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St. Georg, Germany

Gloeckner P.,FAG Aerospace GmbH | Dullenkopf K.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Flouros M.,MTU Aerospace Engines GmbH
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2011

Operating conditions in high speed mainshaft ball bearings applied in new aircraft propulsion systems require enhanced bearing designs and materials. Rotational speeds, loads, demands on higher thrust capability, and reliability have increased continuously over the last years. A consequence of these increasing operating conditions are increased bearing temperatures. A state of the art jet engine high speed ball bearing has been modified with an oil channel in the outer diameter of the bearing. This oil channel provides direct cooling of the outer ring. Rig testing under typical flight conditions has been performed to investigate the cooling efficiency of the outer ring oil channel. In this paper, the experimental results including bearing temperature distribution, power dissipation, and bearing oil pumping and the impact on oil mass and parasitic power loss reduction are presented. © 2011 American Society of Mechanical Engineers. Source

Rolling element bearings undergo high dynamic loading in the region of the contact areas. If the stress level caused by the contact of the curved bodies exceeds a material specific limit, material fatigue can occur which limits the lifetime of a bearing. By defined induced residual stresses in the surface near region the lifetime of bearings can be increased considerably. In order to get data, rig tests were performed at FAG with bearing components made from the high speed steel M50. Besides a statistical evaluation of the test results investigation of the tested bearing parts by metallografic inspection methods and by X-ray diffraction analysis has been performed. The sensitivity in detection of structural changes by X-ray methods is high, therefore an assessment of the effectivity of induced residual stresses is possible after a comparatively short time rig testing. © Carl Hanser Verlag GmbH & Co. KG. Source

Flouros M.,MTU Aerospace Engines | Hirschmann M.,MTU Aerospace Engines | Cottier F.,MTU Aerospace Engines | Gloeckner P.,FAG Aerospace GmbH | Dullenkopf K.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology
Journal of Engineering for Gas Turbines and Power | Year: 2013

Bearings for aero engine applications are subjected to a high thermal impact because of the elevated speeds and loads. The high rate of heat generation in the bearing cannot be sustained by the materials used and, in the absence of lubrication, will fail within seconds. For this reason, aero engine bearings have to be lubricated and cooled by a continuous oil stream. The heat that is generated in the bearings through friction is transferred into the oil. Oil itself has limited capabilities and can only remove heat as long as its temperature does not reach critical limits. When the critical limits have been reached or even exceeded, the oil will suffer chemical decomposition (coking) with loss of its properties and subsequently cause a detrimental impact on the rotating machinery. Oil is normally transferred into the bearings through holes in the inner ring, thus taking advantage of the centrifugal forces due to the rotation. On its way through the bearing, the oil continuously removes heat from the inner ring, the rolling elements, and the bearing cage until it reaches the outer ring. Since the oil has already been heated up, its capability to remove heat from the outer ring is considerably reduced. The idea to provide the bearing with an "unlimited" quantity of oil to ensure proper cooling cannot be considered, since an increase in the oil quantity leads to higher parasitic losses (churning) in the bearing chamber and increased requirements on the engine's lubrication system in terms of storage, scavenging, cooling, weight, etc., not mentioning the power needed to accomplish all these. In this sense, the authors have developed a method that would enable active cooling of the outer ring. Similar to fins, which are used for cooling electronic devices, a spiral groove engraved in the outer ring material would function as a fin body with oil instead of air as the cooling medium. The number of "threads" and the size of the groove design characteristics were optimized in a way that enhanced heat transfer is achieved without excessive pressure losses. An experimental setup was created for this reason, and a 167.5-mm pitch circle diameter (PCD) ball bearing was investigated. The bearing was tested with and without the outer ring cooling. A reduction of 50% of the lubricant flow through the inner ring associated with a 30% decrease in heat generation was achieved. Copyright © 2013 by ASME. Source

Ebert F.-J.,FAG Aerospace GmbH
Chinese Journal of Aeronautics | Year: 2010

This article presents an overview of fundamentals of rolling element bearing designs and technologies. The aim is to outline the complex interrelation of all fundamentals with the rolling contact fatigue and the attainable bearing life. Such fundamentals include, amongst others, bearing stressing and life capability. The article shows the different types of rolling bearing stressing and the analysis of the stress distribution (principal stresses and equivalent stresses) in the material under the rolling contact area. It becomes obvious that the contamination of the bearing with foreign particles leads to a drastic reduction in bearing life. Furthermore, it demonstrates the impact of the bearing lubrication and coating as well as the effect of additives on the attainable life and wear. Further fundamentals of rolling element bearing design are the materials, the material cleanliness and the heat treatment. The article reveals the importance of the cleanliness of bearing steels as well as different types of inclusions and their effect on rolling contact fatigue. Additionally the article describes how to optimize the material properties (strength, toughness and residual stress) by the heat treatment processes. The outcome of these investigations is that endurance life of a rolling element bearing can be achieved if specific operating conditions, an adequate lubrication, good system cleanliness and specific bearing stressing are met. The article provides a guideline for bearing engineers on how designs and technologies can be applied to optimizing a bearing for a particular industry or aerospace application. © 2010 Chinese Journal of Aeronautics. Source

High-speed jet engine ball bearings operate under challenging operating conditions, such as high speeds, loads, and temperatures. In addition, they have to meet the highest reliability standards. Thus, they require advanced materials, designs, and cooling systems. Though new materials, heat treatments, and component designs have been developed to meet these challenging requirements, the design of the raceway curvature ratio mainly follows the classical rolling bearing life theory, which is based on subsurface fatigue. But the frictional heating in the contact zone due to the phenomenon of microsliding is not considered in the design of high-speed ball bearings.This article presents the results obtained from rig testing with a state-of-the-art high-speed jet engine ball bearing with various curvature ratios on the inner and outer races. The influence of the curvature ratio on the bearing ring temperatures and the bearing power loss is demonstrated. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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