed first 7 PCs having Eigen value >1 explaining 77.653% of the total variation with head width, head weight, grain yield per plant, fresh and dry shoot weight being the most important characters in PC1. Cluster analysis classified 44 accessions into four divergent groups. The members of first two clusters exhibited adequate degree of drought tolerance on the basis of majority of morpho-physiological traits, whereas, cluster 3 and 4 included genotypes with lower level of drought tolerance. The D2 statistics revealed the highest distances between 2nd and 3rd clusters, while 3rd and 4th clusters displayed maximum similarity. Scatter plot and tree diagrams demonstrated sufficient diversity among the sorghum accession for various traits and some extent of association between different clusters. The results concluded that morpho-physiological diversity in the studied material is structured by genotypes and this diversity could be utilized for cultivar breeding and germplasm conservation programs aimed at improving drought tolerance in sorghum.

Latif M.I.,Faisalabad | Ahmad T.,Faisalabad | Muhammad G.,Faisalabad | Saleemi M.K.,University of Agriculture at Faisalabad | And 3 more authors.
Pakistan Journal of Life and Social Sciences | Year: 2014

The present study was designed to compare the therapeutic effectiveness of zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) alone and in combination with enrofloxacin for the treatment of sub-clinical mastitis in dairy buffaloes. Out of 152 lactating buffaloes, 45 suffering from sub-clinical mastitis were selected on the basis of positive Surf Field Mastitis Test (SFMT). These buffaloes were randomly divided into five equal groups (A-E). Buffaloes of group A were supplemented with ZnSO4 @ 1 g per animal per day, Group B CuSO4 @ 1 g per animal per day for 14 days. Group C was injected with enrofloxacin @ 2.5 mg/kg B.W through intramuscular route for 5 consecutive days. Buffaloes of group D were administered with intramuscular injection of enrofloxacin @ 2.5 mg/kg B.W for five consecutive days along with the supplementation of ZnSO4 (1 g per day) and CuSO4 (1 g per day) for 14 days. Group E was kept as untreated control. Milk and blood samples were collected at day 0, 7 and 14 post treatment for various tests like somatic cell count (SCC), SFMT based and bacteriological based cure rates, total leukocyte count (TLC), lymphocyte percentage, serum zinc and copper concentration. The SCC in milk decreased significantly (P<0.01) in combined therapy group D at day 14 post treatment. Serum zinc and copper concentrations increased significantly (P<0.01) in supplemented groups at day 7 and 14 post treatment. TLC and lymphocytes percentage was significantly higher (P<0.01) in combined therapy at day 7 and 14 post treatment. Percent cure rate on the basis of SFMT and bacteriological based cure rate was higher in group D. Milk yield of affected quarter was improved significantly (P<0.01) in the group D and other groups showed non-significant (P>0.05) improvement at day 14 post treatment. It may be concluded that the combined therapy was better than alone therapy of zinc sulphate, copper sulphate and enrofloxacin.

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